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Hematological Profile and Risk Factors of Anemia in Pregnant Women: A Cross Sectional Descriptive and Analytical Study in Douala Cameroon

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DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2019.97094    103 Downloads   177 Views

ABSTRACT

During pregnancy, the hematological system undergoes numerous changes so as to meet up with the demands of the developing fetus and placenta, with major alterations in blood volume and this differs with women from different regions. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the hematological parameters and risk factors for anemia among pregnant women according to different trimesters of pregnancy in Douala, Cameroon. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2017, and all pregnant women who attended antenatal visits during our study period and who suited our inclusion criteria were recruited. The study was carried out in the antenatal care Unit of the Douala Laquintinie Hospital (DLH). A pretested questionnaire was used for the necessary data collection. Venous blood was collected from each of these women to perform a Complete Blood Count (CBC) test using an automated hematological analyzer (URIT 3010). Data were analyzed using XLSTAT 2007 and Stata version 11 software. Results: The mean age of the participants was 28 (SD = 5 years). The prevalence of anemia among pregnant women was 22% with a majority (18.4%) of these women being mildly anemic. Mean Hemoglobin values were significantly higher among women in first trimester compared to the third (12.1 ± 0.9 g/dl vs 11.8 ± 1.3 g/dl; p = 0.043). There was also a significant change in mean hematocrit (HCT) values between the first and second trimester (32.8% ± 2.5% vs 31.4% ± 2.9%, p = 0.004) and between the first and third trimester (32.8% ± 2.5% vs 30.8% ± 3.5%, p < 10-4). RBC count value was higher in the first trimester than in the second trimester (3.7 ± 0.3 × 1012/L vs 3.5 ± 0.4 × 1012/L, p < 10-4) and in the third trimester (3.7 ± 0.3 × 1012/L vs 3.5 ± 0.4 × 1012/L, p = 0.001). After a multivariate analysis, the following categories of women had more odds of developing anemia; women between the age range of 30 - 35 (OR = 2.81, 95%CI: 1.16 - 6.81, p = 0.023), women in the second trimester of pregnancy (OR = 2.20, 95%CI: 0.88 - 5.48, p = 0.024), women with blood group O (OR = 3.57, 95%CI: 1.41 - 16.66, p = 0.012). Conclusion: This study confirms significant variations in hematological parameters. The findings reinforce the need for supplementation and provide additional information on hematological reference values in pregnancy in Cameroon. It also helps us understand that, third trimester, age range 30 - 35, and blood group may be potential risk factors associated with anemia in pregnancy though a cohort study would be necessary to ascertain this hypothesis.

Cite this paper

Henri, E. , Valere, M. , Lucas, E. , Calixte, P. , Ngalame, C. , Grâce, T. , Ekobo, A. and Eboumbou Moukoko, C. (2019) Hematological Profile and Risk Factors of Anemia in Pregnant Women: A Cross Sectional Descriptive and Analytical Study in Douala Cameroon. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 9, 968-980. doi: 10.4236/ojog.2019.97094.

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