Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Floral Morphology of Rice Using a Backcross Population between Common Cultivated Rice, Oryza sativa and Asian Wild Rice, O. rufipogon

Download Download as PDF (Size:1588KB)  HTML   XML  PP. 734-744  
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.84051    480 Downloads   608 Views  


Differences in floral morphologies affect pollination behaviour in many flowering plants. In the genus Oryza, several differences in the size of floral organs are known. In this study, we focused on the differences in the size of floral organs between common cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L. and its wild ancestor, O. rufipogon. We compared floral morphologies between cultivated rice O. sativa cv. Nipponbare and O. rufipogon W630. We first evaluated temporal changes in filament and anther lengths. W630 had longer filaments with rapid elongation within 15 min after spikelet opening. W630 also had longer anthers than Nipponbare, and size of anther was consistent throughout all time examined. We also analysed other six floral traits, and found that W630 had higher stigma and style length, as well as lemma and palea length, but lower lemma and palea width. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed to identify the loci controlling these floral traits, using backcross recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between Nipponbare and W630. A total of 11 significant QTLs were identified. Of these, two pairs of QTLs for lemma and palea length and one pair for lemma and palea width overlapped, suggesting that common genetic factors may be the reason for the differences in these traits. In addition, we performed QTL analysis for grain size, and found that QTLs for grain size coincided with those for lemma and palea size, indicating that grain size is partly controlled by glume capacity. The QTLs identified in this study will be informative for understanding genetic changes associated with rice domestication.

Cite this paper

Ishikawa, R. , Watabe, T. , Nishioka, R. , Thanh, P. and Ishii, T. (2017) Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Floral Morphology of Rice Using a Backcross Population between Common Cultivated Rice, Oryza sativa and Asian Wild Rice, O. rufipogon. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 8, 734-744. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2017.84051.


[1] Chanderbali, A.S., Berger, B.A., Howarth, D.G., Soltis, D.E. and Soltis, P.S. (2016) Evolution of Floral Diversity: Genomics, Genes and Gamma. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 372, 20150509.
[2] Krizek, B.A. and Anderson, J.T. (2013) Control of Flower Size. Journal of Experimental Botany, 64, 1427-1437.
[3] Coen, E.S. and Meyerowitz, E.M. (1991) The War of the Whorls—Genetic Interactions Controlling Flower Development. Nature, 353, 31-37.
[4] Theiβen, G., Melzer, R. and Rümpler, F. (2016) MADS-domain Transcription Factors and the Floral Quartet Model of Flower Development: Linking Plant Development and Evolution. Development, 15, 3259-3271.
[5] Ikeda, K., Sunohara, H. and Nagato, Y. (2004) Developmental Course of Inflorescence and Spikelet in Rice. Breeding Science, 54, 147-156.
[6] Ikemoto, M., Otsuka, M., Thanh, P.T., Phan, P.D.T., Ishikawa, R. and Ishii, T. (2017) Gene Interaction at Seed-Awning Loci in the Genetic Background of Wild Rice. Genes & Genetic Systems, In Press.
[7] Oka, H.I. (1988) Origin of Cultivated Rice. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
[8] Phan, P.D.T., Kageyama, H., Ishikawa, R. and Ishii, T. (2012) Estimation of the Outcrossing Rate for Annual Asian Wild Rice under Field Conditions. Breeding Science, 62, 256-262.
[9] Ishii, T., Numaguchi, K., Miura, K., Yoshida, K., Thanh, P.T., Htun, T.M., Yamasaki, M., Komeda, N., Matsumoto, T., Terauchi, R., Ishikawa, R. and Ashikari, M. (2013) OsLG1 Regulates a Closed Panicle Trait in Domesticated Rice. Nature Genetics, 45, 462-465.
[10] Cai, H.W. and Morishima, H. (2002) QTL Clusters Reflect Character Associations in Wild and Cultivated Rice. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 104, 1217-1228.
[11] Uga, Y., Fukuta, Y., Ohsawa, R. and Fujimura, T. (2003) Variations of Floral Traits in Asian Cultivated Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Its Wild Relatives (O. rufipogon Griff.). Breeding Science, 53, 345-352.
[12] Uga, Y., Fukuta, Y., Iwata, H., Ohsawa, R. and Fujimura T. (2003) Mapping QTLs Influencing Rice Floral Morphology Using Recombinant Inbred Lines Derived from a Cross between Oryza sativa L. and Oryza rufipogon Griff. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 107, 218-226.
[13] Taguchi-Shiobara, F., Kojima, Y., Ebitani, T., Yano, M. and Ebana, K. (2011) Variation in Domesticated Rice Inflorescence Architecture Revealed by Principal Component Analysis and Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis. Breeding Science, 61, 52-60.
[14] Yan, W.G., Li, Y., Agrama, H.A., Luo, D.G. Gao, F.Y., Lu, X. and Ren, G. (2009) Association Mapping of Stigma and Spikelet Characteristics in Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Molecular Breeding, 24, 277-292.
[15] Uga, Y., Siangliw, M., Nagamine, T., Ohsawa, R., Fujimura, T. and Fukuta, Y. (2010) Comparative Mapping of QTLs Determining Glume, Pistil and Stamen Sizes in Cultivated Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Breeding, 129, 657-669.
[16] International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (2005) The Map-Based Sequence of the Rice Genome. Nature, 436, 793-800.
[17] Ishikawa, R., Thanh, P.T., Nimura, N., Htun, T.M., Yamasaki, M. and Ishii, T. (2010) Allelic Interaction at Seed-Shattering Loci in the Genetic Backgrounds of Wild and Cultivated Rice Species. Genes & Genetic Systems, 85, 265-271.
[18] Thanh, P.T., Phan, P.D.T., Mori, N., Ishikawa, R. and Ishii, T. (2011) Development of Backcross Recombinant Inbred Lines between Oryza sativa Nipponbare and O. rufipogon and QTL Detection on Drought Tolerance and Submergence Avoidance. Breeding Science, 61, 76-79.
[19] Wang, S., Basten, C.J. and Zeng, Z.B. (2012) Windows QTL Cartographer 2.5. Department of Statistics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
[20] Fuller, D.Q. (2007) Contrasting Patterns in Crop Domestication and Domestication Rates, Recent Archaeobotanical Insights from the Old World. Annals of Botany, 100, 903-924.
[21] Zuo J. and Li, J. (2014) Molecular Genetic Dissection of Quantitative Trait Loci Regulating Rice Grain Size. Annual Review of Genetics, 48, 99-118.
[22] Song, X.J., Huang, W., Shi, M., Zhu, M.Z. and Lin, H.X. (2007) A QTL for Rice Grain Width and Weight Encodes a Previously Unknown RING-Type E3 Ubiquitin Ligase. Nature Genetics, 39, 623-630.
[23] Shomura, A., Izawa, T., Ebana, K., Ebitani, T., Kanegae, H., Konishi, S. and Yano, M. (2008) Deletion in a Gene Associated with Grain Size Increased Yields during Rice Domestication. Nature Genetics, 40, 1023-1028.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.