Share This Article:

Antioxidant Activity, Antiproliferation of Colon Cancer Cells, and Chemical Composition of Grape Pomace

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:489KB) PP. 530-540
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.26076    5,053 Downloads   10,113 Views   Citations


Chardonnay and Tinta Cao grape pomaces were generated by the winemaking process. The pomaces were extracted with 50% acetone and tested for antioxidant capacities using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, DPPHEC50 , and ABTS.+ scavenging capacity tests. Cytotoxicity and antiproliferative activities against Caco-2 and HT-29 human colon cancer cell lines were also analyzed. The quantitative detection of caspase-3 activity during the early apoptotic process was evaluated by fluorometric immunosorbent enzyme assay (FIENA). Induction of late stage apoptosis was analyzed by DNA fragmentation. Total phenolic content (TPC), individual phenolic acids, total oil, and fatty acid profile were also analyzed. The Tinta Cao pomace had the highest antioxidant capacity in all tests with an ORAC value of 386.5 μmol trolox equivalents (TE) per g pomace (μmol TE/g), its DPPHEC50 value was 94.6 mg equivalents/L, and its ABTS.+ value was 806.7 μmol TE/g, which was more than twice as high as the Chardonnay. Both Tinta Cao and Chardonnay grape pomace extracts appear to contain components that inhibit the proliferation of Caco-2 and HT-29 cancer cells, at least in part, by triggering apoptosis. Expression of caspase-3 was induced by Tinta Cao and Chardonnay pomace extracts at 3 g/L after 4 hours of treatment with a 308% and 229% increase compared to control, respectively. An increase in DNA fragmentation was also observed with both grape pomace treatments. This study demonstrated that these tested grape pomaces were potent scavengers of free radicals and may provide some level of protection against certain cancers.

Cite this paper

J. Parry, H. Li, J. Liu, K. Zhou, L. Zhang and S. Ren, "Antioxidant Activity, Antiproliferation of Colon Cancer Cells, and Chemical Composition of Grape Pomace," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 6, 2011, pp. 530-540. doi: 10.4236/fns.2011.26076.


[1] S. U. Mertens-Talcott, J. H. Lee, S. S. Percival and S. T. Talcott, “Induction of Cell Death in Caco-2 Human Colon Carcinoma Cells by Ellagic Acid Rich Fractions from Muscadine Grapes (Vitis rotundifolia),” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 54, No. 15, 2006, pp. 5336-5343. doi:10.1021/jf060563f
[2] J. D. Potter, “Cancer Prevention: Epidemiology and Experiment,” Cancer Letters, Vol. 114, No. 1-2, 1997, pp. 7-9. doi:10.1016/S0304-3835(97)04615-6
[3] J. D. Potter, “Nutrition and Colorectal Cancer,” Cancer Cause Control, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1996, pp. 127-146. doi:10.1007/BF00115644
[4] D. Bagchi, D. K. Das, R. M. Engelman, M. R. Prasad and R. Subramanian, “Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes as Poten-tial Source of Free Radicals in the ischemic–Reperfused Myocardium,” European Heart Journal, Vol. 11, 1990, pp. 800-813.
[5] D. K. Das, “Intracellular Signaling Mechanisms in Delayed Preconditioning,” In: G. Baxter, D. Yellon, Eds., Delayed Preconditioning and Adaptive Cardioprotection, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1998, pp. 91-103.
[6] S. Renaud and M. De Lorgeril, “Wine, Alcohol, Platelets and the French Paradox for Coronary Heart Disease,” The Lancet, Vol. 339, No. 8808, 1992, pp. 1523-1526. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(92)91277-F
[7] D. Bagchi, C. K. Sen, S. D. Ray, D. K. Das, M. Bagchi, H. G. Preuss and J. A. Vinson,” Molecular Mechanisms of Cardioprotection by a Novel Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract,” Mutation Research, Vols. 523-524, 2003, pp. 87-97. doi:10.1016/S0027-5107(02)00324-X
[8] B. Halliwel, J. M. Gutteridge, C. E. Cross, “Free Radicals, Antioxidants, and Human Disease: Where Are We Now,” The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, Vol. 199, No. 6, 1992, pp. 598-620.
[9] K. Prasad and J. Kalra, “Oxygen free radicals and Hypercholesterolemic Atherosclerosis: Effect of Vitamin E,” American Heart Journal, Vol. 125, No. 4, 1993, pp. 958-973. doi:10.1016/0002-8703(93)90102-F
[10] G. Ruberto, A. Renda, C. Daquino, V. Amico, C. Spatafora, C. Tringali and N. De Tommasi, “Polyphenol Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Grape Pomace Extracts from Five Sicilian Red Grape Cultivars,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 100, No. 1, 2007, pp. 203-210. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.09.041
[11] J. W. Parry, L. Su, J. Moore, Z. Cheng, M. Luther, R. Jaladanki, J.-Y. Wang and L. Yu, “Chemical Compositions, Antioxidative Capacities, and Anti-proliferative Activities of Selected Fruit Seed Flours,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 54, No. 11, 2006, pp. 3773-3778. doi:10.1021/jf060325k
[12] S. Mertens-Talcott, S. Percival and S. Talcott, “Extracts from Red Muscadine and Cabernet Sauvignon Wines Induce Cell Death in MOLT-4 Human Leukemia Cells,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 108, No. 1, 2008, pp. 824-832. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.11.037
[13] V. Nandakumar, T. Singh and S. Katiyar, “Multi-Targeted Prevention and Therapy of Cancer by Proanthocyanidins,” Cancer Letters, Vol. 269, No. 2, 2008, pp. 378-387. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2008.03.049
[14] H. Hu and Y. M. Qin, “Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Induced Mitochondria-Associated Apoptosis in Human Acute Myeloid Leukaemia 14.3D10 Cells,” China Medical Journal, Vol. 119, 2006, pp. 417-421.
[15] C. Agarwal, R. Singh and R. Agarwal, “Grape Seed Extract Induced Apoptotic Death of Human Prostate Carcinoma DU145 cells via Caspases Activation Accompanied by Dissipation of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and Cytochrome C Release,” Carcinogenesis, Vol. 23, No. 11, 2002, pp. 1869-1876. doi:10.1093/carcin/23.11.1869
[16] X. Ye, R. L. Krohn, W. Liu, S. S. Joshi, C. A. Kuszynski and T. R. McGinn, “The Cytotoxic Effects of a Novel IH636 Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Cultured Human Cancer Cells,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Vol. 196, No. 1-2, 1999, pp. 99-108. doi:10.1023/A:1006926414683
[17] J. Zhao, J. Wang, Y. Chen and R. Agarwal, “Anti-Tumor Promoting Activity of a Polyphenolic Fraction Isolated from Grape Seeds in the Mouse Skin Two-Stage Initiation-Promotion Protocol and Identification of Procyanidin B5-3'-gallate as the Most Effective Antioxidant Constituent,” Carcinogenesis, Vol. 20, No. 9, 1999, pp. 1737-1745. doi:10.1093/carcin/20.9.1737
[18] J. Belleville, “The French Paradox: Possible Involvement of Ethanol in the Protective Effect against Cardiovascular Diseases,” Nutrition, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2002, pp. 173-177. doi:10.1016/S0899-9007(01)00721-3
[19] A. Y. Sun, A. Simonyi and G. Y. Sun, “The ‘French Paradox’ and Beyond: Neuroprotective Effects of Polyphenols,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2002, pp. 314-318. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(01)00803-6
[20] World Health Organization, “Cancer,” February 2006.
[21] T. Hudson, D. Hartle, S. Hursting, N. Nunez, T. Wang, H. Young, P. Arany and J. Green, “Inhibition of Prostate Cancer Growth by Muscadine Grape Skin Extract and Resveratrol through Distinct Mechanisms,” Cancer Research, Vol. 67, 2007, pp. 8396-8405. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-4069
[22] M. Neuhouser, “Dietary Flavonoids and Cancer Risk: Evidence from Human Population Studies,” Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 50, No. 1, 2004, pp. 1-7. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc5001_1
[23] P. Harkonen and S. Makela, “Role of Estrogens in Development of Prostate Cancer,” The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Vol. 92, No. 4, 2004, pp. 297-305. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2004.10.016
[24] K. Ozasa, M. Nakao, Y. Watanabe, K. Hayashi, T. Miki, K. Mikami, M. Mori, i F. Sakuch, M. Washio, Y. Ito, K. Suzuki, K. Wakai and A. Tamakoshi, “Serum Phytoestrogens and Prostate Cancer Risk in a Nested Case-Control Study among Japanese Men,” Cancer Sciences, Vol. 95, No. 1, 2004, pp. 65-71. doi:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2004.tb03172.x
[25] M. G. Hertog, P. C. Hollman, M. B. Katan and D. Kromhout, “Intake of Potentially Anticarcinogenic Flavonoids and Their Determinants in Adults in the Netherlands,” Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1993, pp. 21-29. doi:10.1080/01635589309514267
[26] S. Kono, M. Ikeda, S. Tokudome and M. Kuratsune, “A Case-Control Study of Gastric Cancer and Diet in Northern Kyushu, Japan,” Japan Journal of Cancer Research, Vol. 79, 1988, pp. 1067-1074.
[27] Y. T. Gao, J. K. McLaughlin, W. J. Blot, B. T. Ji, A. Dai and J. F. Fraumeni, “Reduced Risk of Esophageal Cancer Associated With Green Tea Consumption,” Journal of the National Cancer Institution, Vol. 86, No. 11, 1994, pp. 855-858. doi:10.1093/jnci/86.11.855
[28] L. H. Kushi, T. Byers, C. Doyle, E. V. Bandera, M. McCullough, A. McTiernan, T. Gansler, K. S. Andrews and M. J. Thun, “American Cancer Society Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention: Reducing the Risk of Cancer with Healthy Food Choices and Physical Activity,” A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, Vol. 56, No. 5, 2006, pp. 254-281. doi:10.3322/canjclin.56.5.254
[29] M. Kaur, R. P. Singh, M. Gu, R. Agarwal and C. Agarwal, “Grape Seed Extract Inhibits in Vitro and in Vivo Growth of Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells,” Clinical Cancer Research, Vol. 12, 2006, pp. 6194-6202. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-1465
[30] A. Tyagi, R. Agarwal and C. Agarwal, “Grape Seed Extract Inhibits EGF-Induced and Constitutively Active Mitogenic Signaling but Activates JNK in Human Prostate Carcinoma DU145 Cells: Possible Role in Antiproliferation and Apoptosis,” Oncogene, Vol. 22, 2003, pp. 1302-1316. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206265
[31] H. Nomoto, M. Iigo, H. Hamada, S. Kojima and H. Tsuda, “Chemoprevention of Colorectal Cancer by Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Is Accompanied by a Decrease in Proliferation and Increase in Apoptosis,” Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 49, No. 1, 2004, pp. 81-88. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc4901_11
[32] C. J. Sherr and J. M. Roberts, “CDK Inhibitors: Positive and Negative Regulators of G1-Phase Progression,” Genes and Development, Vol. 13, 1999, pp. 1501-1512. doi:10.1101/gad.13.12.1501
[33] J. Moore, Z. Hao, K. Zhou, M. Luther, J. Costa and L. Yu, “Carotenoid, Tocopherol, Phenolic Acid, and Antioxidant Properties of Maryland-Grown Soft Wheat,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 17, 2005, pp. 6649-6657. doi:10.1021/jf050481b
[34] Z. Cheng, J. Moore and L. Yu, “High-Throughput Relative DPPH Radical Scavenging Capacity Assay,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 54, No. 20, 2006, pp. 7429-7436. doi:10.1021/jf0611668
[35] K. Zhou, L. Su and L. Yu, “Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Properties in Wheat Bran,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 52, No. 20, 2004, pp. 6108-6114. doi:10.1021/jf049214g
[36] N. Miller and C. Rice-Evans, “Factors Influencing the Antioxidant Activity Determined by the ABTS Radical Cation Assay,” Free Radical Research, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1997, pp. 195-199. doi:10.3109/10715769709097799
[37] K. Wolfe and R. Liu, “Structure?Activity Relationships of Flavonoids in the Cellular Antioxidant Activity Assay,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 56, No. 18, 2008, pp. 8404-8411. doi:10.1021/jf8013074
[38] H. Yoon and R. Liu, “Effect of Selected Phytochemicals and Apple Extracts on NF-?B Activation in Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 55, No. 8, 2007, pp. 3167-3173. doi:10.1021/jf0632379
[39] K. Wolfe and R. Liu, “Cellular Antioxidant Activity (CAA) Assay for Assessing Antioxidants, Foods, and Dietary Supplements,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 55, No. 22, 2007, pp. 8896-8901. doi:10.1021/jf0715166
[40] L. Yu, S. Haley, J. Perret and M. Harris, “Antioxidant Properties of Extracts from Hard Winter Wheat,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 78, No. 4, 2002, pp. 457-461. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00156-5
[41] L. Yu, D. Adams and M. Gabel, “Conjugated Linoleic Acid Isomers Differ in Their Free Radical Scavenging Properties,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2002, pp. 4135-4140. doi:10.1021/jf020086a
[42] A. Llobera and J. Ca?ellas, “Antioxidant Activity and Dietary Fibre of Prensal Blanc White Grape (Vitis vinifera) by-Products,” International journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 43, No. 11, 2008, pp. 1953-1959. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2008.01798.x
[43] J. W. Parry, L. Su, M. Luther, K. Zhou, M. Yurawecz, P. Whittaker and L. Yu, “Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Cold-Pressed Marionberry, Boysenberry, Red Raspberry, and Blueberry Seed Oils,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 53, No. 3, 2005, pp. 566-573. doi:10.1021/jf048615t
[44] A.-M. Engelbrecht, M. Mattheyse, B. Ellis, B. Loos, et al., “Proanthocyanidin from Grape Seeds Inactivates the PI3-Kinase/PKB Pathway and Induces Apoptosis in a Colon CanceR Cell Line,” Cancer Letters, Vol. 258, No. 1, 2007, pp. 144-153. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2007.08.020
[45] L. M. de Campos, F. V. Leimann, R. C. Pedrosa and S. R. Ferreira, “Free Radical Scavenging of Grape Pomace from Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera),” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 99, 2008, pp. 8413-8420. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2008.02.058
[46] M. G. Massanet, J. A. Montiel, E. Pando and F. L. Rodriguez, “Estudio de Subproductos Agricolas II. Composicion en Acidos Grasos del Aceite de Semilla de uva Palomino,” Grasas Aceites, Vol. 37, 1986, pp. 233-236.
[47] M. A. Abou Rayan, A. A. Abdel-Nabey, O. R. Abou Samaha and M. Mohamed, “Characteristics and Composition of Grape Seed Oil,” Alexon Journal of Agriculture Research, Vol. 43, 1998, pp. 67-79.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.