FNS> Vol.5 No.16, August 2014

Effect of Frying-Cooking on Nutritional and Bioactive Compounds of Innovative Ovo-Vegetarian Diets

DownloadDownload as PDF (Size:3378KB)  HTML    PP. 1577-1590  

ABSTRACT

Vegetarian diets are becoming increasingly popular as meat prices as well as health concerns rise. Many people are cutting down or cutting out meat in favor of a full vegetarian diet. In present study, the applicability of different vegetables for producing ready-to-use and ready-to-eat chickpea-based ovo-vegetarian diets (OVDs) was investigated. Herein, six different vegetables (cauliflower, taro, green zucchini, pea, bean and spinach) were formulated with 25% chickpea and additional edible ingredients to produce ready-to-use OVDs. Subsequently, chemical composition, minerals content, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of those OVDs were investigated. However, ready-to-eat OVDs were organoleptically evaluated after frying as common cooking method. Results of composite analysis indicated 67.73% to 73.17%, 23.20% to 37.12%, 1.86% to 2.63%, 7.63% to 9.53%, 9.06% to 9.82% and 39.24% to 55.28% for moisture, crude protein, lipids, ash, fiber, and carbohydrates contents in ready-to-use OVDs, respectively. After frying, lipid content was increased in fried diets which changed the chemical composition and caloric value. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between macro- and micro-nutrients content of ready- to-use and ready-to-eat OVDs. The ready-to-use OVDs exhibit appropriate content of ascorbic acid, chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids, and flavonols which basically depends on their ingredients. Frying process dramatically affected the ascorbic acid, chlorophylls, flavonoids, flavonols, and carotenoids contents. High organoleptic acceptability of ready-to-eat OVDs was recorded to confirm theconsumer attractiveness further. In conclusion, the possibility of producing healthy ready-to-eatand ready-to-use OVDs incorporated with common consumed vegetables could provide a promising approach for improving human health and dietary pattern as well as for selecting the optimum processing conditions for innovative OVDs.

Cite this paper

Barakat, H. (2014) Effect of Frying-Cooking on Nutritional and Bioactive Compounds of Innovative Ovo-Vegetarian Diets. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 1577-1590. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.516171.

References

[1] Fraser, G.E. (2009) Vegetarian Diets: What Do We Know of Their Effects on Common Chronic Diseases? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89, 1607S-1612S.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736K
[2] Craig, W.J. and Mangels, A.R. (2009) Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109, 1266-1282.
[3] Messina, M.J. (1999) Legumes and Soybeans: Overview of Their Nutritional Profiles and Health Effects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 439S-450S.
[4] McEvoy, C.T., Temple-Woodside, J.V. and Woodside, J.V. (2012) Vegetarian Diets, Low-Meat Diets and Health: A Review. Public Health Nutrition, 15, 2287-2294.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980012000936
[5] Hunt, J.R. (2003) Bioavailability of Iron, Zinc, and Other Trace Minerals from Vegetarian Diets. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78, 633S-639S.
[6] Jongen, W.M. and Meerdink, G. (2001) Pea Proteins Based Food Products as Meat Replacers: The Profetas Concept. Nahrung, 45, 402-404.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1521-3803(20011001)45:6<402::AID-FOOD402>3.0.CO;2-N
[7] Jakszyn, P., Gonzalez, C.A., Lujan-Barroso, L., Ros, M.M., Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B., et al. (2011) Red Meat, Dietary Nitrosamines, and Heme Iron and Risk of Bladder Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 20, 555-559.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0971
[8] Sacks, F.M. and Kass, E.H. (1988) Low Blood Pressure in Vegetarians: Effects of Specific Foods and Nutrients. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 48, 795-800.
[9] Micha, R., Wallace, D. and Mozaffarian, D. (2010) Red and Processed Meat Consumption and Risk of Incident Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Circulation, 121, 2271-2283.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.924977
[10] Pan, A., Sun, Q., Bernstein, A.M., Schulze, M.B., Manson, J.E., Stampfer, M.J., Willett, W.C. and Hu, F.B. (2012) Red Meat Consumption and Mortality. Archives of Internal Medicine, online March 12, 2012.
[11] Al-Duais, M., Hohbein, J., Werner, S., Böhm, V. and Jetschke, G. (2009) Contents of Vitamin C, Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Tocotrienols in the Subtropical Plant Species Cyphostemma digitatum as Affected by Processing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 5420-5427.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf9003626
[12] Kumaran, A. and Karunakaran, R.J. (2007) In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extracts of Five Phyllanthus Species from India. LWT, Food Science and Technology, 40, 344-352.
[13] Gorinstein, S., Park, Y., Heo, B., Namiesnik, J., Leontowicz, H., Leontowicz, M., Ham, K., Cho, J. and Kang, S. (2009) A Comparative Study of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities in Frequently Consumed Raw Vegetables. European Food Research and Technology, 228, 903-911.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-008-1003-y
[14] Krumbein, A., Schonhof, I. and Brückner, B. (2006) Flavour and Health-Promoting Compounds in Broccoli and Cauliflower—An Inconsistency? Developments in Food Science, 43, 249-252.
[15] Swiatecka, D., Swiatecki, A., Kostyra, H., Marciniak-Darmochwal, K. and Kostyra, E. (2010) The Impact of Pea Protein Hydrolysates on Bacterial Physiological Activity—An in Vitro Study. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 140, 263-270.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.03.015
[16] Nilsson, J., Stegmark, R. and Åkesson, B. (2004) Total Antioxidant Capacity in Different Pea (Pisum sativum) Varieties after Blanching and Freezing. Food Chemistry, 86, 501-507.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.09.002
[17] Mitchell, D.C., Lawrence, F.R., Hartman, T.J. and Curran, J.M. (2009) Consumption of Dry Beans, Peas, and Lentils Could Improve Diet Quality in the US Population. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 109, 909-913.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2009.02.029
[18] Limón, R.I., Peñas, E., Martínez-Villaluenga, C. and Frias, J. (2014) Role of Elicitation on the Health-Promoting Properties of Kidney Bean Sprouts. LWT, Food Science and Technology, 56, 328-334.
[19] Doria, E., Campion, B., Sparvoli, F., Tava, A. and Nielsen, E. (2012) Anti-Nutrient Components and Metabolites with Health Implications in Seeds of 10 Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Phaseolus lunatus L.) Landraces Cultivated in Southern Italy. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 26, 72-80.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2012.03.005
[20] Tang, G. (2010) Chapter 25, Spinach and Carrots: Vitamin A and Health. In: Watson, R.R. and Preedy, V.R., Eds., Bioactive Foods in Promoting Health, Academic Press, San Diego, 381-392.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374628-3.00025-6
[21] Jacobo-Valenzuela, N., Maróstica-Junior, M., Zazueta-Morales, J. and Gallegos-Infante, J. (2011) Physicochemical, Technological Properties, and Health-Benefits of Cucurbita moschata Duchense vs. Cehualca: A Review. Food Research International, 44, 2587-2593.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.04.039
[22] Mangels, A.R. and Messina, V. (2001) Considerations in Planning Vegan Diets: Infants. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 101, 670-677.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223(01)00169-9
[23] Messina, V. and Mangels, A.R. (2001) Considerations in Planning Vegan Diets: Children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 101, 661-669.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223(01)00167-5
[24] AOAC (2000) Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC. 17th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
[25] Merrill, A.L. and Watt, B.K. (1973) Energy Value of Foods: Basis and Derivation. Agriculture Handbook No. 74. Washington DC, ARS United States Department of Agriculture.
[26] Borah, S., Baruah, A., Das, A. and Borah, J. (2009) Determination of Mineral Content in Commonly Consumed Leafy Vegetables. Food Analytical Methods, 2, 226-230.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12161-008-9062-z
[27] Lu, J., Zhao, H., Chen, J., Fan, W., Dong, J., Kong, W., Sun, J., Cao, Y. and Cai, G. (2007) Evolution of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity during Malting. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 10994-11001.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0722710
[28] Yuan, G.F., Sun, J., Yuan, Q. and Wang, Q.M. (2009) Effects of Different Cooking Methods on Health-Promoting Compounds of Broccoli. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE B, 10, 580-588.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B0920051
[29] Mohdaly, A.A.A., Hassanien, M.F.R., Mahmoud, A., Sarhan, M.A. and Smetanska, I. (2012) Phenolics Extracted from Potato, Sugar Beet, and Sesame Processing By-Products. International Journal of Food Properties, 16, 1148-1168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2011.578318
[30] Wilson, C.D., Pace, E., Bromfield, G., Jones, J.Y. and Lu, J.Y. (1998) Consumer Acceptance of Vegetarian Sweet Potato Products Intended for Space Missions. Life Support & Biosphere Science, 5, 339-345.
[31] Steel, R., Torrie, J. and Dickey, D. (1997) Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.
[32] Messina, M.J. (1991) Legumes and Soybeans: Overview of Their Nutritional Profiles and Health Effects. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 439S-450S.
[33] Chiplonkar, S.A., Tarwadi, K.V., Kavedia, R.B., Mengale, S.S., Paknikar, K.M. and Agte, V.V. (1999) Fortification of Vegetarian Diets for Increasing Bioavailable Iron Density Using Green Leafy Vegetables. Food Research International, 32, 169-174.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(93)90031-A
[34] Turner-McGrievy, G. (2010) Nutrient Adequacy of Vegetarian Diets. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 110, 1450.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(93)90031-A
[35] DRI (2002) Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, The National Academic Press, Washington DC.
[36] Gibson, R.S. (1994) Content and Bioavailability of Trace Elements in Vegetarian Diets. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95, 1223S-1232S.
[37] Srikumar, T.S. (1993) The Mineral and Trace Element Composition of Vegetables, Pulses and Cereals of Southern India. Food Chemistry, 46, 163-167.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(93)90031-A
[38] Lightowler, H.J. and Davies, G.J. (2000) Micronutrient Intakes in a Group of UK Vegans and the Contribution of Self-Selected Dietary Supplements. Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, 120, 117-124.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/146642400012000210
[39] Gertz, C., Klostermann, S. and Kochhar, S.P. (2000) Testing and Comparing Oxidative Stability of Vegetable Oils and Fats at Frying Temperature. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 102, 543-551.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1438-9312(200009)102:8/9<543::AID-EJLT543>3.0.CO;2-V
[40] Deng, G., Lin, X., Xu, X., Gao, L., Xie, J. and Li, H. (2013) Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of 56 Vegetables. Journal of Functional Foods, 5, 260-266.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2012.10.015
[41] Houghton, C.A., Fassett, R.G. and Coombes, J.S. (2013) Sulforaphane: Translational Research from Laboratory Bench to Clinic. Nutrition Reviews, 71, 709-726.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nure.12060
[42] Ismail, A., Marjan, Z.M. and Foong, C.W. (2004) Total Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content in Selected Vegetables. Food Chemistry, 87, 581-586.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.01.010
[43] Lamy, E., Scholtes, C., Herz, V. and Mersch-Sundermann, V. (2011) Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Isothiocyanates. Drug Metabolism Reviews, 43, 387-407.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/03602532.2011.569551
[44] Sikora, E., Cieslik, E., Leszczyńska, T., Filipiak-Florkiewicz, A. and Pisulewski, P.M. (2008) The Antioxidant Activity of Selected Cruciferous Vegetables Subjected to Aquathermal Processing. Food Chemistry, 107, 55-59.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.07.023
[45] Verkerk, R., Schreiner, M., Krumbein, A., Ciska, E., Holst, B., Rowland, I., De Schrijver, R., Hansen, M., Gerhäuser, C., Mithen, R. and Dekker, M. (2009) Glucosinolates in Brassica Vegetables: The Influence of the Food Supply Chain on Intake, Bioavailability and Human Health. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 53, S219.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200800065
[46] Volden, J., Borge, G.I.A., Bengtsson, G.B., Hansen, M., Thygesen, I.E. and Wicklund, T. (2008) Effect of Thermal Treatment on Glucosinolates and Antioxidant-Related Parameters in Red Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. rubra). Food Chemistry, 109, 595-605.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.01.010
[47] Zhang, D. and Hamauzu, Y. (2004) Phenolics, Ascorbic Acid, Carotenoids and Antioxidant Activity of Broccoli and Their Changes during Conventional and Microwave Cooking. Food Chemistry, 88, 503-509.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.01.065
[48] Francisco, M., Velasco, P., Moreno, D.A., García-Viguera, C. and Cartea, M.E. (2010) Cooking Methods of Brassica rapa Affect the Preservation of Glucosinolates, Phenolics and Vitamin C. Food Research International, 43, 1455-1463.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.12.038
[49] Barakat, H. (2013) Characterization and Evaluation of Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea L. gongylodes) and Kohlrabibased Ovo-Vegetarian Diets as New Food Recipes. Egyptian Journal of Food Science, 41, 35-61.
[50] Turkmen, N., Sari, F. and Velioglu, Y.S. (2005) The Effect of Cooking Methods on Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Green Vegetables. Food Chemistry, 93, 713-718.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.12.038
[51] Nisha, P., Singhal, R.S. and Pandit, A.B. (2004) A Study on the Degradation Kinetics of Visual Green Colour in Spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) and the Effect of Salt Therein. Journal of Food Engineering, 64, 135-142.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2003.09.021
[52] Turkmen, N., Poyrazoglu, E.S., Sari, F. and Velioglu, Y.S. (2006) Effects of Cooking Methods on Chlorophylls, Pheophytins and Colour of Selected Green Vegetables. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 41, 281-288.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01420.x
[53] Adebooye, O.C., Vijayalakshmi, R. and Singh, V. (2008) Peroxidase Activity, Chlorophylls and Antioxidant Profile of Two Leaf Vegetables (Solanum nigrum L. and Amaranthus cruentus L.) under Six Pretreatment Methods before Cooking. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 43, 173-178.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01420.x
[54] Gliszczyńska-Swiglo, A., Ciska, E., Pawlak-Lemańska, K., Chmielewski, J., Borkowski, T. and Tyrakowska, B. (2006) Changes in the Content of Health-Promoting Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Broccoli after Domestic Processing. Food Additives and Contamination, 23, 1088-1098.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030600887594
[55] Segev, A. (2011) Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as Affected by Soaking and Cooking Conditions. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2, 724-730.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/fns.2011.27099
[56] Buchner, N., Krumbein, A., Rohn, S. and Kroh, L.W. (2006) Effect of Thermal Processing on the Flavonols Rutin and Quercetin. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 20, 3229-3235.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.2720
[57] Delchier, N., Reich, M. and Renard, C.M.G.C. (2012) Impact of Cooking Methods on Folates, Ascorbic Acid and Lutein in Green Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Spinach (Spinacea oleracea). LWT, Food Science and Technology, 49, 197-201.
[58] Heenan, C.N., Adams, M.C., Hosken, R.W. and Fleet, G.H. (2004) Survival and Sensory Acceptability of Probiotic Microorganisms in a Nonfermented Frozen Vegetarian Dessert. LWT, Food Science and Technology, 37, 461-466.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.