Health> Vol.6 No.8, March 2014

The Role of Moral Intelligence and Identity Styles in Prediction of Mental Health Problems in Healthcare Students

DownloadDownload as PDF (Size:279KB)  HTML    PP. 664-672  

ABSTRACT

Background: Assessment of healthcare students’ mental health problems is an important aspect of health promotion. This study examined the roles of moral intelligence (MI) and identity styles in prediction of mental health problems in healthcare students. Methods: In a correlation study, two hundred healthcare students (100 girls, 100 boys) of Medicine, Density, and Paramedicine Colleges of Bobol University of Medical Sciences were selected. The subjects filled out three questionnaires; General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Moral Competency Inventory (MCI), and Identity Style Inventory (ISI), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Pearson correlation, multivariate analysis variance model (MANOVA), and multivariate regression used to analyze the data. Results: Boys and girls did not have a meaningful difference in the mean of total GHQ, MCI, normative and informational identity. Girls had significantly higher mean level of diffused-avoidant identity than boys. There was a positive and significant relationship between moral intelligence, normative identity and mental health problems of students. Also, there was a negative relationship (p < 0.05) between diffused-avoidant identity and mental health problems of students. Moral intelligence, informational and normative identity predicted 25.8% of the variance in mental health problems for girls’ students. Normative and diffused-avoidant identity predicted 21.6% of the variance in mental health problems for girls’ students. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that moral intelligence and identity status contributed to the mental health problems of healthcare students. University administrators should adopt strategies that strengthen the moral intelligence and identity maturity associated with university students’ mental health.

Cite this paper

Faramarzi, M. , Jahanian, K. , Zarbakhsh, M. , Salehi, S. and Pasha, H. (2014) The Role of Moral Intelligence and Identity Styles in Prediction of Mental Health Problems in Healthcare Students. Health, 6, 664-672. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.68086.

References

[1] World Health Organization (2003) The Mental Health Problems Context: Mental Health Problems. Policy and Service Guidance Package. WHO, Geneva.
[2] Hamdan-Mansour, A.M., Halabi, J.O. and Dawani, H.A. (2009) Depression, Hostility, and Substance Use among University Students in Jordan. Mental Health Problems and Substance Use: Dual Diagnosis, 2, 52-63.
[3] Zivin, K., Eisenberg, D., Gollust, S.E. and Golberstein, E. (2009) Persistence of Mental Health Problems and Needs in a College Student Population. Journal of Affective Disorders, 117, 180-185.
[4] Yen, C.F., Hsu, C.C., Liu, S.C., Huang, C.F., Ko, C.H., Yen, J.Y. and Cheng, C.P. (2006) Relationships among Mental Health Problems Status, Social Context, and Demographic Characteristics in Taiwanese Aboriginal Adolescents: A Structural Equation Model. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 60, 575-583.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2006.01561.x
[5] Dahlin, M., Joneberg, N. and Runeson, B. (2005) Stress and Depression among Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study. Medical Education, 39, 594-604.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02176.x
[6] Goodwin, R.D. and Friedman, H.S. (2006) Health Status and the Five-factor Personality Traits in a Nationally Representative Sample. Journal of Health Psychology, 11, 643-654.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359105306066610
[7] Wang, K.T., Yuen, M. and Slaney, R.B. (2009) Erfectionism, Depression, and Life Satisfaction: A Study of High School Students in Hong Kong. The Counseling Psychologist, 37, 249-274.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011000008315975
[8] Burris, J.L., Brechting, E.H., Salsman, J. and Carlson, C.R. (2009) Factors Associated with the Psychological Well-Being and Distress of University Students. The Journal of American College Health, 57, 536-543.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/JACH.57.5.536-544
[9] Leondari, A. and Gialamas, V. (2009) Religiosity and Psychological Well-Being. International Journal of Psychology, 44, 241-248.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207590701700529
[10] Extremera, N. and Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2006) Emotional Intelligence as Predictor of Mental, Social, and Physical Health in University Students. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 9, 45-51.
[11] Lennick, D. and Kiel, F. (2011) Moral Intelligence 2.0: Enhancing Business Performance and Leadership Success in Turbulent Times. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.
[12] Clarken, R.H. (2009) Moral Intelligence in the Schools. School of Education, Northern Michigan University, Marquette, 1-7.
[13] Belohlavek, P. (2007) The Unicist Ontology of Ethical Intelligence. Blue Eagle Group, 22.
[14] Brown, R.C.H. (2013) Moral Responsibility for (Un)Healthy Behavior. Journal of Medical Ethics, 39, 695-698.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2012-100774
[15] Lawler, K.A., Younger, J.W., Piferi, R.L., Jobe, R.L., Edmondson, K.A. and Jones, W.H. (2005) The Unique Effects of Forgiveness on Health: An Exploration of Pathways. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 28, 157-167.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10865-005-3665-2
[16] Quenstedt-Moe, G. and Sue, P. (2012) Forgiveness and Health in Christian Women. Journal of Religion and Health, 53, 204-216.
[17] Cox, S.S., Bennett, R.J., Tripp, T.M. and Aquino, K. (2012) An Empirical Test of Forgiveness Motives’ Effects on Employees’ Health and Well-Being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17, 330-340.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0028314
[18] MacBeth, A. and Gumley, A. (2012) Exploring Compassion: A Meta-Analysis of the Association between Self-Compassion and Psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 32, 545-552.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2012.06.003
[19] Aghaei, H. and Khan, W. (2012) Evaluation and Comparison of Identity Style Scales and Mental Health Problems in Indian and Iranian Adolescents Females. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 2, 11726-11731.
[20] Berzonsky, M.D. (2002) Identity Processing Styles, Self Construction, and Personal Epistemic in Assumptions: Asocial-Cognitive Perspective. The Workshop on Social Cognition Adolescence: It’s Developmental Significance, Groningen.
[21] Podd, M.H. (1972) Ego Identity Status and Morality: The Relationship between Two Developmental Constructs. Dereloprnenral Psychology, 6, 497-507.
[22] Taghavi, S.R. (2002) Study Reliability and Validity of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Psychology, 20, 381-397 [Persian].
[23] Aderibigbe, Y.A., Riley, W., Lewin, T., et al. (1996) Factor Structure of the 28-Item General Health Questionnaire in a Sample of Antenatal Women. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 26, 263-269.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/3XAV-M1BC-DA2B-DCMF
[24] Lennick, D. and Keil, F.K. (2005) Moral Intelligence. Pearson Education, Inc. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 1-7.
[25] Martin, D.E. (2010) Moral Competency Inventory Validation: Content, Construct, Convergent and Discriminant Approaches. Management Research Review, 33, 437-451.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01409171011041884
[26] Berzonsky, M.D. (1992) Identity Style and Coping Strategies. Journal of Personality, 60, 771-786.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00273.x
[27] Ghazanfari, A. (2005) Reliability and Validity of Identity Style Inventory (ISI-6G). 2004. Journal of Psychology and Educational Studies in Education and Psychology, 4, 227-224 [Persian].
[28] Lewis, H.L. (2003) Differences in Ego Identity among College Students across Age, Ethnicity, and Gender. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 3, 159-189.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S1532706XID030205
[29] Mosavi, R., Akbari, Z. and Zabiholahzadeh, K. (2011) Gender Differences in Identity Dimentions among College Students. Culture, Psychotherapy, and Counseling, 8, 31-46.
[30] Beheshtifar, M., Esmaeli, Z. and Nekoie.Moghadam, M. (2011) Effect of Moral Intelligence on Leadership. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 43, 6-11.
[31] Wood, M.S. and Fiedls, D. (2007) Exploring the Impact of Shared Leadership on Management Team Members’ Job Outcomes. Baltic Journal of Management, 2, 251-272.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17465260710817474
[32] Gilbert, P. (2010) An Introduction to Compassion Focused Therapy in Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 3, 97-112.
[33] Shokri, T.E.A., Daneshvarpour, Z., Ghanaee, Z. and Dastjerdi, R. (2007) Individual Difference in Identity Style Psychological Well-Being. The Role of Commitment of Identity. Cognition Scientific, 9, 33-46 [Persian].
[34] Abdizarrin, S., Sajjadian, P., Shahiad, Sh., Baianmemar, A. and Azimi, H. (2010) Relationship between Identity Style, Identity Commitment and Psychological Well-being in Guidance Girl Students in Qom City. The Journal Tolooe Behdasht, 9, 1.
[35] Berzonsky, M.D. (2003) The Structure of Identity: Commentary on Jane Kroger’s View of Identity Status Transition. An International Journal of Theory and Research, 3, 231-245.
[36] Karimian, N. and Karimi, Y. (2011) The Relationship of Mental Health Problems Dimensions and Guilt Feeling with Marital Commitment in Married People. Journal of Family Counseling & Psychotherapy, 1, 243-256 [Persian].
[37] Rahimi, G.R. (2011) The Implication of Moral Intelligence and Effectiveness in Organization; Are They Interrelated? International Journal of Marketing and Technology, 1, 68-73 (Persian).
[38] Hardy, S.A., Francis, S.W., Zamboanga, B.L., Kim, S.Y., Anderson, S.G. and Forthun, L.F. (2012) The Roles of Identity Formation and Moral Identity in College Student Mental Health Problems, Health-Risk Behaviors, and Psychological Well-Being. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69, 364-382.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.21913
[39] Nurmi, J.E., Berzonsky, M.D., Tammi, K. and Kinney, A. (1997) Identity Processing Orientation, Cognitive and Behavioral Strategies and Well-Being. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 21, 555-570.
[40] Dollinger, S.M. (1995) Identity Styles and the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 29, 475-479.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jrpe.1995.1028
[41] Adams, G.R., Munro, B., Doherty-Poirer, M., Munro, G., Petersen, A.M.R. and Edwards, J. (2001) Diffuse-Avoidance, Normative, and Informational Identity Styles: Using Identity Theory to Predict Maladjustment. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 1, 307-320.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S1532706XID0104_01
[42] Jones, R.M., Ross, C.N. and Hartmann, B.R. (1992) An Investigation of Cognitive Style and Alcohol/Work-Related Problems among Naval Personnel. Journal of Drug Education, 22, 241-251.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/3HE9-TCAE-2P3Y-BN5H

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.