Health> Vol.6 No.5, February 2014

Workplace mistreatment: Health, working environment and social and economic factors

DownloadDownload as PDF (Size:162KB)  HTML    PP. 392-403  

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore patterns of workplace mistreatment, relationships with health and with selected workplace, economic and social factors in 34 countries. Methods: Secondary data analysis of the European Working Conditions Survey. Results: Patterns of ill treatment (across occupational groups, and sectors) were broadly consistent with smaller, less representative studies. Prevalence was lower than many studies but corresponds with estimates of serious mistreatment. Mistreatment increases the risk of both physical and mental ill health and is associated with a range of work environment factors. Mistreatment is more prevalent in countries with smaller gender gaps, better performance on the GINI index for income inequality and for countries with specific anti-bullying legislation. Conclusions: Mistreatment in work is complex, and interventions are required at the level of the organization. Implementation issues need to be addressed, as specific anti-bullying legislation does not appear to provide sufficient protection.

Cite this paper

Hodgins, M. (2014) Workplace mistreatment: Health, working environment and social and economic factors. Health, 6, 392-403. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.65057.

References

[1] World Health Organization (2010) Healthy Workplaces: A model for action. World Health Organization, Geneva.
[2] World Health Organization (2008) Closing the gap in a generation: Health action on the social determinants of health. World Health Organization, Geneva.
[3] Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D. and Cooper, C. (2011) The concept of bullying and harassment at work: The European tradition. In: Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D., and Cooper, C., Eds., Bullying and Harassment in the Workplace, Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 3-40.
[4] Einarsen, S., Hoel, H. and Notelaers, G., (2009) Measuring exposure to bullying and harassment at work: Validity, factor structure and psychometric properties of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. Work & Stress, 23, 24-44.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02678370902815673
[5] Caponecchia, C. and Wyatt, A. (2011) Preventing workplace bullying. Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, London.
[6] Fevre, R., Lewis, D., Robinson, A. and Jones, T. (2012) Trouble at work. Bloomsbury, London.
[7] Keashley, J. and Jagatic, K. (2011) North American perspectives on hostile behaviours and bullying at work. In: Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D. and Cooper, C., Eds., Bullying and Harassment in the Workplace. Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 41-71.
[8] Pearson, C. M. and Porath, C.L. (2006) On the nature, consequences and remedies of workplace incivility: No time for “nice”? Think again. Academy of Management Executive, 19, 7-18.
[9] Lim, S. and Cortina, L.M. (2005) Interpersonal mistreatment in the workplace: The interface and impact of general incivility and sexual harassment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 483-496.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.3.483
[10] DiMartino., V., Hoel, H. and Cooper, C. (2003) Preventing violence and Harassment in the workplace. European Foundation of Living and Working Conditions, Dublin.
[11] Hershcovis, M.S. (2010) “Incivility, social undermining, bullying…oh my!”: A call to reconcile constructs within workplace aggression research. Journal Organisational Behaviour, 32, 499-519.
[12] Budd, T. (1999) Violence at work: Findings from the British crime survey. Home Office, London.
[13] Leiter, M. P., Laschinger, K.K.S., Day, A. and Oore, D.G. (2011) The impact of civility interventions on employee social behaviour, distress and attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 1258-1274.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0024442
[14] Cortina, L.M., Magley, V.J., Williams, J.H. and Langhout, R.D. (2001) Incivility in the Workplace: Incidence and Impact. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 64-80.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.6.1.64
[15] Shannon, H.S. (2007) Workplace incivility and other work factors: Effects on psychological distress and health, final project report.
http://www.cupw.ca/multimedia/website/publication/English/PDF/2007/mcmaster_final_en.pdf
[16] Schat, A.C.H. and Kelloway, E.K. (2005) Effects of perceived control on the outcomes of workplace aggression and violence. Journal Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 386-402.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.5.3.386
[17] Zapf, D. Knorz, C.andKulla, M. (1996) On the relationship between mobbing factors, job content, social work environment and health outcomes. European Journal of Work and Organisational Psychology, 5, 215-337.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13594329608414856
[18] Einarsen, S. and Raknes, B.I. (1997) Harassment in the workplace and the victimization of men. Violence, 12, 247-263.
[19] Quine, L. (1999) Workplace bullying in NHS community trust: Staff questionnaire survey. British Medical Journal, 318, 228-232.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.318.7178.228
[20] Vartia, M. (2001) Consequences of workplace bullying with respect to the well-being of targets and the observers of bullying. Scandanavian Journal of Work Environment and Health, 27, 63-69.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.588
[21] Mikkelsen, E.G. and Einarsen, S. (2002) Relationship between exposure to bullying at work and psychological and psychosomatic health complaints: The role of state negative affect and general self-efficacy. Scandanavian Journal of Work, 435, 397-405.
[22] Namie, G. (2003) Workplace bullying: Escalated incivility. Ivey Business Journal.
[23] Mikkelsen, G., Hogh, A. and Puggaard, L.B. (2011) Prevention of Bullying and Conflicts at work. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 4, 84-100.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17538351111118617
[24] Niedhammer, I., David, S. and Degionni, S. (2006) Association between workplace bullying and depressive symptoms in the French working population Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 61, 251-259.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2006.03.051
[25] Mattiesen, S., and Einarsen, S. (2004) Psychiatric distress and symptoms of PTSD among victims of bullying at work. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 32, 335-356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03069880410001723558
[26] Tehrani, N. (2004) Bullying: A source of chronic PTSD? British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 32, 358-366.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03069880410001727567
[27] Balducci, C., Fraccaroli, F., and Schaufeli, W.B. (2011) Workplace bullying and its relation with work characteristics, personality, and post-traumatic stress symptoms: An integrated model. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 24, 499-513.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2011.555533
[28] O’Moore, M., Seigne, E., McGuire, L. and Smith, M. (1998) Victims of workplace bullying in Ireland. Irish Journal of Psychology, 19, 345-357.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03033910.1998.10558195
[29] Kivimaki, M., Virtanen, M., Vartia, M., Elovainio, M., Vahtera, J. and Keltikangas-Ja¨rvinen, L. (2009) Workplace bullying and the risk of cardiovascular disease and depression. Occupational Environonmental Medicine, 60, 779-783.
[30] Hogh, A., Mikkelsen, E.G., and Hansen, A.M. (2011) Individual consequences of Workplace bullying/mobbing. In: Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D. and Cooper, C., Eds., Bullying and Harassment in the Workplace, Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 107-128.
[31] Hallberg, L.R.M. and Strandmark, M.K. (2006) Health consequences of workplace bullying: Experiences from the perspective of employees in the public service sector. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health & Well-Being, 1, 109-119.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17482620600555664
[32] Lewis, S.E. (2006) Recognition of workplace bullying: A qualitative study of women targets in the public sector. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 16, 119-135.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/casp.850
[33] Hodgins, M. (2006) Awareness and perceptions of staff of the Anti-Bullying policy in a public sector organization. 5th International Conference: Workplace Bullying—The Way Forward, Trinity College, Dublin.
[34] Zapf, D., Einarsen, S., Hoel, H. and Vartia, M. (2003) Empirical findings on bullying in the workplace. In: Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D. and Cooper, C., Eds., Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace, Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 103-126.
[35] Salin, D. (2003) Ways of explaining workplace bullying: A review of enabling, motivating and precipitating structures and processes in the work environment. Human Relations, 56, 1213-1231.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00187267035610003
[36] Omari, M. (2007) Towards dignity and respect at work: An exploration of bullying in the public sector. Dissertation submitted School of Management, Edith Cowan University, Perth.
[37] Salins, D. and Hoel, H. (2011) Organisational causes of workplace bullying. In: Einarsen, S., Hoel, D., Zapf, D. and Cooper, C., Eds., Bullying and Harassment in the Workplace, Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 227-244.
[38] Hodgins, M. and Griffith, J. (2011) A whole systems approach to working in settings. In: Scriven, A. and Hodgins, M., Eds., Health Promotion Settings. Principles and Practice, Sage, London, pp. 35-49.
[39] Pinkos Cobb, E. (2012) Workplace bullying: A global health and safety issue.
http://ilera2012.wharton.upenn.edu/refereedpapers/cobbellen.pdf
[40] Yamada, D. (2011) Workplace bullying and the law: Towards a transnational consensus? In: Einarsen, S., Hoel, D., Zapf, D. and Cooper, C., Eds., Bullying and Harassment in the Workplace, Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 469-484.
[41] Hoel, H. (2006) The limits of regulations: Assessing the effectiveness of the Swedish regulations against workplace bullying. The 5th International Conference on Bullying “The Way Forward”, Trinity College, Dublin, 15-17 June 2006.
[42] Eurofound. (2007) Fourth European working conditions survey. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Dublin.
[43] Eurofound. (2012) Fifth European working conditions survey. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Dublin.
[44] Hausmann, R., Tyson, L.D. and Zahidi, S. (2011) The global gender gap report. World Economic Forum.
http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GenderGap_Report_2011.pdf
[45] Central Intelligence Agency (2011) The world fact book. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html
[46] Sprigg, C.A., Martin, A., Niven, K. and Armitage, C.J. (2008) Unacceptable behaviour, health and well-being at work. A cross-lagged longitudinal study. IOSH research Report 10.1.
[47] Neilsen, M.B., Notelaers, G. and Einarsen, S. (2011) Measuring exposure to workplace bullying. In: Einarsen, S., Hoel, D., Zapf, D. and Cooper, C., Eds., Bullying and Harassment in the Workplace, Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 149-174.
[48] Lutgen-Sandvik, P., Tracy, S.J. and Alberts, J.K. (2007) Burned by bullying in the American workplace: Prevalence, perception, degree and impact. Journal of Management Studies, 44, 837-862.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2007.00715.x
[49] Zapf, D., Escartin, J., Einarsen, S., Hoel, H. and Vartia, M. (2011) Empirical findings on prevalence and risk groups of bullying in the workplace. In: Einarsen, S., Hoel, D., Zapf, D. and Cooper, C., Eds., Bullying and Harassment in the Workplace, Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 75-106.
[50] Salins, D. The significance of gender for work-place bullying.
http://www.hanken.fi/staff/salin/blog/files/keynote_salin.pdf
[51] O’Connell, P., Calvert, E. and Watson, D. (2007) Bullying in the workplace: Survey reports. The Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin.
[52] European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. (2011) Mental Health Promotion: A good practice report. EU-OSHA, Luxembourg.
[53] McDaid, D. (2008) Mental health in workplace settings, consensus paper. European Commission, Directorate General for Health and Consumers, Luxembourg.
[54] World Health Organization (2010) Mental Health Policies and programmes in the workplace. WHO, Geneva.
[55] Mackay, C.J., Cousins, R., Kelly, P.J., Lee, S. and Mc-Caig, R. (2004) Management standards and work-related stress in the UK: Policy background and science. Work and Stress, 18, 91-112.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02678370410001727474
[56] HSE Management Standards Approach (2009) How to tackle work-related stress. Health and Safety Executive. http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg430.pdf
[57] Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D. and Cooper, C. (2003) The concept of bullying at work. In: Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D. and Cooper, C., Eds., Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace, Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 3-32.
[58] Namie, G. (2007) Workplace bullying institute survey.
http://www.workplacebullying.org/wbiresearch/wbi-2007/
[59] Einarsen, S., Assland, M.S. and Skogsstad, A. (2007) Destructive leadership behaviour: A definition and conceptual model. The Leadership Quarterly, 18, 207-216.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.03.002
[60] Chipps, E. and McRury, M. (2012) The development of an educational Intervention to address workplace bullying. Journal for Nurses in Staff Development, 28, 94-98.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NND.0b013e31825514bb
[61] Hoel, H. and Giga, S. (2006) Destructive interpersonal conflict in the workplace. The effectiveness of management interventions. University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST), Manchester.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.