JGIS> Vol.6 No.1, February 2014

Impact of Terrain and Cloud Cover on the Distribution of Incoming Direct Solar Radiation over Pakistan

DownloadDownload as PDF (Size:1342KB)  HTML    PP. 70-77  

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the spatial distribution of direct solar irradiation on rugged terrain over Pakistan. Digital elevation model (DEM), observational data of solar radiation from 6 meteorological observatories located in Pakistan and 5 meteorological observatories located in China were used in the present study. This conjunction is based on the same climatic conditions. MODIS Level-2 (L2) cloud fraction products and observational data of cloud cover from 21 meteorological observatories in Pakistan were incorporated to quantify the cloud cover influences on solar radiation amount and spatial distribution. The emerging field of remote sensing and GIS makes it possible to calculate solar radiation with finer spatial resolution and better understanding of terrain and cloud effects. ArcGIS with RS platform were used to simulate the model for direct solar radiation for the first time over Pakistan region. The results show clear quantitative influences of local topography and cloud cover on the DSR. Similarly, the area (east of Indus river) affected by monsoon receives less solar radiation during summer compared to the west of the Indus River.

Cite this paper

S. Sultan, R. Wu and I. Ahmed, "Impact of Terrain and Cloud Cover on the Distribution of Incoming Direct Solar Radiation over Pakistan," Journal of Geographic Information System, Vol. 6 No. 1, 2014, pp. 70-77. doi: 10.4236/jgis.2014.61008.

References

[1] R. Chant and D. Ruth, “Solar Heating in Canada, The Potential of Solar Energy for Canada,” Conference of the Solar Energy Society of Canada Inc, Ottawa, June 1975.
http://www.cmos.ca/CB/cb100201.pdf
[2] L. Wang and X. Qiu, “Distributed Modeling of Direct Solar Radiation of Rugged Terrain Based on GIS,” The 1st International Conference on Information Science and Engineering (ICISE), Nanjing, 26-28 December 2009, 2042-2045.
[3] S. Changnon and D. Changnon, “Importance of Sky Conditions on the Record 2004 Midwestern Crop Yields,” Physical Geography, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2005, pp. 99-111.
[4] Z. X. L. Yang and Y. F. Hu, “Study on Solar Radiation and Energy Efficiency of Building Glass System,” Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol. 26, No. 8-9, 2006, pp. 956-961.
[5] E. Amer and M. Younes, “Estimating the Monthly Discharge of a Photovoltaic Water Pumping System: Model Verification,” Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 47, No. 15-16, 2006, pp. 2092-2102.
[6] R. Ranzi and R. Rosso, “A Stokesian Model of Areal Clear-Sky Direct Radiation for Mountainous Terrain,” Geographical Research Letters, Vol. 20, No. 24, 1993, pp. 2893-2896.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/93GL03307
[7] Q. S. I. Dozier, “An Approach toward Energy Balance Simulation over Rugged Terrain,” Geography, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1979, pp. 65-85.
[8] R. Dubayaha and P. M. Richb, “Topographic Solar Radiation Models for GIS,” International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1995, pp. 405-419.
[9] D. L. Liu and B. J. Scott, “Estimation of Solar Radiation in Australia from Rainfall and Temperature Observations,” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 106, No. 1, 2001, pp. 41-59.
[10] H. Yoo, K. Lee, S. Park and K. H. Noh, “Calculation of Global Solar Radiation Based on Cloud Data for Major Cities of South Korea,” Global Warming, Green Energy and Technology, 2010, pp. 467-484.
[11] R. Dubayah, “Estimating Net Solar Radiation Using Landsat Thematic Mapper and Digital Elevation Data,” Water Resources Research, Vol. 28, No. 9, 1992, pp. 2469-2484.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/92WR00772
[12] R. Dubayah, J. Dozier and F. Davis, “The Distribution of Clear-Sky Radiation over Varying Terrain,” 12th Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing (IGARSS’89), Vancouver, 10-14 July 1989, pp. 885-888.
[13] W. Panshou, “Mountain Climate Research Overview: On the Study of the Progress of the Mountain Climate, Mountain Climate Collected Works,” Beijing Meteorological Press, Beijing, 1984, pp. 1-7.
[14] P. Blood, “Pakistan: A Country Study,” Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, 1994.
http://countrystudies.us/pakistan/23.htm
[15] N. K. Amir, “Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction in Pakistan,” In: J. M. P. J. J. P. Rajib Shaw, Ed., Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction: An Asian Perspective, Vol. 5, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2010, pp. 197-215.
[16] climatemps.com, “Climate, Average Weather of Pakistan,” 2013.
http://www.pakistan.climatemps.com/
[17] Y. Zeng, X. Qiu, C. Liu and A. Jiang, “Distributed Modeling of Direct Solar Radiation on Rugged Terrain of the Yellow River Basin,” Journal of Geographical Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2005, pp. 439-447.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02892151
[18] B. Liu and R. Jordan, “The Interrelationship and Characteristic Distribution of Direct, Diffuse and Total Solar Radiation,” Solar Energy, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1960, pp. 1-19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-092X(60)90062-1
[19] X. Qiu, Y. Zeng and C. Liu, “Simulation of Astronomical Solar Radiation over Yellow River Basin Based on DEM,” Journal of Geographical Sciences, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2004, pp. 63-69.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02873092
[20] D. Zuo, Y. Zhou and Y. Xiang, “On Surface Radiations,” Science Press, Beijing, 1991. (in Chinese)
[21] L. T. Wong and W. Chow, “Solar Radiation Model,” Applied Energy, Vol. 69, No. 3, 2001, pp. 191-224.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0306-2619(01)00012-5
[22] D. Weng, “Studies on Radiation Climate of China,” China Meteorological Press, Beijing, 1997. (in Chinese)
[23] NREL’s, “Pakistan Resource Maps and Toolkit,” 2010.
http://www.nrel.gov/international/ra_pakistan.html?print
[24] M. Rashed and L. Shuanglin, “Response of Summer Rainfall in Pakistan to Dust Aerosols in an Atmospheric General Circulation Model,” Quarterly Journal of Hungarian Meteorological Science, Vol. 116, No. 4, 2012, pp. 323-333.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.