A Modified Approach to Analyze Thermal Comfort Classification

Download Download as PDF (Size:667KB)  HTML    PP. 7-19  
DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.41002    3,353 Downloads   5,621 Views   Citations


A thermal stress index of a geographic location over a period of time can provide knowledge of overall climate perceptible to the general public. Out of the three approaches to assessing thermal comfort namely, rational, empirical and direct, the direct approach is being used in the present study because of easy availability of all inputs and reasonable comprehension of the assessments. Assessment and ranking of cities using this approach based on the percentage of comfortable hours alone may however be erroneous and misleading as this approach does not consider the percentages of uncomfortable classes which could often be substantially high. The modified approach for thermal comfort classification demonstrates cumulative representation of all classes of thermal comfort including uncomfortablity and provides relative ranking of cities. Analysis of the results is presented here for five megacities (Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Hyderabad) representing varying geographical and climatic locations of India. These cities are ranked based on the routine and modified approaches and results are discussed in detail on monthly, seasonal and annual average basis. When the cities are compared only on the basis of comfortable hours, the decreasing order of comfortability is Hyderabad, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai and Mumbai. However, considering the second methodology, it is revealed that the contribution of uncomfortable hours is greater in Kolkata and Chennai in comparison to Mumbai. The proposed methodology could be an improvement over the current practices and provides a more rational method for relative ranking of cities that could be used for tourism and energy demands.

Cite this paper

M. Mohan, A. Gupta and S. Bhati, "A Modified Approach to Analyze Thermal Comfort Classification," Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2014, pp. 7-19. doi: 10.4236/acs.2014.41002.


[1] K. Buttner, “Physikalische Bioklimatologie. probleme und Methoden,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, Vol. 64, 1938, pp. 348-348.
[2] American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), “Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning Guide No. 33,” 1955.
[3] Y. Epstein and D. S. Moran, “Thermal Comfort and the Heat Stress Indices,” Industrial Health, Vol. 44, No. 3, 2006, pp. 388-398. http://dx.doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.44.388
[4] National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), “Occupational Exposure to Hot Environments,” 1986. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/86-113/86-113.pdf
[5] P. H?ppe, “The Physiological Equivalent Temperature— A Universal Index for the Biometeorological Assessment of the Thermal Environment,” International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 43, No. 2, 1999, pp. 71-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004840050118
[6] K. Blazejczyk, Y. Epstein, G. Jendritzky, H. Staiger and B. Tinz, “Comparison of UTCI to Selected Thermal Indices,” International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 56, No. 3, 2012, pp. 515-535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-011-0453-2
[7] F. C. Houghton and C. P. Yaglo, “Determining Equal Comfort Lines,” Journal of the American Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers, Vol. 29, 1923, pp. 165-176.
[8] C. P. Yaglou and D. Minard, “Control of Heat Casualties at Military Training Centers,” Archives of Industrial Health, Vol. 16, 1957, pp. 302-305.
[9] E. C. Thom, “The Discomfort Index,” Weatherwise, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1959, pp. 57-61.
[10] M. H. Weiss, “Quantifying Summer Discomfort,” Buletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 64, 1983, pp. 654-655.
[11] P. A. Siple and C. F. Passel, “Measurements of Dry Atmospheric Cooling in Subfreezing Temperatures,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 89, 1945, pp. 177-199.
[12] R. G. Steadman, “Indices of Windchill of Clothed Persons,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 10, 1971, pp. 674-683. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1971)010<0674:IOWOCP>2.0.CO;2
[13] R. G. Steadman, “The Assessment of Sultriness. Part I: A Temperature-Humidity Index Based on Human Physiology and Clothing Science,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, Vol. 18, 1979, pp. 861-885. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1979)018<0861:TAOSPI>2.0.CO;2
[14] B. Giles, C. Balafoutis and P. Maheras, “Too Hot for Comfort: The Heatwaves in Greece in 1987 and 1988,” International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 34, No. 2, 1990, pp. 98-104.
[15] K. Chronopoulos, A. Kamoutsis, A. Matsoukis and E. Manoli, “An Artificial Neural Network Model Application for the Estimation of Thermal Comfort Conditions in Mountainous Regions, Greece,” Atmósfera, Vol. 25, 2012, pp. 171-181.
[16] SMHS Weather Station (SMHS), “Comfort Index,” 2012. http://www.saskschools.ca/~ghuczek/ definitioncomfortindex.htm
[17] R. Basu, “High Ambient Temperature and Mortality: A Review of Epidemiologic Studies from 2001 to 2008,” Environmental Health, Vol. 8, 2009, p. 40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-8-40
[18] M. Mohan and S. Bhati, “Are You Comfortable Weather-Wise,” Science Reporter, Vol. 46, 2009, pp. 19-28.
[19] G. Yu, Z. Schwartz and J. Walsh, “A Weather-Resolving Index for Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Tourism Related Climate Resources,” Climatic Change, Vol. 95, No. 3-4, 2009, pp. 551-573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-009-9565-7
[20] M. Mohan, A. Kandya and A. Battiprolu, “Urban Heat Island Effect over National Capital Region of India: A Study using the Temperature Trends,” Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 2, No. 4, 2011, pp. 465-472. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jep.2011.24054
[21] L. P. Rothfusz, “The Heat Index Equation (or, More Than You ever Wanted to Know about Heat Index),” Tech. Attachment, SR/SSD 90-23, NWS S. Reg. Headquarters, Forth Worth, TX, 1990. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/images/ffc/pdf/ta_htindx.PDF
[22] D. Hartz, J. Golden, C. Sister, W.-C. Chuang and A. Brazel, “Climate and Heat-Related Emergencies in Chicago, Illinois (2003-2006),” International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 56, No. 1, 2012, pp. 71-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-010-0398-x
[23] H. Silva, P. Phelan and J. Golden, “Modeling Effects of Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies on Heat-Related Morbidity: A Case Study for Phoenix, Arizona, USA,” International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 54, No. 1, 2010, pp. 13-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-009-0247-y
[24] F. Yip, W. D. Flanders, A. Wolkin, D. Engelthaler, W. Humble, A. Neri, L. Lewis, L. Backer and C. Rubin, “The Impact of Excess Heat Events in Maricopa County, Arizona: 2000-2005,” International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 52, No. 8, 2008, pp. 765-772. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-008-0169-0
[25] M. Zahid and G. Rasul, “Rise in Summer Heat Index over Pakistan,” Pakistan Journal of Meteorology, Vol. 6, 2009, pp. 85-96.
[26] D. M. Driscoll, “Windchill: The ‘Brrr’ Index,” Weatherwise, Vol. 40, No. 6, 1987, pp. 321-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00431672.1987.9932078
[27] National Weather Service (NWS), “Windchill: Frequently Asked Questions, Terms and Definitions,” 2012. http://www.weather.gov/om/windchill
[28] S. Toy and S. Yilmaz, “Evaluation of Urban-Rural Bioclimatic Comfort Differences over a Ten-Year Period in the Sample of Erzincan City Reconstructed after a Heavy Earthquake,” Atmósfera, Vol. 23, 2010, pp. 387-402.
[29] A. Matsoukis, A. Kamoutsis and A. Chronopoulou-Sereli, “Air Temperature and Thermal Comfort Conditions in Mountainous and Urban Regions,” International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, Vol. 4, 2009, pp. 357-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/SDP-V4-N4-357-363
[30] J. Unger, “Comparisons of Urban and Rural Bioclimatological Conditions in the Case of a Central-European City,” International Journal of Biometeorology, Vol. 43, No. 3, 1999, pp. 139-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004840050129
[31] M. Indraganti, “Using the Adaptive Model of Thermal Comfort for Obtaining Indoor Neutral Temperature: Findings from a Field Study in Hyderabad, India,” Building and Environment, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2010, pp. 519-536. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.07.006
[32] S. S. Chandel and R. K. Aggarwal, “Thermal Comfort Temperature Standards for Cold Regions,” Innovative Energy Policies, Vol. 2, 2012, Article ID: E110201. http://dx.doi.org/10.4303/iep/E110201
[33] M. K. Singh, S. Mahapatra and S. K. Atreya, “Thermal Performance Study and Evaluation of Comfort Temperatures in Vernacular Buildings of North-East India,” Building and Environment, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2010, pp. 320-329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2009.06.009
[34] Wunderground, 2012. http://www.wunderground.com/about/data.asp?MR=1
[35] M. J. Ahmad, G. N. Tiwari, A. K. Singh, M. Sharma and H. N. Singh, “Heating/Cooling Potential and Carbon Credit Earned for Dome Shaped House,” International Journal of Energy and Environment, Vol. 1, 2010, pp. 133-148.
[36] Mumbai-Info, “Weather in Mumbai,” 2012. http://www.ilikemumbai.com/weather-in-mumbai.html
[37] WeatherSpark, “Average Weather for Mumbai (Bombay), India,” 2013. http://weatherspark.com/ averages/33910/Mumbai-Bombay-Maharashtra-India
[38] Telangana, Hyderabad, 2012. http://www.etelangana.org/hyderabad.asp
[39] Weatherbase, Calcutta, 2012. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=090824& refer=&units=metric
[40] Universal Aviation Academy (UAA), Chennai Weather, 2012. http://www.uniaviation.com/UAA/ weather_r.html

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.