Urban Greening Using an Intelligent Multi-Objective Location Modelling with Real Barriers: Towards a Sustainable City Planning

Download Download as PDF (Size:2023KB)  HTML    PP. 75-86  
DOI: 10.4236/cus.2013.14008    2,766 Downloads   6,422 Views  


Greenery is one of the important ingredients for urban planning with a sustainable environment. Increasing parks and open spaces (POS) to offer a greater diversity of green spaces have substantial impact on its environment in many mega cities around the world. However, any place cannot be a potential site for POS due to multi-objective modeling nature of POS planning. In this paper, an intelligent multi-objective continuous optimization model is thus developed for locating POS with particular emphasis on greeneries that will potentially benefit and facilitate the planning of a sustainable city. Three environmentally incommensurable factors analyzed with the help of geographic information systems (GIS) namely air-quality, noise-level, and population-distribution have been considered in the model and a genetic algorithm (GA) is used to solve the continuous optimization problem heuristically. The model has been applied to Dhaka city as a case study to find the optimal locations of additional POS to make it a sustainable city by ameliorating its degraded environment. The multiple objectives are combined into a single one by employing a dynamic weighting scheme and a set of non-dominated Pareto optimal solutions is derived. The obtained alternative non-dominated solutions from the robust modelling approach can serve as a candidate pool for the city planners in decision making for POS planning by selecting an alternative solution which is best suited for the prevailing land-use pattern in a city. The model has successfully demonstrated to provide optimal locations of new POS. In addition, we found that locations of POS can be optimized even by integrating it with land cover and uses like lakes, streams, trails (for simplicity which were considered as a barrier constraint in the model) to rejuvenate added beauties in a city. The obtained results thus indicate that the developed multi-objective POS location model can serve as an effective tool for urban POS planning maintaining sustainable environment.

Cite this paper

Neema, M. , Maniruzzaman, K. and Ohgai, A. (2013) Urban Greening Using an Intelligent Multi-Objective Location Modelling with Real Barriers: Towards a Sustainable City Planning. Current Urban Studies, 1, 75-86. doi: 10.4236/cus.2013.14008.


[1] Azad, A., & Kitada, T. (1998). Characteristics of the air pollution in the city of dhaka, bangladesh in winter. Atmospheric Environment, 32, 1991-2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00508-6
[2] BenDor, T., Westervelt, J., Song, Y., & Sexton, J. (2013). Modeling park development through regional land use change simulation. Land Use Policy, 30, 1-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2012.01.012
[3] Borrego, C., Martins, H., Tchepel, O., Salmim, L., Monteiro, A., & Miranda, A. I. (2006). How urban structure can affect city sustainability from an air quality perspective. Environmental Modelling & Software, 21, 461-467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2004.07.009
[4] Camm, J., Norman, S., Polasky, S., & Solow, A. (2002). Nature reserve site selection to maximize expected species covered. Operations Research, 50, 946-955.
[5] Chiesura, A. (2004). The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landscape Urban Plan, 68, 129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2003.08.003
[6] Choumert, J. (2010). An empirical investigation of public choices for green spaces. Land Use Policy, 27, 1123-1131.
[7] Drechsler, M., & W?tzold, F. (2001). The importance of economic cost in the development of guidelines for spatial conservation management. Biological Conservation, 97, 51-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00099-9
[8] Egger, S. (2006). Determining a sustainable city model. Environmental Modelling & Software, 21, 1235-1246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2005.04.012
[9] Fonseca, C. M., & Fleming, P. J. (1991). An overview of evolutionary algorithms in multiobjective optimization. Evolutionary Computation, 3, 1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/evco.1995.3.1.1
[10] Gobster, P. H. (1998). Urban parks as green walls or green magnets? interracial relations in neighborhood boundary parks. Landscape Urban Plan, 41, 43-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(98)00045-0
[11] Katz, N., & Cooper, L. (1981). Facility location in the presence of forbidden regions, i: Formulation and the case of euclidean distance with one forbidden circle. European Journal of Operational Research, 6, 166-173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(81)90203-4
[12] Klamroth, K. (2004). Algebraic properties of location problems with one circular barrier. European Journal of Operational Research, 154, 20-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(81)90203-4
[13] Kong, F., Yinb, H., Nakagoshic, N., & Zongb, Y. (2010). Urban green space network development for biodiversity conservation: Identification based on graph theory and gravity modeling. Landscape Urban Plan, 95, 16-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2009.11.001
[14] Lam, K. C., Ng, S. L., Hui, W. C., & Chan, P. K. (2005). Environmental quality of urban parks and open spaces in Hong Kong. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 111, 55-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-005-8039-2
[15] McDonnell, M., Possingham, H., Ball, I., & Cousins, E. (2002). Mathematical methods for spatially cohesive reserve design. Journal of Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 7, 107-114.
[16] Morancho, A. B. (2003). A hedonic valuation of urban green areas. Landscape Urban Plan, 66, 35-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-2046(03)00093-8
[17] Neema, M.N., Ohgai, A., & Emanuel, L. (2008). Analyzing existing condition and location of open spaces in Dhaka city. Proceedings of 6th Int. Symposium on City Planning and Urban Management in Asian Countries, Jinju.
[18] Neema, M. N., & Ohgai, A. (2010). Multi-objective location modeling of urban parks and open spaces: Continuous optimization. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 34, 359-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2010.03.001
[19] Neema, M. N., Maniruzzaman, K. M., & Ohgai, A. (2011). New genetic algorithms based approaches to continuous p-median problem. Networks and Spatial Economics, 11, 83-99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11067-008-9084-5
[20] Neema, M.N., Maniruzzaman, K. M., & Ohgai, A. (2013). Green urbanism incorporating greenery-based conceptual model towards attaining a sustainable healthy livable environment—Dhaka City’s perspective. Current Urban Studies, 1, 19-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/cus.2013.13003
[21] Neema, M.N., & Ohgai, A. (2013). Multitype green-space modeling for urban planning using GA and GIS. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 40, 447-473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/b38003
[22] Nordh, H., Hartigb, T., Hagerhalla, C., & Frya, G. (2009). Components of small urban parks that predict the possibility for restoration. Urban Forestry Urban Greening, 8, 225-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2009.06.003
[23] Poggio, L., & Vr?caj, B. (2009). A GIS-based human health risk assessment for urban green space planning-an example from grugliasco (Italy). Science of the Total Environment, 407, 5961-5970. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.08.026
[24] Schipperijn, J., Stigsdotter, U., Randrup, T. B., & Troelsen, J. (2010). Influences on the use of urban green space-a case study in odense, denmark. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 9, 25-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2009.09.002
[25] Sdnp, B. (2005). Green Cities Plan for the Planet (Digital Publication). Dhaka: World Enviornment Day.
[26] Szeremeta, B., Henrique, P., & Zannin, T. (2009). Analysis and evaluation of soundscapes in public parks through interviews and measurement of noise. Science of the Total Environment, 407, 6143-6149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.08.039
[27] Uddin, N. (2005). The relationship between Urban Forestry and Poverty Alleviation-Dhaka as a case study. Master Degree Project, Alnarp: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,.
[28] Uy, P., & Nakagoshi, N. (2008). Application of land suitability analysis and landscape ecology to urban green space planning in Hanoi, Vietnam. Urban Forestry Urban Greening, 7, 25-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2007.09.002
[29] Zhang, X., & Armstrong, M. P. (2008). Genetic algorithms and the corridor location problem: multiple objectives and alternative solutions. Environment and Planning B, 35, 148-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/b32167

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.