SM> Vol.1 No.1, January 2011

From Age-Sets to Friendship Networks in Comparative Sociology: The continuity of soda among the Boorana of East Africa

DownloadDownload as PDF (Size:226KB)  HTML    PP. 16-25  

ABSTRACT

This paper re-assesses a comparative sociology of kinship and friendship in East Africa with a particular focus on the Boorana Oromo of Kenya. It argues that the study of kinship dominated the developments of a comparative sociology during colonial times and that the post-colonial influences of war, the market and globalization have increased the role of the individual. As a result a comparative sociology of African kinship needs to be understood in relation to comparative sociological studies of friendship in East Africa, particularly associated with the sociology of education.

Cite this paper

Aguilar, M. (2011). From Age-Sets to Friendship Networks in Comparative Sociology: The continuity of soda among the Boorana of East Africa. Sociology Mind, 1, 16-25. doi: 10.4236/sm.2011.11002.

References

[1] Abbas, H. (1994). Menelik’s Conquest as the Genesis of Ethiopian Crises: A case of the Arsi Oromo. The Oromo Commentary, 4, 17-23.
[2] Abrahams, R. (1999). Friends and Networks as Survival Strategies in North-East Europe. In S. Bell and S. Coleman (Eds.). The Anthropology of Friendship (pp. 155-168). Oxford, New York: Berg.
[3] Aguilar, M. I. (1994a). Portraying society through children: play among the waso boorana of Kenya. An-thropos, 89, 29-38.
[4] Aguilar, M. I. (1994b). Anthropology and anomalies in kinship patterns. Anthropology in Action, 1, 25-26.
[5] Aguilar, M. I. (1995). African Conversion from a World Religion: Religious diversification by the Waso Boorana of Kenya. Africa, 65, 525-544.
[6] Aguilar, M. I. (1996). Writing Biographies of Boorana: Social histories at the time of Kenya’s independence. History in Africa, 23, 351-367.
[7] Aguilar, M. I. (1997). Historical Anthropology and Anthropological History: Rethinking the social production on an African past. In S. McGrath et al. (Eds.) Rethinking African History (pp. 357-378). Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh, Centres of African Studies.
[8] Aguilar, M. I. (1998a). Being Oromo in Kenya. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press.
[9] Aguilar, M. I. (1998b). Reinventing Gada: Generational knowledge in Boorana. In M. I. Aguilar (Ed.). The Politics of Age and Gerontocracy in Africa: Ethnographies of the past and memories of the present (pp. 257-279). Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press.
[10] Aguilar, M. I. (1999a). Localized Kin and Globalized Friends: Religious modernity and the ‘educated self’ in East Africa. In S. Bell and S. Coleman (Eds.). The Anthropology of Friendship (pp. 169-184). Oxford, New York: Berg.
[11] Aguilar, M. I. (1999b). Pastoral Identities: Memories, memorials and imaginations in the postcoloniality of East Africa. Anthropos 94, 149-161.
[12] Aguilar, M. I., and L. Birch de Aguilar. (1993). Women’s Organizing Abilities: Two case studies in Kenya and Malawi. Washington, D.C.: ODII.
[13] Bahrey. (1954). History of the Galla. In C.F. Beckingham and G.B.W. Huntingford (Eds.). Some Records of Ethiopia 1593-1646 (pp. 109-129). London: Hakluyt Society.
[14] Barcellos Rezende, C. (1996). Friendship. In A. Barnard and J. Spencer (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology (pp. 246). London, New York: Routledge.
[15] Barcellos Rezende, C. (1999). Building Affinity through Friendship. In S. Bell and S. Coleman (Eds.). The Anthropology of Friendship (pp. 79-97). Oxford, New York: Berg.
[16] Bartels, L. (1983). Oromo Religion. Myths and rites of the Western Oromo of Ethiopia: An attempt to understand. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
[17] Bassi, M. (1996a). I Borana: Una società assembleare dell’Etiopia. Milano: Franco Angeli.
[18] Bassi, M. (1996b). Power’s Ambiguity or the political significance of gada. In P. T. W. Baxter, J. Hultin and A. Triulzi (Eds.). Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and anthropological enquiries (pp. 150-161). Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Lawrenceville, N.J.: The Red Sea Press.
[19] Baxter, P. T. W. (1966). Acceptance and rejection of Islam among the Boran of the Northern Frontier District of Kenya. In I. M. Lewis (Ed.). Islam in tropical Africa (pp. 233-250). London: Oxford University Press for the International African Institute.
[20] Baxter, P. T. W. (1978). Boran Age-Sets and Generation-Sets: Gada, a puzzle or a maze? In P.T.W. Baxter and U. Almagor (Eds.). Age, generation and time: Some features of East African age organisations (pp. 151-182). London: C. Hurst.
[21] Baxter, P. T. W. (1979). Boran age-sets and warfare. In K. Fukui and D. Turton (Eds.). Warfare among East African Herders (pp. 69-95). Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology, Senri Ethnological Studies 3.
[22] Baxter, P. T. W. (1994). The creation and constitution of Oromo Nationality. In K. Fukui and J. Markakis (Eds.). Ethnicity and conflict in the horn of Africa (pp. 167-186). London: James Currey; Athens: Ohio University Press.
[23] Baxter, P. T. W. (1996). Towards a comparative Ethnography of the Oromo: The importance of affines. In P. T. W. Baxter, J. Hultin and A. Triulzi (Eds.). Being and becoming Oromo: Historical and anthropological enquiries (pp. 178-189). Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Lawrenceville, N.J.: The Red Sea Press.
[24] Beattie, J. H. M., and Lienhardt, R.G. (1975). Studies in Social Anthropology: Essays in memory of E.E. Evans-Pritchard by his former Oxford colleagues. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
[25] Bernardi, B. (1985). Age class systems: Social institutions and polities based on age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[26] Bulcha, M. (2002). The making of the Oromo Diaspora: A historical sociology of forced migration. Minneapolis, M.N.: Kirk House.
[27] Carrier, J. G. (1999). People who can be friends: Selves and social relationships. In S. Bell and S. Coleman (Eds.). The Anthropology of friendship (pp. 21-38). Oxford, New York: Berg.
[28] Chieni, T., and Spencer, P. (1993). The world of Telelia: Reflections of a Maasai woman in Matapato. In T. Spear and R. Waller (Eds.). Being Maasai: Ethnicity and identity in East Africa (pp. 157-173). London: James Currey.
[29] Clifford, J. (1986). Introduction: Partial truths. In J. Clifford and G. Marcus (Eds.). Writing culture (pp. 1-26). Berkeley: University of California Press.
[30] Cohen, A. P. (2002). Epilogue. In V. Amit (Ed.). Realizing community: Concepts, social relationships and sentiments (pp. 165-170). London, New York: Routledge.
[31] Dahl, G. (1979). Suffering grass: Subsistence and society of Waso Borana. Stockholm: Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology.
[32] Dahl, G., and Hjort, A. (1976). Having herds: Pastoral herd growth and household economy. Stockholm: Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology.
[33] Dalleo, P. (1975). Trade and pastoralism: Economic factors in the history of the Somali of Northeastern Kenya 1892-1948. Syracuse University, unpublished Ph.D. Thesis.
[34] Edwards, J. (2000). Born and bred: Idioms of kinship and new reproductive technologies in England. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
[35] Ensminger, J. (1987). Economic and political differentiation among Galole Orma women’. Ethnos, 52 , 28-49.
[36] Ensminger, J. (1992). Making a market: The institutional transformation of an African society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[37] Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (1940). The Nuer: A description of the modes of livelihood and political institutions of a Nilotic people. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[38] Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (1951). Kinship and marriage among the Nuer. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[39] Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (1956). Nuer Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[40] Fardon, R. (1987). African ethnogenesis: Limits to the comparability of ethnic phenomena. In L. Holy (Ed.). Comparative anthropology (pp. 168-188). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
[41] Fortes, M., and Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (Eds.). (1950). African political systems. London: KPI in association with the International African Institute.
[42] Gulliver, P. H. (1971). Neighbours and networks: The idiom of kinship in social action among the Ndendeuli of Tanzania. Berkeley: University of California Press.
[43] Haberland, E. (1963). Galla Sud-Athiopiens. Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer.
[44] Hassen, M. (1990). The Oromo of Ethiopia: A history 1570-1860. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[45] Hassen, M. (1999). A short history of Oromo colonial experience 1870s-1990s: Part 1 - 1870s to 1935. Journal of Oromo Studies 6, 109-158.
[46] Herzfeld, M. (1997). Cultural intimacy: Cultural poetics in the Nation-State. New York, London: Routledge.
[47] Hinnant, J. (1978). The Guji: Gada as a ritual system. In P.T.W. Baxter and U. Almagor (Eds.). Age, generation and time: Some features of East African age organisations (pp. 207-243). London: C. Hurst.
[48] Hjort, A. (1979). Savanna town: Rural ties and urban opportunities in northern Kenya. Stockholm: Department of Social Anthropology, Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology.
[49] Holcomb, B. K., and Ibssa, S. (1990). The invention of Ethiopia: The making of a dependent colonial state in Northeast Africa. Trenton, N.J.: Red Sea Press.
[50] Holy, L. (1987). Introduction: Description, generalization and comparison. Two paradigms. In L. Holy (Ed.). Comparative Anthropology (pp. 1-21). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
[51] Holy, L. (1996). Anthropological perspectives on kinship. London, Chicago: Pluto.
[52] Jalata, A. (1993). Oromia and Ethiopia: State formation and ethnonational conflict, 1868-1992. Boulder, London: Lynne Rienner.
[53] Jalata, A. (1998). The emergence of Oromo Nationalism and Ethiopian reaction. In A. Jalata (Ed.). Oromo Nationalism and the Ethiopian discourse: The search for freedom and democracy (pp. 1-26). Lawrenceville, N.J.: The Red Sea Press.
[54] Kassam, A. (1995). Notes on the Booran Oromo Gadamojjii ceremony held at Sololo (Kenya), June-July 1995. The Oromo Commentary, 5, 23-24.
[55] Kelly, H. A. (1990). Commercialization, sedentarization, economic diversification and changing property relations among Orma Pastoralists of Kenya: Some possible target issues for future pastoral research. In P. T. W. Baxter and R. Hogg (Eds.). Property, poverty and people: Changing rights in property and problems of pastoral development (pp. 80-94). Manchester: University of Manchester, Department of Social Anthropology and International Development Centre.
[56] Kelly, H. A. (1992). From ‘gada’ to Islam: The moral authority of gender relations among the pastoral Orma of Kenya. University of California, Los Angeles, unpublished Ph.D. Thesis.
[57] Kidane, S. (2002). The origin of the Qallu. In Borana folktales: A contextual study (pp. 155). London: Haan, New Brunswick: Transac-tion.
[58] Knutsson, K. E. (1967). Authority and change: A study of the kallu institution among the Macha Galla of Ethiopia. Gothenburg: Museum of Ethnography, Etnologiska Studier 29.
[59] Kumsa, K. (1998). Oromo women and the Oromo national movement: Dilemmas, problems and prospects for true liberation. In A. Jalata (Ed.). Oromo nationalism and the Ethiopian discourse: The search for freedom and democracy (pp. 153-182). Lawrenceville, N.J.: The Red Sea Press.
[60] Kuper, A. (1983). Anthropology and Anthropologists: The modern British School. London and New York: Routledge.
[61] Legesse, A. (1973). Gada: Three approaches to the study of African society. New York: The Free Press.
[62] Legesse, A. (2001). Oromo democracy: An indigenous African political system. Lawrenceville, N.J.: The Red Sea Press.
[63] Leus, T. (1995). Borana Dictionary. Sebijadel: W. S. D. Grafisch Centrum.
[64] Leus, T. n. d. Mammaasa Booranaa. Dhadiim: Yaaballoo.
[65] Lewis, H. S. (1966). The origins of the Galla and Somali’. Journal of African History, 7, 27-46.
[66] Lewis, I. M. (1994). Blood and bone: The call of kinship in Somali society. Lawrenceville, N.J.: The Red Sea Press.
[67] Mannheim, K. (1952). The problem of generations. In P. Kecskemeti (Ed.). Essays on the sociology of knowledge (pp. 276-320). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
[68] Marcus, G., and Fischer M. (1986). Anthropology as Cultural Critique. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
[69] Megerssa, G. (1996). Oromumma: Tradition, con-sciousness and identity. In P. T. W. Baxter, J. Hultin and A. Triulzi (Eds.). Being and becoming Oromo: Historical and anthropological enquiries (pp. 92-102). Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Lawrenceville, N.J.: The Red Sea Press.
[70] Middleton, J., and Tait D. (Eds.). (1958). Tribes without rulers: Studies in African segmentary systems. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
[71] Moore, S. F. (1994). Anthropology and Africa: Changing perspectives on a changing scene. Charlottesville, London: University Press of Virginia.
[72] Mudimbe, V. Y. (1988). The invention of Africa: Gnosis, philosophy, and the order of knowledge. Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, London: James Currey.
[73] Mudimbe, V. Y. (1994). The idea of Africa. Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, London: James Currey.
[74] Oba, G. (1996). Shifting identities along resources borders’. In P. T. W. Baxter, H. Jan and A. Triulzi (Eds.). Being and becoming Oromo: Historical and anthropological enquiries (pp. 117-131). Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Lawrenceville, N.J.: The Red Sea Press.
[75] Parkin, D. (1987). Comparison as the search for continuity. In L. Holy (Ed.). Comparative Anthropology (pp. 52-69). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
[76] Prins, A. H. J. (1953). East African age-class systems: An inquiry into the social order of Galla, Kipsigis and Kikuyu. Groningen and Djakarta: J. B. Wolters.
[77] Radcliffe-Brown. A. R. (1951). The comparative method in Social Anthropology. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 81, 15-22.
[78] Radcliffe-Brown. A. R. (1958) [1940]. Preface. In M. Fortes and E. E. Evans-Pritchard (Eds.). African political systems. London, New York, Toronto: Oxford University Press for the International African Institute, pp. 14-23.
[79] Rapport, N. (1993). Diverse world-views in an English village. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
[80] Rapport, N. (1996). Individualism. In A. Barnard and J. Spencer (Eds.). Encyclopedia of social and Cultural Anthropology (pp. 298-302). London, New York: Routledge.
[81] Rapport, N. (1997). Transcendent individual: Toward a literary and liberal anthropology. London, New York: Routledge.
[82] Rapport, N. (2002). Post-cultural Anthropology: The ironization of values in a world of movement. In V. Amit (Ed.). Realizing community: Concepts, social relationships and sentiments (pp. 146-164). London, New York: Routledge.
[83] Reyna, S. P. (1990). Wars without end: The political economy of a precolonial African state. Hanover: University Press of New England.
[84] Reed-Danahay, D. (1999). Friendship, kinship and the life course in rural Auvergne. In S. Bell and S. Coleman (Eds.). The Anthropology of friendship (pp. 137-154). Oxford, New York: Berg.
[85] Rikitu, M. (1992a). Oromo oral treasure for a new generation: Proverbs and sayings of the Oromo people with English explanation. London: Top Print.
[86] Rikitu, M. (1992b). Oromo folk-tales for a new generation. London: Tyndale Press.
[87] Schlee, G. (1982). Annahme und ablehnung von Christentum and Islam bei den Rendille in Nord-Kenia. In Ostafrikanische V?lker zwischen Mission und Regierung (Referate einer Arbeitskonferenz in Erlangen 16-18 Juni) (pp. 101-130). Erlangen: Copy Print.
[88] Schlee, G. (1989). Identities on the move: Clanship and Pastoralism in Northern Kenya. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
[89] Schlee, G. (1998). Some effects on a district boundary in Kenya. In M. I. Aguilar (Ed.). The politics of age and Gerontocracy in Africa: Ethnographies of the past and memories of the present (pp. 226-256). Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press.
[90] Southall, A. (1970). The illusion of tribe. Journal of African and Asian Studies, 5, 28-50.
[91] Southall, A. (1976). Nuer and Dinka are people: Ecology, ethnicity and logical possibility. Man, 11, 463-491.
[92] Spencer, P. (1965). The Samburu: A study of gerontocracy in a nomadic tribe. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
[93] Spencer, P. (1973). Nomads in alliance: Symbiosis and growth among the Rendille and Samburu of Kenya. London: Oxford University Press.
[94] Spencer, P. (1988). The Maasai of Matapato: A study of rituals of rebellion. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
[95] Spencer, P. (1993). Becoming Maasai, being in time. In T. Spear and R. Waller (Eds.). Being Maasai: Ethnicity and identity in East Africa (pp. 140-156). London: James Currey.
[96] Spencer, P. (1998). The pastoral continuum: The marginalization of tradition in East Africa. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
[97] Tablino, P. (1999). The Gabra: Camel nomads of Northern Kenya. Nairobi: Paulines Publications Africa.
[98] Torry, W. (1978). Gabra Age Organisation and Ecology’. In P. T. W. Baxter and U. Almagor (Eds.). Age, generation and time: Some features of East African age organisations (pp. 183-206). London: C. Hurst.
[99] Turner, V. (1967). The forest of symbols: Aspects of Ndembu ritual. Ithaca, London: Cornell University Press.
[100] Van de Loo, J. (1991). Guji Oromo Culture in Southern Ethiopia: Religious capabilities in rituals and songs [with the collaboration of Bilow Kola]. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
[101] Van Dijk, R., and Pels, P. (1996). Contested authorities and the politics of perception: Deconstructing the study of religion in Africa. In R. Werbner and T. Ranger (Eds.) Postcolonial identities in Africa (pp. 245-270). London, New Jersey: Zed.
[102] Wilson, M. (1951). Good company: A study of Nyakyusa age-villages. London: Oxford University Press for the International African Institute.
[103] Wood, J. C. (1999). When men are women: Manhood among Gabra nomads of East Africa. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
[104] Zitelmann, T. (1994). Nation der Oromo: Kollektive identit?ten, nationale Konflikte, Wir-Gruppenbildungen. Berlin: Das Arabische Buch.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.