Health> Vol.5 No.8, August 2013

Influence of smoking on postpartum depression in Japan

DownloadDownload as PDF (Size:333KB) Full-Text HTML PP. 1254-1260   DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58170

ABSTRACT

Aim: To investigate the influence of smoking on postpartum depression. Methods: One thousand fifty-one women, in a rural city in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, prospectively fulfilled the selection criteria and completed self-reporting questionnaires on postnatal depression at 5-6 days, 1 month, 4 months, 7 months and 12 months after childbirth, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and a life and social events scales including smoking habits. Results: Seven hundred seventy-seven women were non-smokers. Among two hundred seventy-four women who were smokers before becoming pregnant (26% of pregnant women), 241 women quit smoking during pregnancy and 33 women continued smoking. Smoking habits were significantly associated with sociopsychological states and we found that EPDS scores of smokers were significantly higher than EPDS of non-smokers. The EPDS scores of both non-smokers and smokers were higher at 5-6 days, but were stable from 1 month to 12 months, after childbirth. Fifty-one women who quit smoking after childbirth resumed smoking during he 1-12 month periods after childbirth. The EPDS scores of 51 women who resumed smoking were significantly reduced after they resumed smoking. Conclusion: The EPDS scores of smokers were higher than those of non-smokers and a smoking habit may help to alleviate postpartum depression.

KEYWORDS


Cite this paper

Satoh, A. , Kitamiya, C. , Yaegashi, Y. , Ohse, F. , Lee, S. , Kishi, C. , Menzawa, K. and Sasaki, H. (2013) Influence of smoking on postpartum depression in Japan. Health, 5, 1254-1260. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.58170.

References

[1] Sakata, R., McGale, P., Grant, E.J., Ozasa, K., Peto, R. and Darby, S.C. (2012) Impact of smoking on mortality and life expectancy in Japanese smokers: A prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal, 345, e7093. doi:10.1136/bmj.e7093
[2] Pirie, K., Peto, R., Reeves, G.K., Green, J. and Beral, V. (2013) The 21st century hazard of smoking and benefits of stopping: A prospective study of one million women in the UK. Lancet, 12, 133-141.
[3] Yamaya, M. (2012) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and severe pneumonia. Geriatrics Gerontology International, 12, 177-179. doi:10.1111/j.1447-0594.2011.00832.x
[4] Fujii, M., Iwakami, S., Takagi, H., Itoigawa, Y., Ichikawa, M., Iwakami, N., Ishiwata, T., Seyama, K. and Takahashi, K. (2012) Factors influencing weaning from mechanical ventilation in elderly patients with severe pneumonia. Geriatrics Gerontology International, 12, 277-283. doi:10.1111/j.1447-0594.2011.00765.x
[5] Wakabayashi, R., Motegi, T., Yamada, K., Ishii, T., Jones, R.C., Hyland, M.E., Gemma, A. and Kida, K. (2011) Efficient integrated education for older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using the lung information needs questionnaire. Geriatrics Gerontology International, 11, 422-430.
[6] Bruijinzeel, A.W. (2011) Tobaco addiction and the dysregulation of brain stress systems. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36, 1418-1441. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.02.015
[7] Parrott, A.C. (1995) Smoking cessation leads to reduced stress, but why? International Journal of Addictions, 30, 1509-1516.
[8] Slopen, N., Dutra, L.M., Williams, D.R., Mujahid, M.S., Lewis, T.T., Bennett, G.G., Ryff, C.D. and Albert, M.A. (2012) Psychosocial stressors and cigarette smoking among African American adults in midlife. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 14, 1161-1169. doi:10.1093/ntr/nts011
[9] Cohen, S. and Lichtenstein, E. (1990) Perceived stress, quitting smoking, and smoking relapse. Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association, 9, 466-478.
[10] Lopez, W.D., Konrath, S.H. and Seng, J.S. (2011) Abuserelated post-traumatic stress, coping, and tobacco use in pregnancy. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 40, 422-431.
[11] Satoh, A., Kitamiya, C., Kudoh, H., Watanabe, M., Menzawa, K. and Sasaki, H. (2009) Factors associated with late post-partum depression in Japan. Japan Journal of Nursing Science, 6, 27-36. doi:10.1111/j.1742-7924.2009.00121.x
[12] Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M. and Sagovsky, R. (1987) Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychology, 150, 780-786.
[13] Cox, J.L. (1994) Origin and development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale. In J. L. Cox and J. Holden, Eds., Perinatal Psychiatry, Gaskell, London, 115-124.
[14] Okano, T., Murata, M., Masuji, F., Tamaki, R., Nomura, J., Miyoka, H. and Kitamura, T. (1996) Validation and reliability of a Japanese version of the EPDS. Archives of Psychiatrics Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation, 7, 525-533.
[15] Spielberger, C.D. (1983) State trait anxiety inventory for adults. The manual. Mind Garden, California.
[16] Maxson, P.J., Edwards, S.E., Ingram, A. and Miranda, M.L. (2012) Psychosocial differences between smokers and non-smokers during pregnancy. Addictive Behaviors, 37, 153-159. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.08.011
[17] Health and Nutrition Research (2012) National health and nutrition research of 2013. Daiich Shuppan Co., Tokyo. (in Japanese)
[18] Levine, M.D., Marcus, M.D., Kalarchian, M.A., Houck, P.R. and Cheng, Y. (2010) Weight concerns, mood, and postpartum smoking relapse. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 39, 345-351. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2010.05.023
[19] Munafo’, M.R., Heron, J. and Araya, R. (2008) Smoking patterns during pregnancy and postnatal period and depressive symptoms. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 10, 1609-1620. doi:10.1080/14622200802412895
[20] Neuman, A., Hohmann, C., Orsini, N., Pershagen, G., Eller, E., Kjear, H.F., Gehring, U., Granell, R., Henderson, J., Heinrich, J., Lau, S., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. Sunyer, J., Tischer, C., Torrent, M., Wahn, U., Wijga, A.H., Wickman, M., Keil, T., Bergstom, A. and ENRIECO Consortium (2012) Maternal smoking in pregnancy and asthma in preschool children: A pooled analysis of eight cohorts. American Journal Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 186, 1037-1043. doi:10.1164/rccm.201203-0501OC
[21] Carey, M.P., Kalra, D.L., Carey, K.B., Halperin, S. and Richards, C.S. (1993) Stress and unaided smoking cessation: A prospective investigation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 831-838. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.61.5.831
[22] Weaver, K., Campbell, R., Mermelstein, R. and Wakschlag, L. (2008) Pregnancy smoking in context: The influence of multiple levels of stress. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 10, 1065-1073. doi:10.1080/14622200802087564
[23] Tselebis, A., Papaleftheris, E., Balis, E., Theotoka, I. and Ilias, I. (2003) Smoking related to anxiety and depression in Greek medical staff. Psychological Reports, 92, 529-532. doi:10.2466/pr0.2003.92.2.529
[24] Coleman, T., Chamberiain, C., Davey, M.A., Cooper, S.E. and Leonardi-Bee, J. (2012) Pharmacological interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CD 010078. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010078
[25] Stead, L.F., Perera, R, Bullen, C., Mant, D., HartmannBoycr, J. and Lancaster, T. (2012) Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, CD000146. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000146.pub4
[26] Duckwrth, A.L. and Chertok, I.R. (2012) Review of perinatal partner-focused smoking cessation interventions. MCN. The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 37, 174-181. doi:10.1097/NMC.0b013e31824921b4
[27] Suzuki, J., Kikuma, H., Kawaminami, K. and Shima, M. (2005) Predictors of smoking cessation during pregnancy among the women of Yamato and Ayase municipalities in Japan. Public Health, 119, 679-685. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2004.10.014
[28] Miyatake, N., Nishii, K. and Numata, T. (2011) Relationship between work style and cigarette smoking in Japanese workers. Health, 3, 537-541. doi:10.4236/health.2011.39090
[29] Kaneko, A., Kaneita, Y., Yokohama, E., Miyake, T., Harano, S., Suzuki, K., Ibuka, E., Yamaki, T., Kakajima, H. and Ohida, T. (2008) Smoking trends before, during, and after pregnancy among women and their spouses. Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society, 50, 367-375. doi:10.1111/j.1442-200X.2008.02582.x
[30] Parackal, S., Ferguson, E. and Harraway, J. (2007) Alcohol and tobacco consumption among 6 24 months postpartum New Zealand women. Maternal &Child Nutrition, 3, 40-51. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8709.2007.00064.x
[31] Wiesbeck, G.A., Kuhl, H.C., Yaldizli, O. and Wurst, F.M. (2008) Tobacco smoking and depression-results from the WHO/ISBRA study. Neuropsychobiology, 57, 26-31. doi:10.1159/000123119
[32] Arai, Y., Hosokawa, T., Fukao, A., Izumi, Y. and Hisamichi, S. (1997) Smoking behavior and personality: A population-based study in Japan. Addiction, 92, 1023-1033. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1997.tb02982.x

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.