Health> Vol.5 No.6, June 2013

Prevalence and predictors of smoking in a mining town in Kitwe, Zambia: A 2011 population-based survey

DownloadDownload as PDF (Size:54KB) Full-Text HTML PP. 1021-1025   DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.56136

ABSTRACT

Smoking is one of the major preventable causes of death and non-communicable diseases which include hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and cancers. The aim of the study is to establish prevalence and predictors of smoking so that interventions specific to these communities can be executed to prevent smoking. A cross sectional study was conducted using a modified World Health Organizations Global Non Communicable Diseases (NCD) Surveillance Initiative NCD-STEPs 1 and 2. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the determinants of tobacco smoking. A total of 1627 individuals participated in the survey, of which 42.3% were males. About half of the participants were of age 25-34 years (56.0%), and 41.7% had attained secondary level of education. Overall, 8.7% of the participants (18.1% among males and 1.8% among females) currently smoked any tobacco product. Female respondents were 71% (AOR = 0.29, 95%CI [0.21, 0.39]) less likely to smoke cigarettes compared to male respondents. Compared to respondents who had no formal education, respondents who had attained primary level of education were 45% (AOR = 1.45, 95%CI [1.02, 2.08]) more likely to smoke, and those who attained college or university level of education were 57% (AOR = 0.43, 95%CI [0.28, 0.65]) less likely to smoke. Respondents who did not consume alcohol were 50% (AOR = 0.50, 95%CI [0.41, 0.61]) less likely to smoke compared to those who consumed alcohol. The study showed that sex, education, and alcohol consumption were independently associated with Smoking. These are the key determinants which should be considered when designing a health education and awareness campaign to the residents.

KEYWORDS


Cite this paper

Zyaambo, C. , Babaniyi, O. , Songolo, P. , Muula, A. , Rudatsikira, E. and Siziya, S. (2013) Prevalence and predictors of smoking in a mining town in Kitwe, Zambia: A 2011 population-based survey. Health, 5, 1021-1025. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.56136.

References

[1] Ezzati, M., Henley, S.J., Lopez, A.D. and Thun, M.J. (2005) Role of smoking in global and regional cancer epidemiology: Current patterns and data needs. International Journal of Cancer, 116, 963-971. doi:10.1002/ijc.21100
[2] Tonstad, S. and Andrew Johnston, J. (2006) Cardiovascular risks associated with smoking: A review for clinicians. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, 13, 507-514. doi:10.1097/01.hjr.0000214609.06738.62
[3] Mathers, C.D. and Loncar, D. (2006) Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLOS Medicine, 3, Article ID: e442. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030442
[4] Ezzati, M., Lopez, A.D., Rodgers, A., Vander, S. and Murray, C.J. (2002) Major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet, 360, 1347-1360. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11403-6
[5] Lopez A.D., Mathers, C.D., Ezzati, M., Jamison, D.T. and Murray, C.J. (2006) Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: Systematic analysis of population health data. Lancet, 367, 1747-1757. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68770-9
[6] WHO (1999) Combating the tobacco epidemics: In the world health report. WHO, Geneva.
[7] Murray, C.J. and Lopez, A.D. (1997) Alternative projecttions of mortality and disability by cause 1990-2020: Global burden of disease study. Lancet, 349, 1498-1504. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)07492-2
[8] Simon, S. (2012) Tobacco atlas: Tobacco kills 6 million in 1 year. American Cancer Society, USA. http://www.cancer.org/cancer/news/tobacco-atlas-tobacco-kills-6-million-in-1-year
[9] Mackay, J. (2002) The tobacco Atlas. WHO, Geneva.
[10] CSO (2003) Central Statistics Office, Lusaka, Zambia.
[11] WHO (2003) WHO framework convention on tobacco control. WHO, Geneva.
[12] Siziya, S., Rudatsikira, E., Muula, A.S. and Ntata, P.R. (2007) Predictors of cigarette smoking among adolescents in rural Zambia: Results from a cross sectional study from Chongwe district. Rural Remote Health, 7, 728.
[13] Muula, A.S. and Siziya, S. (2007) Prevalence and determinants of ever smoked cigarettes among school-going adolescents in Lusaka, Zambia. African Health Sciences, 7, 246-252.
[14] Siziya, S., Babaniyi, O., Songolo, P. and Nsakashalo-Senkwe, M. (2011) Prevalence and correlates for tobacco smoking among persons aged 25 years or older in lusaka urban district, Zambia. Journal of public Health and Epidemiology, 3, 43-48.
[15] Nsakashalo-Senkwe, M., Siziya, S., Goma, F.M., Songolo, P., Mukonka, V. and Babaniyi, O. (2011) Combined prevalence of impaired glucose level or diabetes and its correlates in Lusaka urban district, Zambia: A population based survey. International Archives of Medicine, 4, 2. doi:10.1186/1755-7682-4-2
[16] WHO (2013) Chronic disease and health promotion, STEPS country reports. http://www.who.int/chp/steps/reports/en/index.html
[17] WHO (2012) World health statistics report. World Health Oganisation, Geneva.
[18] Zyaambo, C., Babaniyi, O., Songolo, P., Muula, A., Rudatsikira, E. and Siziya, S. (2013) Alcohol consumption and its correlates among residents of mining town, Kitwe, Zambia. AMJ, 4, 260-265.
[19] Hosseinpoor, A.R., Parker, L.A., Tursan D’Espaignet, E. and Chatterji, S. (2011) Social determinants of smoking in low- and middle-income countries: Results from the World Health Survey. PLoS One, 6, Article ID: e20331. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020331
[20] Guindond, G.E. (2003) HNP discussion paper economics of tobacco control paper No. 6 past, current and future trends in tobacco use. The World Bank, Washington DC.
[21] Lopez, A.D. and Piha, T. (1994) A descriptive model of the cigarette epidemic in developed countries. Tobacco Control, 3, 242-247. doi:10.1136/tc.3.3.242
[22] Pampel, F. (2008) Tobacco use in sub-Sahara Africa: Estimates from the demographic health surveys. Social Science & Medicine, 66, 1772-1783. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.12.003

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.