Health> Vol.5 No.3A, March 2013

Mental health in a Canadian Old Order Mennonite community

DownloadDownload as PDF (Size:608KB)  HTML    PP. 538-556  


This paper presents the results of a 2010 survey exploring the determinants of rural mental health in two farming groups in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: Old Order Mennonites (OOMs) and non-OOM farmers. Comparing these two groups reduces the likely impact of many contextual features impacting both groups, such as local economic conditions. We explore a comprehensive list of health determinants to assess their relative importance and thus enable policy action to focus on those having the greatest impact. The mental component summary (MCS) of the short- form health survey (SF-12) was used to measure mental health. We compare mental health in the two populations and use multiple regression to determine the relative importance of the determinants in explaining mental health. The results show that OOMs experience better mental health than non-OOMs, in part due to the strong mental health of OOM women. Coping, stress and social interaction shape mental health in both groups, reflecting the broader determinants literature and suggesting these are important across many populations with different life circumstances. Other determinants are important for one group but not the other, underscoring the diversity of rural populations. For example, different social capital measures shape mental health in the two groups, and sense-of-place is associated with mental health in only one group (OOMs). The results are discussed in terms of their implications for future health determinants research and policy action to address rural mental health.

Cite this paper

Fisher, K. , Newbold, K. , Eyles, J. and Elliott, S. (2013) Mental health in a Canadian Old Order Mennonite community. Health, 5, 538-556. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.53A073.


[1] Public Health Agency of Canada PHAC (2011) What determines health? Retrieved 10 September 2011.
[2] WHO (2007) Discussion paper for the commission on social determinants of health. Draft Document Dated April 2007. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
[3] Smith, B.K., Humphreys, J.S. and Wilson. M.G.A. (2008) Review article: Addressing the health disadvantage or rural populations: How does epidemiological evidence inform rural health policies and research? Australian Journal Rural Health, 16, 56-66. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1584.2008.00953.x
[4] Wilson, K., Eyles, J., Elliott, S. and Keller-Olaman, S. (2009) Health in Hamilton neighbourhoods: Exploring the determinants of health at the local level. Health and Place, 15, 374-382. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.07.002
[5] Reimer, L.M. (2008) One quilt many pieces: A guide to Mennonite groups in Canada. Herald Press, Waterloo.
[6] Maziak, W. (2009) Point-counterpoint: The triumph of the null hypothesis-epidemiology in an age of change. International Journal of Epidemiology, 38, 393-402. doi:10.1093/ije/dyn268.
[7] Rudan, I. (2006) Health effects of human population isolation and admixture. Croation Medical Journal, 47, 526531.
[8] Fryers, T., Melzer, D. and Jenkins, R. (2003) Social inequalities and the common mental disorders: A systematic review of the evidence. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38, 229-237. doi:10.1007/s00127-003-0627-2
[9] Hong, J., Martin, K. and Alistair, M. (2011) Income-related inequalities in the prevalence of depression and suicidal behaviour: A 10-year trend following economic crisis. World Psychiatry, 10, 40-44.
[10] Zhang, W., Chen, Q., McCubbin, H., McCubbin, L. and Foley, S. (2011) Predictors of mental and physical health: Individual and neighbourhood levels of education, social well-being, and ethnicity. Health and Place, 17, 238-247. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.10.008
[11] Marmot, M. and Wilkinson, R.G. (2008) Social determinants of health. 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
[12] Madden, D. (2010) Gender difference in mental wellbeing: A decomposition analysis. Social Indicators Research, 99, 101-114. doi:10.1007/s11205-009-9569-8
[13] Oksuzyan, A., Crimmins, E., Saito, Y., O’Rand, A., Vaupel, J.W. and Christensen, K. (2010) Cross-national comparison of sex differences in health and mortality in Denmark, Japan and the US. European Journal of Epidemiology, 25, 471-480. doi:10.1007/s10654-010-9460-6
[14] Ussher, J.M. (2010) Are we medicalizing women’s misery? A critical review of women’s higher rates of reported depression. Feminism and Psychology, 20, 9-35. doi:10.1177/0959353509350213
[15] Kivimaki, M., Jokela, M., Hamer, M., Geddes, J., Ebmeier, K., Kumari, M., Singh-Manoux, A., Hingorani, A. and Batty, G.D. (2011) Examining overweight and obesity as risk factors for common mental disorders using fat mass and obesity associated FTO genotype instrumented analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 173, 421429. doi:10.1093/aje/kwq444
[16] Turner, R.J. and Lloyd, D.A. (1999) The stress process and the social distribution of depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40, 374-404. doi:10.2307/2676332
[17] Thoits, P.A. (2010) Stress and health: Major findings and policy implications. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 51S, S41-S53. doi:10.1177/0022146510383499
[18] Fone, D., Dunstan, F., Lloyd, K., Williams, G., Watkins, J. and Palmer, S. (2007) Does social cohesion modify the association between area income deprivation and mental health? A multilevel analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology, 36, 338-345. doi:10.1093/ije/dym004
[19] Galea, S., Ahern, J., Nandi, A., et al. (2007) Urban neighborhood poverty and the incidence of depression in a population-based cohort study. Annals of Epidemiology, 17, 171-179. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2006.07.008
[20] Sundquist, K. and Ahlen, H. (2006) Neighbourhood income and mental health: A multilevel follow-up study of psychiatric hospital admissions among 4.5 million women and men. Health and Place, 12, 594-602. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2005.08.011
[21] Butterworth, P., Rogers, B. and Jorm, A.F. (2006) Examining geographical and household variation in mental health in Australia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 491-497. doi:10.1080/j.1440-1614.2006.01827.x
[22] Gale, C.R., Dennison, E.M., Cooper, C. and Sayer. A.A. (2011) Neighbourhood environment and positive mental health in older people: The Hertfordshire Cohort Study. Health and Place, 17, 867-874. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2011.05.003
[23] Kelly, B., Lewin, T.J., Stain, H.J., Coleman, C., Fitzgerald, M., Perkins, D., Carr, V.J., Fragar, L., Fuller, J., Lyle, D. and Beard, J.R. (2011) Determinants of mental health and well-being within rural and remote communities. Social Psychiatry Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46, 1331-1342. doi:10.1007/s00127-010-0305-0
[24] Peterson, L.E., Tsai, A.C., Petterson, S. and Litaker, D.G. (2009) Ruralurban comparison of contextual associations with self-reported mental health status. Health and Place, 15, 125-132. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.03.001
[25] Propper, C., Jones, K., Bolster, A., Burgess, S., Johnston, R. and Sarker, R. (2005) Local neighbourhood and mental health: Evidence from the UK. Social Science and Medicine, 61, 2065-2083. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.04.013
[26] Young, A.F., Russell, A. and Powers, J.R. (2004) The sense of belonging to a neighbourhood: Can it be measured and is it related to health and well being in older women? Social Science and Medicine, 59, 2627-2637. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.05.001
[27] Eyles, J.D. and Williams, A. (2008) Sense of place, health and quality of life. MPG Books Limited, Great Britain.
[28] Hay, R. (1998) Sense of place in developmental context. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18, 5-29. doi:10.1006/jevp.1997.0060
[29] Lewicka, M. (2011) Place attachment: How far have we come in the last 40 years. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 31, 207-230. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.10.001
[30] Romans, S., Cohen, M. and Forte, T. (2011) Rates of depression and anxiety in urban and rural Canada. Social Psychiatry Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46, 567-575. doi:10.1007/s00127-010-0222-2
[31] Bhandari, H. and Yasunobu, K. (2009) What is social capital: A comprehensive review of the concept. Asian Journal of Social Science, 37, 480-510. doi:10.1163/156853109X436847
[32] Giordano, G.N. and Lindstrom, M. (2010) The impact of changes in different aspects of social capital and material conditions on self-rated health over time: A longitudinal cohort study. Social Science and Medicine. 70: 700-710. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.10.044
[33] Kim, S. C. Yeonseung, M. Perry, I. Kawachi. S. Subramanian. 2012. Association between Interpersonal Trust, Reciprocity, and Depression in South Korea: A Prospective Analysis. PLoS ONE, 7, 1-8, e30602.
[34] Torche, F. and Valenzuela, E. (2011) Trust and reciprocity: A theoretical distinction of the sources of social capital. European Journal of Social Theory, 14, 181-198. doi:10.1177/1368431011403461
[35] Nieminen, T., Martelin, T., Koskinen, S., Aro, H., Alanen, E. and Hyyppa, M.T. (2010) Social capital as a determinant of self-rated health and psychological well-being. International Journal of Public Health, 55, 531-542. doi:10.1007/s00038-010-0138-3
[36] De Silva, M.J., McKenzie, K., Harpham, T. and Huttly, S.R. (2005) Social capital and mental illness: A systematic review. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 59, 619-627. doi:10.1136/jech.2004.029678
[37] Phongsavan, P., Chey, T., Bauman, A., Brooks, R. and D. Silove (2006) Social capital, socio-economic status and psychological distress among Australian adults. Social Science and Medicine, 63, 2546-2561. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.06.021
[38] Fujiwara, T. and Kawachi, I. (2008) A prospective study of individual-level social capital and major depression in the United States. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62, 627-633. doi:10.1136/jech.2007.064261
[39] Kier, F.J. and Davenport, D.S. (2004) Unaddressed problems in the study of spirituality and health. American Psychologist, 59, 53-54. doi:10.1037/0003.066X.59.1.53
[40] Koenig, H.G., McCullough, M.E. and Larson, D.B. (2001) Handbook of religion and health. Oxford University Press, New York. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195118667.001.0001
[41] Salsman, J.M., Brown, T.L., Brechting, E.H. and Carlson, C.R. (2005) The link between religion and spirituality and psychological adjustment: The mediating role of optimism and social support. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 522-535. doi:10.1177/0146167204271563
[42] Hwang, K., Hammer, J.H. and Cragun, R.T. (2011) Extending religion-health research to secular minorities: Issues and concerns. Journal of Religion Health, 50, 608622.
[43] King, M.B. and Koenig, H.G. (2009) Conceptualising spirituality for medical research and health service provision. BMC Health Services Research, 9, 1-7. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-9-116
[44] Schlehofer, M., Omoto, A.M. and Adelman, J.R. (2008) How do religion and spirituality differ? Lay definitions among older adults. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 47, 411-425. doi:10.1111/j.1468-5906.2008.00418.x
[45] Caron, J. and Liu, A. (2011) Factors associated with psychological distress in the Canadian population: A comparison of low-income and non low-income sub-groups. Community Mental Health Journal, 47, 318-330.
[46] Puffenberger, E.G. (2003) Genetic heritage of the old order mennonites of southeastern Pennsylvania. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C. Semin. Med. Genet. 121C, 18-31. doi:10.1002/ajmg.c.20003
[47] Fretz, J.W. (1989) The Waterloo mennonites: A community in paradox. Wilfred Laurier University Press, Waterloo.
[48] Bassett Jr., D.R., Tremblay, M.S., Esliger, D.W.. et al. (2007) Physical activity and body mass index of children in an old order Amish community. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39, 410-415.
[49] Esliger, D.W., Bassett Jr., D.R., Tremblay, M.S. and Copeland, J.L. (2010) Physical activity profile of old order Amish, Mennonite and contemporary children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42, 296-308. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b3afd2
[50] Tremblay, M.S., Barnes, J.D., Copeland, J.L. and Esliger, D.W. (2005) Conquering childhood inactivity: Is the answer in the past? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37, 1187-1194. doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000170079.71522.a6
[51] Hewner, S. (1998) Fertility, migration and mortality in an old order Amish community. American Journal of Human Biology, 10, 619-628. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6300(1998)10:5<619::AID-AJHB8>3.0.CO;2-8
[52] Miller, K., Yost, B., Flaherty, S., Hillemeier, M.M., Chase, G.A., Weisman, C.S. and Dyer, A.-M. (2007) Health status, health conditions, and health behaviours among Amish women: Results from the central Pennsylvania women’s health study CePAWHS. Women’s Health Issues, 17, 162-171. doi:10.1016/j.whi.2007.02.011
[53] Glick, M., Michel, A.C., Dorn, J., Horwitz, M., Rosenthal, T. and Trevisan, M. (1998) Dietary cardiovascular risk factors and serum cholesterol in an old order mennonite community. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 1202-1205.
[54] Hamman, R.F., Barancik, J.I. and Lilienfeld, A.M. (1981) Patterns of mortality in the old order Amish. American Journal of Epidemiology, 114, 845-861.
[55] Troyer, H. (1988) Review of cancer among 4 religious sects: Evidence that lifestyles are distinctive sets of risk factors. Social Science and Medicine, 26, 1007-1017. doi:10.1016/0277-9536(88)90218-3
[56] Westman, J.A., Ferketich, A.K., Kauffman, R.M., MacEachern, S.N., Wilkins, J.R., Wilcox, P.P., Pilarski, R.T., Nagy, R., Lemeshow, S., de la Chapelle, A. and Bloomfield, C.D. (2010) Low cancer incidence rates in Ohio Amish. Cancer Causes Control, 21, 69-75. doi:10.1007/s10552-009-9435-7
[57] Hsueh, W.-C., Mitchell, B.D., Schneider, J.L., St. Jean, P.L., Pollin, T.I., Ehm, M.G., Wagner, M.J., D.K., Burns, H.S., Bell, C.J. andShuldiner, A.R. (2001) Genome-Wide scan of obesity in the old order Amish. The Journal of Clinical Endrocrinology and Metabolism, 86, 1199-1205. doi:10.1210/jc.86.3.1199
[58] CIHI (Canadian Institute of Health Information) (2006) How healthy are rural Canadians? An assessment of their health status and health determinants. Prepared by Canadian Population Health Initiative part of CIHI, Public Health Agency of Canada PHAC and the Centre for Rural and Northern Health Research Laurentian University.
[59] Wang, J.L. (2004) Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of major depression and associated impairment. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39, 19-25. doi:10.1007/s00127-004-0698-8
[60] van Hoojidonk, C., Droomers, M., van Loon, J.A.M., van der Lucht, F. and Kunst, A.E. (2007) Exceptions to the rule: Healthy deprived areas and unhealthy wealthy areas. Social Science and Medicine, 64, 1326-1342. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.10.041
[61] Gingrich, L.G. and Lightman, E. (2006) Striving toward self-sufficiency: A qualitative study of mutual aid in an old order Mennonite community. Family Relations, 55, 175-189. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2006.00368.x
[62] Tönnies, F. (1887/1991) Gemeinschaft and gesellschaft: Frundbegriffe der reinen sociologie. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt.
[63] Leipert, B. and George, J. (2008) Determinants of rural women’s health: A qualitative study in southwest Ontario. The Journal of Rural Health, 24, 210-218. doi:10.1111/j.1748-0361.2008.00160.x
[64] Smithers, J. and Johnson, P. (2004) The dynamics of family farming in North Huron County, Ontario. Part I: Development trajectories. The Canadian Geographer, 48, 191-208. doi:10.1111/j.0008-3658.2004.00055.x
[65] Smithers, J., Johnson, P. and Joseph, A. (2004) The dynamics of family farming in North Huron County, Ontario. Part II: Farm-community interactions. The Canadian Geographer, 48, 209-224.
[66] Foodlink Waterloo Region (2011) Agriculture in our region: Find healthy local food in Waterloo region.
[67] Ware, Jr., J.E., Kosinski, M. and Keller, S.D. (1996) A 12-item short-form health survey: Construction of scales and preliminary tests of reliability and validity. Medical Care, 34, 220-226. doi:10.1097/00005650-199603000-00003
[68] Gill, S.C., Butterworth, P., Rodgers, B. and Mackinnon, A. (2007) Validity of the mental health component scale of the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey MCS-12 as measure of common mental disorders in the general population. Psychiatry Research, 152, 63-71.
[69] Fleishman, J.A., Selim, A.J. and Kazis, L.E. (2010) Deriving SF-12v2 physical and mental health summary scores: A comparison of different scoring algorithms. Quality of Life Research, 19, 231-241. doi:10.1007/s11136-009-9582-z
[70] Gandek, B., Ware, J.E., Aaronson, N.K., Apolone, G., Bjorner, J.B., Brazier, J.E., Bullinger, M., Kaasa, S., Leplege, A., Prieto, L. and Sullivan, M. (1998) Cross-validation of item selection and scoring for the SF-12 Health Survey in nine countries: Results from the IQOLA Project. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 51, 1171-1178. doi:10.1016/S0895-4356(98)00109-7
[71] Gandek, B.G., Ware Jr., J.E., Aaronson, N.K., Alonso, J., Apolone, G., Bjorner, J., Brazier, J., Bullinger, M., Fukuhara, S., Kaasa, S., Leplège, A. and Sullivan, M. (1998) Tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability of the SF-36 In eleven countries: Results from the IQOLA Project. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 51, 1149-1158. doi:10.1016/S0895-4356(98)00106-1
[72] Kontodimopoulos, N., Pappa, E., Niakas, D. and Tountas, Y. (2007) Validity of SF-12 summary scores in a Greek general population. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 5, 1-9.
[73] Okonkwo, O.C., Roth, D.L., Pulley, L.V. and Howard, G. (2010) Confirmatory factor analysis of the validity of the SF-12 for persons with and without a history of stroke. Quality of Life Research, 19, 1323-1331. doi:10.1007/s11136-010-9691-8
[74] Fisher, K. and Newbold, K.B. (2013) Validity of the SF-12 in a Canadian Old Order Mennonite Community. Applied Research in Quality of Life, in Press.
[75] Cohen, S. and Wills, T.A. (1985) Stress, social support and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310-357.
[76] Berkman, L. (1977) Social networks and health. University of Berkeley, Berkeley.
[77] Statistics Canada (2011) Retrieved August 31, 2011.
[78] Smith, J.P. (2009) Reconstructing childhood health histories. Demography, 46, 387-403. doi:10.1353/dem.0.0058
[79] Krieger, N. and Smith, G.D. (2004) Bodies count and body counts: Social epidemiology and embodying inequality. Epidemiological Reviews, 26, 92-103. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxh009
[80] Krieger, N. (2001) Theories for social epidemiology in the 21st century: An ecosocial perspective. International Journal of Epidemiology, 30, 668-677. doi:10.1093/ije/30.4.668
[81] Underwood, B. (2011) Daily spiritual experience scale.
[82] Krieger, N. (1999) Embodying inequality: A review of concepts, measures and methods for studying health consequences of discrimination. International Journal of Health Services, 29, 295-352. doi:10.2190/M11W-VWXE-KQM9-G97Q
[83] Ware Jr., E., Kosinski, M. and Keller, S.D. (1995) How to score the SF-12 physical and mental health summary scales. 2nd Edition, The Health Institute, Boston.
[84] Hopman, W.M., Berger, C., Joseph, L., Towheed, T., Anastassiades, T., Tenenhouse, A., Poliquin, S., Berger, C., Brown, J.P., Murray, T.M., Adachi, J.D., Hanley, D.A., Papadimitropoulos, E. and CaMos Research Group (2002) Is there regional variation in the SF-36 scores of Canadian adults. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 93, 233237.
[85] Hopman, W.M., Towheed, T., Anastassiades, T., Tenenhouse, A., Poliquin, S., Berger, C., Joseph, L., Brown, J.P., Murray, T.M., Adachi, J.D., Hanley, D.A., Papadimitropoulos, E. and the Canadian Multicentre Os-teoporosis Study Research Group (2000) Canadian normative data for the SF-36 health survey. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 163, 265-271.
[86] Statistics Canada (2011) 2006 census tables.
[87] Taft, C., Karlsson, J. and Sullivan, M. (2001) Reply to Drs War and Kosinski. Quality of Life Research, 10, 415-420. doi:10.1023/A:1012552211996
[88] Hanmer, J., Law-rence, W.F., Anderson, J.P., Kaplan, R.M. and Fryback, D.G. (2006) Report of nationally representative values for the noninstitutionalized US adult population for 7 health-related quality-of-life scores. Medical Decision Making, 26, 391-400. doi:10.1177/0272989X06290497
[89] WHO (2009) Women and health: Today’s evidence, tomorrow’s agenda. World Health Organization, Geneva.
[90] Heather, B., Skillen, L., Young, J. and Vladicka, T. (2005) Women’s gendered identities and the restructuring of rural Alberta. Sociologia Ruralis, 45, 88-97.
[91] Horst, I. (2000) A separate people: An insider’s view of old order Mennonite customs and traditions. Herald Press, Waterloo.
[92] Brint, S. (2001) Gemeinschaft revisited: A critique and reconstruction of the community concept. Sociological Theory, 19, 1-23. doi:10.1111/0735-2751.00125
[93] Stansfeld, S. (2008) Social cohesion and social support. In: Marmot, M. and Wilkinson, R.G., Eds., Social Determinants of Health, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 148-171.
[94] d’Hombres, B., Lorenzo, R., Suhrcke, M., et al. (2011) The influence of social capital on health in eight former Soviet countries: why does it differ? Journal of Epidemiology of Community Health, 65, 44-50. doi:10.1136/jech.2009.097592
[95] Poetz, A., Eyles, J.D., Elliott, S., Wilson, K. and KellerOlaman, S. (2007) Path analysis of income, coping and health at the local level in a Canadian context. Health and Social Care in the Community, 15, 542-552. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2524.2007.00715.x
[96] Frazier, P.A., Tix, A.P. and Barron, K.E. (2004) Testing moderator and mediator effects in counseling psychology research. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51,115-134. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.51.1.115
[97] Abbott, S. and Freeth, D. (2008) Social capital and health: Starting to make sense of the role of generalized trust and reciprocity. Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 874-883. doi:10.1177/1359105308095060
[98] Tilman, R. (2004) Ferdinand Tönnies, Thorstein Veblen and Karl Marx: From community to society and back? European Journal of the History of Economic Thought, 11, 579-606. doi:10.1080/0967256042000292114
[99] Adair-Toteff, C. (1995) Ferdinand Tönnies: Utopian visionary. Sociological Theory, 13, 58-65. doi:10.2307/202006
[100] Carpiano, R.M. and Hystad, P.W. (2011) Sense of belonging in health surveys: What social capital is it measuring? Health and Place, 17, 606-617. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.12.018
[101] Stain, H.J., Kelly, B., Lewin, T.J., Higginbotham, N., Beard, J.R. and Hourihan, F. (2008) Social networks and mental health among a farming population. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43, 843-849. doi:10.1007/s00127-008-0374-5
[102] Jen, M.H., Sund, E.R., Johnston, R. and Jones, K. (2010) Trustful societies, trustful individuals and health: An analysis of self-rated health and social trust using the World Values Survey. Health and Place, 16, 1022-1029. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.06.008
[103] Ferlander, S. and Makinen, I.H. (2009) Social capital, gender and self-rated health. Evidence from the Moscow Health Survey 2004. Social Science and Medicine, 69, 1323-1332.
[104] Mansyur, C., Amick, B.C., Harrist, R.B. and Franzini, L. (2008) Social capital, income inequality, and self-rated health in 45 countries. Social Science and Medicine, 66, 43-56. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.08.015
[105] Glanville, J.L. and Paxton, P. (2007) How do we learn to trust? A confirmatory tetrad analysis of the sources of generalized trust. Social Psychology Quarterly, 70, 230242. doi:10.1177/019027250707000303
[106] Kawachi, I. and Berkman, L. (2001) Social ties and mental health. Journal of Urban Health, 78, 458-467. doi:10.1093/jurban/78.3.458
[107] Marmot, M., Siegrist, J. and Theorelle, T. (2008) Health and the psychosocial environment at work. Social Determinants of Health, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 97-130.
[108] Delaney, K. (2012) Insights of the elderly. New York Times, Saturday, 11 February 2012.
[109] Pargament, K., Tarakeshwar, N., Ellison, C.G. and Wulff, K.W. (2001) Religious coping among the religious: The relationship between religious coping and well-being in a national sample of presbyterian clergy, elders and members. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40, 497513. doi:10.1111/0021-8294.00073
[110] Levin, J. (2009) How faith heals: A theoretical model. Explore, 5, 77-96. doi:10.1016/j.explore.2008.12.003
[111] Blane, D. (2008) The life course, the social gradient and health. In: Marmot, M. and Wilkinson, R.G., Eds., Social Determinants of Health, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 54-77.
[112] Sheskin, D.J. (2007) Handbook of parametric and nonparametric statistical procedures. 4th Edition, Chapman and Hall/CRC, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton.
[113] Roche, M. (2002) Rural geography: Searching rural geographies. Progress in Human Geography, 26, 823-829. doi:10.1191/0309132502ph406oa
[114] Dowbiggin, I.R. (2009) High anxieties: The social construction of anxiety disorders. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54, 429-435.
[115] Coleman, J.S. (1990) The foundations of social theory. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.