AS> Vol.3 No.5, September 2012

Influence of different levels of humic acid and esterified glucomannan on growth performance and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens

DownloadDownload as PDF (Size:284KB) Full-Text HTML PP. 663-668   DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.35080

ABSTRACT

A study was under taken to investigate the effect of dietary supplementations of humic acid and esterified glucomannan) on broiler performance and the morphological measurements of small intestine. Two hundred and ten day old broiler chicks were weighed and randomly assigned to seven treatment groups in triplicate. The dietary treatments included T1) control (basal diet without any additives), T2) basal diets supplemented with 0.1% humic acid, T3) basal diets supplemented with 0.2% humic acid, T4) basal diets supplemented with 0.3% humic acid, T5) basal diets supplemented with 0.1% esterified glucomannan, T6) basal diets supplemented with 0.2% esterified glucomannan and T7) basal diets supplemented with 0.3% esterified glucomannan. Different parameters including body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and morphology of small intestine were evaluated during six weeks of experimental period. According to the results, at the end of experimental period, the highest average BWG were recorded in T4 group (fed with 0.3% humic acid), compared to control (T1) and other experimental groups (p < 0.05). Where as, the highest body weight gain were observed during starter period in treatment 7 (fed with 0.3% esterified glucomannan) as compare to other experimental groups (p < 0.05). Statistically, feed intake remained unaffected during the experimental period in all the treatment groups. However, the lowest and the highest feed intake were observed numerically within treatments T4 and T1 with 4229.70 g and 4362.30 g, respectively. Addition of dietary supplements used in the study appeared to have significant effect on the morphology of the small intestine (jejunum mucosal development) of the broilers in different treatment groups. Compared to control group, the inclusion of either humic acid or esterified glucomannon decreased (p < 0.01) the crypt depth and increased villus height respectively (p < 0.05). More ever, the diet supplements with humic acid 0.3% (T4) decreased crypt depth compared to esterified glucomannan and control. The dietary supplementations resulted in an increase in the villus height of intestinal mucosa of broilers. The increase in the villus height was associated with improvement of growth performance for both humic acid and esterified glucomannan. Based on our results it appeared that humic acid and esterified glucomannan can be used as a growth promoter in broiler diets and they can improve the gut health too.

KEYWORDS


Cite this paper

Taklimi, S. , Ghahri, H. and Isakan, M. (2012) Influence of different levels of humic acid and esterified glucomannan on growth performance and intestinal morphology of broiler chickens. Agricultural Sciences, 3, 663-668. doi: 10.4236/as.2012.35080.

References

[1] Andremont, A. 2000. Consequences antibiotic therapy to the intestinal ecosystem. Ann.Fr.Anesth.Reanim. 19:395-402.
[2] Burgat, V. 1999. Residues of drugs of veterinary use in food. Rev. prat. 41:985-990.
[3] Maiolino, R., A. Fieretti., L. F. Menna and Meo, C. 1992. Research on the efficiency of probiotics in diets for broiler chickens. International J. of Poult. Sci. 4(7):488-492.
[4] HuminTech., 2004. Huminfeed-Tierfutterzusatze and Veterinar Medizin and Huminsaure Basierende Produkte. Humintech@Humintech GmbH, Heerdter Landstr. 189/D, D-40549 Dusseldrof, Germany, http://www.fulvic.de/049/ani mal-feeds/products/huminfeed.html http://www.fulvic.de/049 animalfeeds/products/huminfeed.html.
[5] Riede, U.N., G. Zeck-Kapp, N. Freudenberg, H.U. Keller and B. Seubert, 1991. Humate induced activation of human granulocytes. Virchows Arch B cell Pathol Incl Mol. Pathol., 60:27-34.
[6] Enviromate, T.M., 2002. Effects of humic acid on animals and humans (literature review and current research). Effects of humic acid. Environmate Inc. 8571 Boat Club Road, Forth Worth, Texas 76179. http://www.enviromateinc.com/effect sha.asp
[7] Hooge, D.M. 2004. Meta-analysis of Broiler Chicken Pen Trials Evaluating dietary Mannan Oligosaccharide. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 3:163-174.
[8] Loddi, M.M., L.S.O. Nakaghi, F. Edens,F.M. Tucci, M.I. Hannas, V.M.B. Moraes and Ariki, J. 2002. Mannoligosaccharide and organic acids on intestinal morphology integrity of broilers evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. In: Proc. 11th. European Poultry Science Conference, Bremen, Germany. September, 6-10, pp:121.
[9] Yang, H.L., H.C. Chiu and F. Lu, 1996. Effects of humic acid on the viability and coagulant properties of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Am. J. Hematol., 51: 200-206.
[10] Huck, T.A., N.porter and M.E. Bushell, 1991. Effect of humatees on microbial activity. Gen. Microbiol. 137:2321-2329.
[11] Eren, M.,G. Deniz, S.S. Gezen and. Turkmen, I. I. 2000. Broyler yemlerine katilan humatlarin besi performansi serum mineral konsantrasyonu ve kemikku lu u zerine etkileri. Ankara Univ. Vet. Fak. Derg. 47:255-263.
[12] Kocabagli, N., M. Alp, N. Acar and Kahraman, R. 2002. The effects of dietary humate supplementation on broiler growth and carcass yield. Poult. Sci. 81:227-230.
[13] Mayhew, L. 2004. Humic substances in biological agricultural system. Acers 34 (1 & 2).
[14] Celick, K., M. Denli., M. Erturk., O. Ozturkcan and Doran, F. 2008. Evaluation of dry yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae in the feed to reduce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) residues and toxicity to japonica quails (Coturnix Japonica). J. Nutri. Res., 20:245-250.
[15] Parks, C. W., J. L. Grims, P. R. Ferket and Fairchild, A. S. 2001. The effect of mannan-oligosaccharides, bambermycins and virginiamycin on performance of large white male market turkeys. Poult. Sci. 80:718-723.
[16] Raju, M.V.L.N and Dewegowda. G. 2000. Influence of esterified glucomannon on performance and organ morphology, serum biochemistry and haematology in broiler exposed to individual and combined mycotoxicosis (aflatoxin, ochratoxin and T-2 toxin). Br. Poult. Sci., 41:640-650.
[17] Spring, P., C. Wenk, K.A. Dawson and Newman K.E. 2000. The effect of dietary mannon oligosaccharides on caecal parameters and the concentrations of enteric bacteria in the ceca challenged broiler chickens. Poult.Sci., 79:205-211.14.
[18] Iji, P. A., ., R. J, Hughes ., M , Choct and Tivey , D. R. 2001. Intestinal structure and functional of broiler chicks on wheat based diets supplemented with a microbial enzyme. Asian-Australian J. Anim. Sci. 14:54-60.
[19] SAS Institute. 1998. SAS User,s Guide: Version 9.1 ed. SAS Institute Inc.,Cary, Nc.
[20] Basiri, A., 2006. Experimental Analysis in Agricultural Science. Shiraz Univ. Publications. (Persian version)
[21] Gao, J, H. J. Zhang, S.H.Yu, S.G. Wu, I. Yoon, J. Quigley , Y.P.Gao and Qi, G. H. 2008. Effect of yeast culture in broiler diets on performance and immunomodulatory functions. Poult. Sci. 87: 1377-1384.
[22] Yoruk, M. A. M. Gu, A. Hayirli and Macit, M. 2004. Effects of supplementation of humate and probiotic on egg production and quality parameters during the late laying period in hens. Poult. Sci. 83:84-88.
[23] Rath, N. C., W. E. Huff and Huff, G. R. 2006. Effect of humic acid on broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 85:410-414.
[24] Oyofo, B.A., J.R. Deloach, D.E. Corrier, J.O. Norman, R.L.Ziprin and Mollenhauer, H.H. 1989. Prevention of Salmonella typhimurium colonization of broilers with D-mannose. Poult. Sci., 68:1357-1360.
[25] Savage, T. F., H. S. Nakaue and Holms, Z. A. 1985. Effects of feeding live yeast culture on market turkey performance and cooked meat characteristics. Nutri. Rep. Int. 31:695-703.
[26] Schepetkin, I. A., A. I. Khlebnikov, S. Y. Ah, S. B. Woo, C. S. Jeong, O.N. Klubachuk and Kwon, B. S. 2003. Characterization and biological activities of humic substances from mumie. J. Agri. Food Chem. 51:5245-5254.
[27] Santin, E., A. Maiorka, M. Macari, M. Grecco, T. M. Okada and Myasaka, A. M. 2001. Performance and intestinal mucosa development of broiler chickens fed diets containing Saccahromyces cerevisiae cell wall. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 10:236-244.
[28] Zhang, A. W., B. D. Lee, S. K. Lee, G. H. An, K. B. Song and Lee, C. H. 2005. Effects of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell components on growth performance, meat quality and ileal mucosa development of broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 84:1015-1021.
[29] Shermer, C. L., K. G. Maciorowski, C. A. Baily, F. M. Byers and Ricke, S. 1998. Caecal metabolites and microbial populations in chickens consuming diets containing a mined humate compound. J. Sci. Food Agri. 77: 479-486.
[30] Hampson, D. J. 1986. Alterations in piglet small intestinal structure at weaning. Res. Vet. Sci. 40:32-40.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.