Share This Article:

MRR Improvement in Sinking Electrical Discharge Machining: A Review

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:339KB) PP. 709-739
DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2010.98051    19,941 Downloads   36,317 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is one of the earliest non-traditional machining processes. EDM process is based on thermoelectric energy between the workpiece and an electrode. Material removal rate (MRR) is an important performance measure in EDM process. Since long, EDM researchers have explored a number of ways to improve and optimize the MRR including some unique experimental concepts that depart from the traditional EDM sparking phenomenon. Despite a range of different approaches, all the research work in this area shares the same objectives of achieving more efficient material removal coupled with a reduction in tool wear and improved surface quality. The paper reports research on EDM relating to improvement in MRR along with some insight into mechanism of material removal. In the end of the paper scope for future research work has been outlined.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

K. Ojha, R. Garg and K. Singh, "MRR Improvement in Sinking Electrical Discharge Machining: A Review," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 9 No. 8, 2010, pp. 709-739. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2010.98051.

References

[1] Ho, K.H., Newman, S.T., 2003 “State of the art electrical discharge machining (EDM)”, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 43, 1287–1300.
[2] Kansal, H.K., Singh, P, Kumar, P., 2007, “Technology and research developments in powder mixed electric discharge machining (PMEDM)”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 184, 32–41.
[3] Abu Zeid, O.A., 1997, “On the effect of electro-discharge machining parameters on the fatigue life of AISI D6 tool steel”. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 68 (1), 27–32.
[4] Ramasawmy, H., Blunt L., 2004 “Effect of EDM process parameters on 3D surface topography”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 148,155–164.
[5] Rudorff, D.W., 1961 “Spark machining and its development”, Metal Treatment and Drop Forging, 28 (186), 120–124.
[6] Pandey, P.C.; Shan, H.S. Modern Machining Process. Tata McGraw- Hill Publishing Company Ltd 1999, 84-113.
[7] Smith, G.V., 1961, “Spark machining – fundamental and techniques. J Br Inst Radio Eng, 22, 409.
[8] Luis, C.J., Puertas, I., Villa, G., 2005 “Material removal rate and electrode wear study on the EDM of silicon carbide”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 164–165, 889–896.
[9] Schumacher, B.M., 2004 “After 60 years of EDM, the discharge process remains still disputed. Journal of Materials Processing Technology”, 149, 376–381.
[10] Singh, S., Maheshwari, S., Pandey, P.C., 2004 “Some investigations into the electric discharge machining of hardened tool steel using different electrode materials”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 149, 272–277.
[11] Bojorquez, B., Marloth, R.T., Es-Said, O.S., 2002 “Formation of a crater in the workpiece on an electrical discharge machine”, Engineering Failure Analysis, 9, 93–97.
[12] Marafona, J.; Chousal, A.G., 2006 “A finite element model of EDM based on the Joule effect”, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 46 (6), 595-602.
[13] Kuneida, M., Lauwers, B., Rajurkar, K.P., Schumacher, B.M., 2005 “Advancing EDM through fundamental insight into the process”, Annals of CIRP, 54 (2), 599–622.
[14] Altpeter, F., Perez, R., 2004 “Relevant topics in wire electrical discharge machining Control”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 149, 1-3, 147-151.
[15] McGeough, J.A. Advanced Methods of Machining. 1st ed. Chapman and Hall, USA, 1988, ISBN 0- 412-31970-5.
[16] Zingerman, A.S., 1956 “Propagation of a discharge column”. Soviet Physics-Technical Physics, 1(1), 5, 992-996.
[17] Snoeys, R., Van Dijck, F., 1971, “Investigations of EDM operations by means of thermo mathematical models”, Annals of the CIRP, 20, 35-36.
[18] Snoeys, R., Van Dijck, F., 1972, “Plasma channel diameter growth affects stock removal in EDM”, Annals of the CIRP, 21, 39-40.
[19] Eckman P.K., Williams E.M., 1960, “Plasma dynamics in arc formed by low-voltage spark over of a liquid dielectric”, Appl. Sci. Res., Section B, 8, 299-320.
[20] Ikeda, M., 1972, “The Movement of a bubble in the gap depending on the single electrical discharge (1st report)”, J. JSEME, 6, 11, 12-25 (in Japanese).
[21] Zolotykh, B.N., 1959 “The mechanism of electrical erosion of metals in liquid dielectric media. Soviet Physics-Technical Physics, 4, 12, 1370-1373.
[22] Hockenberry T.O., Williams E.M., 1967, “Dynamic evolution of events accompanying the low-voltage discharge employed in EDM”, IEEE Trans. on Industry and General Applications, IGA-3, 4, 302-309.
[23] Rajurkar, K.P., 1994, Handbook of Design, Manufacturing and Automation, ISBN- 0471552186 Chapter 13: Nontraditional Manufacturing Processes, Wiley, USA.
[24] Pandit, S.M., Mueller, T.M., 1987 “Verification of on-line computer control of EDM by data dependent systems”, J. Eng. Ind., 109, 109–121.
[25] Lin, C.L., Lin, J.L., Ko, T.C., 2002, “Optimization of the EDM process based on the orthogonal array with fuzzy logic and grey relational analysis method”, International Journal of Advance Manufacturing Technology, 19 (4), 271–277.
[26] Lin, J.L., Wang, K.S., Yan, B.H., Tarng, Y.S., 2000, “Optimization of the electrical discharge machining process based on the Taguchi method with fuzzy logics”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 102, 48–55.
[27] Tzeng, Y.F., Chen, F.C., 2003, “A simple approach for robust design of high-speed electrical discharge machining technology”, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 43(3), 217–227.
[28] Marafona, J., Wykes, C., 2000, “A new method of optimizing material removal rate using EDM with copper tungsten electrodes”, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 40(2), 153–164.
[29] Lonardo, P.M., Bruzzone, A., 1999, “Effect of flushing and electrode material on die sinking EDM”, CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, 48 (1), 123– 126.
[30] Wong, Y.S., Lim, L.C., Lee, L.C., 1995, “Effect of flushing on electro-discharge machined surfaces”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 48, 299–305.
[31] Anonymous, 1982, “Dielectric Fluids for Electro discharge Machining”, British Petroleum Company, UK.
[32] Guu, Y.H., Hocheng, H., 2001, “Effects of workpiece rotation on machinability during electrical discharge machining”, Journal of Material and Manufacturing Processes, 16 (1), 91–101.
[33] Soni, J.S., Chakraverty, G., 1994, “Machining characteristics of titanium with rotary electro-discharge machining”, Wear, 171, 51–58.
[34] Yan, B.H., Wang, C., Liu, W.D., Huang, F.Y., 2000 “Machining characteristics of Al2 O3/6061Al composite using rotary EDM with a disklike electrode”, International Journal of AdvanceManufacturing Technology, 16 (5), 322–333.
[35] Kagaya, K., Oishi, Y., Yada, K., 1986, “Micro-electro discharge machining using water as a working fluid—I: micro-hole drilling”, Precision Eng., 8 (3), 157–162.
[36] Sato, T., Mizutani, T., Yonemochi, K., Kawata, K., 1986, “The development of an electro discharge machine for micro-hole boring”, Precision Engineering, 8 (3), 163–168.
[37] Soni, J.S., Chakraverti, G., 1996, “Experimental investigation on migration of material during EDM of T 215 Cr12 die steel”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 56, 439–451.
[38] Roethel, F., Kosec, L., Garbajs, V., 1976, “Contributions to the micro-analysis of spark eroded surfaces”, Annals of the CIRP, 25 (1), 135–140.
[39] Erden, A., 1983, “Effect of materials on the mechanism of electric discharge machining (EDM)”, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 105, 132–138.
[40] Bayramoglu, M., Duffill, A.W., 1995, “Manufacturing linear and circular contours using CNC EDM and frame type tools”, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 35(8), 1125–1136.
[41] Bayramoglu, M., Duffill, A.W., 1992, “Production of three dimensional shapes using computational electrical discharge machining”, In Proc. Int. M.T.D.R. conf., pp 107-112.
[42] Saito, K., Kishinami, T., Konno, H., Sato, M., Takeyama, H., 1986, “Development of numerical contouring control electrical discharge machining (NCC-EDM)”, Ann. CIRP, 35 (1), 117–120.
[43] Kaneko, T., Tsuchiya, M., 1984, “Three dimensionally controlled EDM using cylindrical electrode”, J. Japan Soc. Electr. Machining Eng., 18 (35), 1–4.
[44] Mohri, N., Suzuki, M., Furuya, M., Saito, N., 1995, “Electrode wear process in electrical discharge machining”, Ann. CIRP, 44 (1), 165–168.
[45] Snoeys, R., Staelens, F., Dekeyser, W., 1986, “Current trends in non-conventional machining techniques”, Ann. CIRP, 35 (2), 467– 480.
[46] Staelens, F., Kruth, J.P., 1989, “A computer integrated machining strategy for planetary EDM”, Ann. CIRP, 38 (1), 187–190.
[47] Schumacher, B.M., 1983, “EDM technology for precision workpieces with excellent surface quality”, Proceedings of the ISEM-7, 124–135.
[48] Dijck, F.V. Physico-mathematical analysis of the electro dicharge machining process. Ph.D. Thesis Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven. Around 1972.
[49] Dibitonto, D.D., Eubank, P.T., Patel, M.R., Barrufet, M.A., 1989, “Theoretical models of the electrical discharge machining process- 1: a simple cathode erosion model”, Journal of Applied Physics, 66, 4095- 4103.
[50] Patel, M. R., Barrufet, M.A., Eubank, P.T., Dibitonto, D.D., 1989 “Theoretical models of the electrical discharge machining process- II: the anode erosion model”, Journal of Applied Physics, 66, 4104-4111.
[51] Eubank P.T., Patel M.R., Barrufet M.A., Bozhurt B., 1993, “Theoretical models of the electrical discharge machining process- III: The variable mass, cylindrical plasma model”, Journal of applied physics, 73 (1), 11, 7900-7909.
[52] Singh, A., Ghosh, A., 1999, “A thermo-electric model of material removal during electric discharge machining”, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 39 (4), 669–682.
[53] Gangadhar, A., Sunmugam, M.S., Philip, P.K., 1992, “Pulse train studies in EDM with controlled pulse relaxation”, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 32 (5), 651–657.
[54] Gadalla, A.M., Tsai, W., 1989, “Machining of WC–Co composites”, Mater. Manuf. Processes, 4 (3), 411– 423.
[55] Lee, T.C., Lau, W.S., 1991, “Some characteristics of electrical discharge machining of conductive ceramics”, Mater. Manuf. Processes, 6 (4), 635–648.
[56] Soni J.S., Chakraverti, G., 1990 “Production of surface finish and accuracies with rotating electrode in electro-discharge machining”, Proc. Conf. 14th AIMTDR, IIT Bombay, 297.
[57] Soni, J.S., Chakraverti, G., 1990, “Physico-mechanical effect on electro-discharge machined surface of high carbon high chromium die steel”, J of Inst. of Engineers (India), PR, Vol. 71, July, p.19.
[58] Soni, J.S., Chakraverti G., 1991, “Micro examination of craters and debris formed on EDM surfaces”, J of Metals, Materials and Processes, 3, 3, 177.
[59] Soni, J.S., Chakraverti, G., 1990, “Cracking behavior of high carbon high chromium tool steel duringEDM-a study”, Proc. Conf. 14th AIMTDR, IIT, Bombay, p. 263.
[60] Ayers, J.D., Moore Kathy, 1984, “Formation of metal carbide powder by spark machining of reactive metals”, Metallurgical Transactions, 15A, 1117.
[61] Koshy George, Philip, P.K., Geddam A., 1981 “Hardening of surface layers using electric discharge techniques”, Proc. Conf. llth AIMTDR, IIT, Madras, p. 315.
[62] Pandey, P.C., Jilani, S.T., 1986, “Plasma channel growth and the re solidified layer in EDM”, Prec. Eng., 8, 2, p. 104
[63] Gupta, R.P. “A study of the isopulse spark eroded surfaces of some tool steels. Proc. Conf. 10th AIMTDR, U.K., 1982, p. 351.
[64] Crookall J.R.; Khor, B.C. “Residual Stresses and surface effects in electro-discharge machining. Proc. Conf. 13th IMTDR, 1972, p. 331.
[65] Gangadhar, A.; Shunmugam M.S.; Philip, P.K., 1991, “Surface modification in electro discharge processing with a powder compact tool electrode. Wear, 143, 1, p. 45.
[66] Bayramoglu, M.; Duffill, A.W., 2004, “CNC EDM of linear and circular contours using plate tools”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 148, 196–203.
[67] Wang, C.C., Yan, B.H., 2000, “Blind-hole drilling of Al2O3/6061Al composite using rotary electro-discharge machining”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 102, 90–102.
[68] Mohan B., Rajadurai A., Satyanarayan K.G., 2002, “Effect of SiC and rotation of electrode on electric discharge machining of Al-SiC composite”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 124, 297–304.
[69] Mohan B., Rajadurai A., Satyanarayana K.G., 2004, “Electric discharge machining of Al–SiC metal matrix composites using rotary tube electrode”. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 153–154, 978–985.
[70] Sohani, M.S., Gaitonde, V.N., Siddeswarappa, B, Deshpande, A.S., 2009, “Investigations into the effect of tool shapes with size factor consideration in sink electrical discharge machining (EDM) process”, International Journal of Advance Manufacturing Technology, 45, 1131–1145.
[71] Kansal, H.K., Singh, S., Kumar, P., 2005, “Application of Taguchi method for optimization of powder mixed electric discharge machining”, International Journal of Management and Manufacturing Technology, 7, 329–341, Nos. 2/3/4.
[72] Singh, S., Kansal, H.K., Kumar, P., 2005, “Parametric optimization of powder mixed electrical discharge machining by response surface methodology”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 169 (3), 427– 436.
[73] De Bruyn, H.E., 1970, “Some aspects of the influence of gap flushing on the accuracy in finishing by spark erosion”, Annals of the CIRP, 18, 147-151.
[74] Masuzawa, T., Cui X., Taniguchi, N., 1992 “Improved jet flushing for EDM”, Annals of the CIRP, 41/1, 239-242.
[75] Konig, W., Weill, R., Wertheim, R., Jutzler, W.I., 1977, “The flow fields in the working gap with electro-discharge-machining”. Annals of the CIRP, 25(1), 71-76.
[76] Guo, Z.N., Lee, T.C., Yue, T.M., Lau, W.S., 1997 “A study of ultrasonicaided wire electrical discharge machining”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 63, 823–828.
[77] Ghoreishi, M., Atkinson, J., 2002, “A comparative experimental study of machining characteristics in vibratory, rotary and vibro-rotary electro-discharge machining”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 120, 374–384.
[78] Zhang, Q.H., Du, R., Zhang, J.H., Zhang, Q., 2006, “An investigation of ultrasonic-assisted electrical discharge machining in gas”, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 46, 1582–1588.
[79] Gunawan S, Prihandana, Hamdi, M., Wong, Y.S., Mitsui, K., 2006 “Effect of vibrated electrode in electrical discharge machining”, Proceedings of the First International Conference and Seventh AUN/SEED-Net Fieldwise Seminar on Manufacturing and Material Processing, 14–15 March 2006, Kuala Lumpur, pp. 133–138.
[80] Han, F., Wang, Y., Zhou, M., 2009 “High-speed EDM milling with moving electric arcs”, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 49, 20–24
[81] Aspinwall, D.K., Dewes, R.C., Burrows, J.M., Paul, M.A., 2001 Hybrid high speed machining (HSM): system design and experimental results for grinding/HSM and EDM/HSM. Ann. CIRP, 50 (1), 145–148.
[82] Suzuki, K., Uematsu, T., Asano, S., Yanase, T., Sakai, S., Ohkawa, K., 1988, Electro discharge machining on a machining centre, Research an Technological Developments in Nontraditional machining ASME, Winter Annual Meeting of the ASME, Chicago, IL, USA, PED-34, 1-5.
[83] Altan, T., Lilly, B.W., Kruth, J.P., Konig, W., Tonshoff, H.K., Van Luttervelt, C.A., Khairy, A.B., 1993, “Advanced techniques for die and mold manufacturing”, Annals of the CIRP, 42(2), 707-716.
[84] Xu, M.G.; Zhang, J.H.; Yule; Zhang, Q.H.; Ren, S.F., 2009 “Material removal mechanisms of cemented carbides machined by ultrasonic vibration assisted EDM in gas medium”, Journal of materials processing technology, 209, 1742–1746.
[85] Zhao, W.S., Meng, Q.G., Wang, Z. L. 2002, “The application of research on powder mixed EDM in rough machining”, Journal of materials processing technology, 129, 30–33.
[86] Tzeng, Y.F., Lee, C.Y., 2001, “Effects of powder characteristics on electro discharge machining efficiency”, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 17, 586–592.
[87] Wong, Y.S., Lim, L.C., Rahuman, I., Tee, W.M., 1998, “Near-mirror-finish phenomenon in EDM using powder-mixed dielectric”, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 79, 30–40.
[88] Furutani, K., Saneto, A., Takezawa, H., Mohri, N., Miyake, H., 2001, “Accretion of titanium carbide by electrical discharge machining with powder suspended in working fluid”, Precis. Eng., 25, 138–144.
[89] Erden, A., Bilgin, S., 1980, “Role of impurities in electric discharge machining”, in: Proceedings of 21st International Machine Tool Design and Research Conference, Macmillan, London, 1980, pp.345–350.
[90] Jeswani, M.L., 1981, “Effects of the addition of graphite powder to kerosene used as the dielectric fluid in electrical discharge machining”, Wear, 70, 133–139.
[91] Yan, B.H., Chen, S.L., 1993, “Effects of dielectric with suspended aluminum powder on EDM”, J. Chin. Soc.Mech. Eng., 14 (3), 307–312.
[92] Yan, B.H., Chen, S.L., 1994, “Characteristics of SKD11 by complex process of electric discharge machining using liquid suspended with aluminum powder”, Jpn. Inst. Light Met., 58 (9) 1067–1072.
[93] Yan, B.H., Chen, S.L., 1994, “Effect of ultrasonic vibration on electrical discharge machining characteristics of Ti–6Al–4V alloy”, J. Jpn. Inst. Light Met., 44 (5), 281–285.
[94] Ming, Q.Y., He, L.Y., 1995, “Powder-suspension dielectric fluid for EDM”, Journal of materials processing technology, 52, 44–54.
[95] Yu, C.P., Chen, W.C., Chang, S.W., Chang, C.C., 1996, “Effects of the concentration of suspended aluminum powder in dielectric fluid on EDM of carbide of tungsten’s”, in: Proceedings of the 13th conference of Chinese Society of Mechanical Engineers, Taiwan, pp. 445–450.
[96] Wang, C.H., Lin, Y.C., Yan, B.H., Huang, F.Y., 2001, “Effect of characteristics of added powder on electric discharge machining”, J. Jpn. Inst. Light Met., 42 (12), 2597–2604.
[97] Tani, T., Fukazawa, F., Mohri, N., Okada, M., 2001, “Machining phenomena in EDM of insulating ceramics using powder suspended working oil”, In: 12th ISEM Bilbao, pp. 388–392.
[98] Rozenek, M., Kozak, J., Dabrowski, L., 2001, “Study of electrical discharge machining using powder suspended working media”, In: 12th ISEM Bilbao, pp. 351–357.
[99] Pecas, P., Henriques, E.A., 2002, “Emerging technologies in penetration EDM”, O Molde, 55, 26–36.
[100] Kunieda, M., Yoshida, M., 1997, “Electrical discharge machining in gas”, CIRP Annals –Manufacturing Technology”, 46(1), 143-146
[101] Kunieda, M., Furuoya, S., Taniguchi, N., 1991, “Improvement of EDM efficiency by supplying oxygen gas into gap”, CIRP Annals—Manufacturing Technology, 40, 215–218.
[102] Kunieda, M., Miyoshi, Y., Takaya, T., Nakajima, N., Bo, Y.Z., Yoshida, M., 2003, “High speed 3D milling by dry EDM”, CIRP Annals—Manufacturing Technology, 52, 147–150.
[103] Yu, Z.B., Jun, T., Masanori K., 2004, “Dry electrical discharge machining of cemented carbide”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 149, 353–357.
[104] Zhang, Q.H., Zhang, J.H., Deng, J.X., Qin, Y., Niu, Z.W., 2002, “Ultrasonic vibration electrical discharge machining in gas”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 129, 135–138.
[105] Jeswani M.L., 1981, “Electrical discharge machining in distilled water”, Wear, 72, 81–88.
[106] Tariq Jilani, S., Pandey, P.C., 1984, “Experimental investigations into the performance of water as dielectric in EDM”, International Journal of Machine Tool Design and Research, 24, 31–43.
[107] Konig, W., Siebers F.J., 1993, “Influence of the working medium on the removal process in EDM sinking”, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Production Engineering Division (Publication) PED, 64, 649–658.
[108] Chen, S.L., Yan, B.H., Huang, F.Y., 1999, “Influence of kerosene and distilled water as dielectric on the electric discharge machining characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 87, 107–111.
[109] Kunieda, M., Muto, H., 2000, “Development of multi-spark EDM”, Ann. CIRP, 49 (1), 119–122.
[110] Mohri, N., Saito, N., Takawashi, T., Kobayashi, K., 1985 “Mirror-like finishing by EDM”, Proc. of the 25th MTDR Conf., 329–336
[111] Suzuki, K., Mohri, N., Uematsu, T., Nakagawa, T., 1985, “ED truing method with twin electrodes”, Preprint of Autumn Meeting of JSPE 1985, 575-578 (in Japanese).
[112] Kubota, M., Tamura, Y., Okita, T., 1989 “Electrocontact discharge dressing of metal bonded diamond grinding wheels using twin electrode system”, Proc. of ISEM 9, pp. 22–25
[113] Chen, S.L., Lin, M.H., Hsieh, S.F., Chiou. S.Y., 2008, “The characteristics of cutting pipe mechanism with multi-electrodes in EDM”, Journal of materials processing technology, 203, 461– 464.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.