Improved Attentional Performance Following Citicoline Administration in Healthy Adult Women

Download Download as PDF (Size:80KB)  HTML    PP. 769-773  
DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.36103    4,739 Downloads   11,028 Views   Citations


Objectives: The present study assessed the potential cognitive-enhancing effects of citicoline, a dietary supplement, in healthy adult women. Specifically, it was hypothesized that citicoline supplementation would be associated with improved attention compared to placebo. Methods: The investigation was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled three-arm study. Sixty healthy adult women ages 40 - 60 completed a clinical screening visit, including a medical exam. After study enrollment each subject was randomly assigned to one of three groups: a daily oral dose of 250 mg citicoline, 500 mg citicoline, or placebo for 28 days. Participants were evaluated with the Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II), a measure sensitive to attentional function, during a baseline visit and 28 days after baseline. Results: All 60 participants were included in the analyses, which included an ANOVA with Tukey’s post-hoc tests and t-tests. After 28 days of supplementation, individuals in the 250 mg group made fewer omission (p = 0.04) and commission (p = 0.03) errors compared to those in the placebo group. Individuals in the 500 mg group made significantly fewer commission errors compared to those in the placebo group (p = 0.03) and trended toward making fewer omission errors (p = 0.07). Conclusion: After 28 days of daily citicoline supplementation, participants who were administered either the 250 mg or the 500 mg citicoline doses showed significantly better ability to produce correct responses on the CPT-II, likely due to improved cognitive inhibition. Our findings suggest that citicoline may improve attentional performance in middle-aged women and may ameliorate attentional deficits associated with central nervous system disorders.

Cite this paper

E. McGlade, A. Locatelli, J. Hardy, T. Kamiya, M. Morita, K. Morishita, Y. Sugimura and D. Yurgelun-Todd, "Improved Attentional Performance Following Citicoline Administration in Healthy Adult Women," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 6, 2012, pp. 769-773. doi: 10.4236/fns.2012.36103.


[1] R. Ozay, et al., “Citicoline Improves Functional Recovery, Promotes Nerve Regeneration, and Reduces Postoperative Scarring after Peripheral Nerve Surgery in Rats,” Surgical Neurology, Vol. 68, No. 6, 2007, pp. 615-622. doi:10.1016/j.surneu.2006.12.054
[2] V. Parisi, et al., “Evidence of the Neuroprotective Role of Citicoline in Glaucoma Patients,” Progress in Brain Research, 173, 2008, pp. 541-554.
[3] J. J. Secades and J. L. Lorenzo, “Citicoline: Pharmacological and Clinical Review, 2006 Update,” Methods & Findings in Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology, 28 Suppl B, 2006, pp. 1-56.
[4] R. Conant and A. G. Schauss, “Therapeutic Applications of Citicoline for Stroke and Cognitive Dysfunction in the Elderly: A Review of the Literature,” Alternative Medicine Review, 9, No.1, 2004, pp. 17-31.
[5] I. H. Ulus, et al., “Choline Increases Acetylcholine Release and Protects against the Stimulation-Induced Decrease in Phosphatide Levels within Membranes of Rat Corpus Striatum,” Brain Research, 1 484, No. 1-2, 989, pp. 217-227.
[6] R. J. Wurtman, et al., “Effect of Oral CDP-Choline on Plasma Choline and Uridine Levels in Humans,” Biochemical Pharmacology, 60, No. 7, 2000, pp. 989-992. doi:10.1016/S0006-2952(00)00436-6
[7] S. M. Babb, et al., “Differential Effect of CDP-Choline on Brain Cytosolic Choline Levels in Younger and Older Subjects as Measured by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy,” Psychopharmacology, 127, No. 2, 1996, pp. 88-94. doi:10.1007/BF02805979
[8] S. M. Babb, et al., “Chronic Citicoline Increases Phosphodiesters in the Brains of Healthy Older Subjects: An in Vivo Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study,” Psychopharmacology, 161, No. 3, 2002, pp. 248-254. doi:10.1007/s00213-002-1045-y
[9] M. M. Silveri, et al., “Citicoline Enhances Frontal Lobe Bioenergetics as Measured by Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy,” NMR in Biomedicine, 21, No. 10, 2008, pp. 1066-1075. doi:10.1002/nbm.1281
[10] J. Agut, J. Ortiz and R. Wurtman, “Cytidine (5')Diphosphocholine Modulates Dopamine K(+)-Evoked Release in Striatum Measured by Microdialysis,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 920, 2000, pp. 332335. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2000.tb06944.x
[11] A. Davalos and J. Secades, “Citicoline Preclinical and Clinical Update 2009-2010,” Stroke, 42, No. 1, 2011, pp. S36-S39. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.605568
[12] A. Agnoli, G. Bruno and M. Fioravanti, “Therapeutic Approach to Senile Memory Impairment: A Double-Blind Clinical Trial with CDP Choline,” Alzheimer’s Disease: Proceedings of the 5th Meeting of the International Study Group on the Pharmacology of Memory Disorders Associated with Aging, Birkhauser, Boston, 1989.
[13] G. Hochanadel and E. Kaplan, “Neuropsychology of Normal Aging, in Clinical Neurology of Aging,” In: M. Albert, Ed., Oxford University Press, New York, 1984, pp. 231-244.
[14] J. McDowd and J. Birren, “Aging and Attentional Processes, in Handbook of the Psychology of Aging,” In: J. Birren and K. Schaie, Eds., Academic Press, San Diego, 1990, pp. 222-233.
[15] D. J. Madden, et al., “Age-Related Changes in Neural Activity during Visual Target Detection Measured by fMRI,” Cerebral Cortex, 14, 2004, pp. 143-155. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhg113
[16] J. G. Vaidya, et al., “Aging, Grey Matter, and Blood Flow in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex,” Neuroimage, 37, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1346-1353. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.06.015
[17] J. V. Pardo, et al., “Where the Brain Grows Old: Decline in Anterior Cingulate and Medial Prefrontal Function with Normal Aging,” Neuroimage, 35, No. 3, 2007, pp. 1231-1237. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.12.044
[18] M. W. Willis, et al., “Age, Sex and Laterality Effects on Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Adults,” Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging, 114, No. 1, 2002, pp. 23-37. doi:10.1016/S0925-4927(01)00126-3
[19] W. L. Whiting, D. J. Madden and K. J. Babcock, “Overriding Age Differences in Attentional Capture with Top-Down Processing,” Psychology and Aging, 22, No. 2, 2007, pp. 223-232. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.22.2.223
[20] D. H. Spieler, D. A. Balota and M. E. Faust, “Stroop Performance in Healthy Younger and Older Adults and in Individuals with Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 22, No. 2, 1996, pp. 461-479. doi:10.1037/0096-1523.22.2.461
[21] C. K. Conners, et al., “Continuous Performance Test Performance in a Normative Epidemiological Sample,” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, No. 5, 2003, pp. 555-562. doi:10.1023/A:1025457300409
[22] J. N. Epstein, et al., “Relations between Continuous Performance Test Performance Measures and ADHD Behaviors,” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, No. 5, 2003, pp. 543-554. doi:10.1023/A:1025405216339
[23] C. K. Conners, “The Conners Continuous Performance Test,” Multi-Health Systems, Inc., Toronto, 1994.
[24] N. D. Volkow, et al., “Association between Decline in Brain Dopamine Activity with Age and Cognitive and Motor Impairment in Healthy Individuals,” American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, No. 3, 1998, pp. 344-349.
[25] A. Nieoullon, “Dopamine and the Regulation of Cognition and Attention,” Progress in Neurobiology, 67, No. 1, 2002, pp. 53-83. doi:10.1016/S0301-0082(02)00011-4
[26] J. O. Rinne, et al., “Cognitive Impairment and the Brain Dopaminergic System in Parkinson Disease,” Archives of Neurology, 57, No. 4, 2000, pp. 470-475. doi:10.1001/archneur.57.4.470
[27] R. Rejdak, et al., “Citicoline Treatment Increases Retinal Dopamine Content in Rabbits,” Ophthalmic Research, 34, No. 3, 2002, pp. 146-149. doi:10.1159/000063658
[28] R. Giménez, J. Ra?ch and J. Aguilar, “Changes in Brain Striatum Dopamine and Acetylcholine Receptors Induced by Chronic CDP-Choline Treatment of Aging Mice,” British Journal of Pharmacology, 104, No. 3, 1991, pp. 575-578. doi:10.1080/10623320600934341
[29] K. Radad, et al., “CDP-Choline Reduces Dopaminergic Cell Loss Induced by MPP+ and Glutamate in Primary Mesencephalic Cell Culture,” International Journal of Neuroscience, 117, No. 7, 2007, pp. 985-998.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.