JBBS> Vol.2 No.1, February 2012
Views: 9,137    Downloads: 2,779

Clinical Validation of Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery in a Norwegian Epilepsy Population

DownloadDownload as PDF (Size:154KB) Full-Text HTML PP. 108-116   DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.21013

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Semi-automatic neuropsychological testing has gained a position both in clinical use and in research. Comparison studies with traditional neuropsychological tests are sparse and the role of such semi-automated testing is debated. To integrate semi-automated neuropsychological testing in the established clinical setting the tests must be validated in the patient groups addressed. The aim of this study was to validate Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery (CANTAB) in patients with epilepsy. Material and Methods: Patients scheduled for traditional neuropsychological testing with Category test (CT), Trail Making Test part B (TMT-B), WAIS-III and WMS-R were also asked to complete the CANTAB battery. Our hypothesis was that memory tests from CANTAB (DMS, PAL) would correlate with visual memory tests from WMS-R and that a test of executive functions from CANTAB (SOC) would correlate with functions tested with TMT-B, CT and WAIS-III. Results: Scores from DMS correlated strongly with Visual Paired Associations 1 from WMS-R. From SOC results correlated both with Visual Paired Association 1 & 2, General Memory Index and Full Scale IQ. Results from PAL correlated with several results from the traditional battery: Verbal, Visual and General Memory Index, Paired Associations, Visual Memory Span Backwards, TmtB and Visual IQ. Conclusion: Our results indicate that DMS primarily tests visual matching to sample. SOC tests executive functions and also depends on non-verbal IQ and memory. Numerous correlations between PAL and traditional tests illustrates that PAL is a complex task depending on several cognitive domains, but mainly memory.

KEYWORDS


Cite this paper

J. Torgersen, H. Flaatten, B. Engelsen and A. Gramstad, "Clinical Validation of Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery in a Norwegian Epilepsy Population," Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2012, pp. 108-116. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.21013.

References

[1] M. N. Levaux, S. Potvin, A. A. Sepehry, J. Sablier, A. Mendrek and E. Stip, “Computerized Assessment of Cog- nition in Schizophrenia: Promises and Pitfalls of CAN- TAB,” European Psychiatry, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2007, pp. 104-115. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2006.11.004
[2] T. W. Robbins, M. James, A. M. Owen, B. J. Sahakian, A. D. Lawrence, L. McInnes and P. M. Rabbitt, “A Study of Performance on Tests from the CANTAB Battery Sensi- tive to Frontal Lobe Dysfunction in a Large Sample of Normal Volunteers: Implications for Theories of Execu- tive Functioning and Cognitive Aging. Cambridge Neu- ropsychological Test Automated Battery,” Journal of the International Neuropsychologic Society, Vol. 4, No. 5, 1998, pp. 474-490. doi:10.1017/S1355617798455073
[3] T. Foltynie, C. E. Brayne, T. W. Robbins and R. A. Bar- ker, “The Cognitive Ability of an Incident Cohort of Park- inson’s Patients in the UK. The CamPaIGN Study,” Brain, Vol. 127, No. 3, 2004, pp. 550-560. doi:10.1093/brain/awh067
[4] A. D. Blackwell, B. J. Sahakian, R. Vesey, J. M. Semple, T. W. Robbins and J. R. Hodges, “Detecting Dementia: Novel Neuropsychological Markers of Preclinical Alzhei- mer’s Disease,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disor- ders, Vol. 17, No. 1-2, 2004, pp. 42-48. doi:10.1159/000074081
[5] A. D. Lawrence, J. R. Hodges, A. E. Rosser, A. Kershaw, C. ffrench-Constant, D. C. Rubinsztein, T. W. Robbins and B. J. Sahakian, “Evidence for Specific Cognitive Deficits in Preclinical Huntington’s Disease,” Brain, Vol. 121, No. 7, 1998, pp. 1329-1341. doi:10.1093/brain/121.7.1329
[6] C. M. Bird and L. Cipolotti, “The Utility of the Recogni- tion Memory Test and the Graded Naming Test for Mo- nitoring Neurological Patients,” British Journal of Clini- cal Psychology, Vol. 46, No. 2, 2007, pp. 223-234. doi:10.1348/014466506X150282
[7] C. H. Salmond, D. A. Chatfield, D. K. Menon, J. D. Pic- kard and B. J. Sahakian, “Cognitive Sequelae of Head In- jury: Involvement of Basal Forebrain and Associated Struc- tures,” Brain, Vol. 128, No. 1, 2005, pp. 189-200. doi:10.1093/brain/awh352
[8] E. E. Devito, J. D. Pickard, C. H. Salmond, J. L. Iddon, C. Loveday and B. J. Sahakian, “The Neuropsychology of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH),” British Journal of Neurosurgery, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2005, pp. 217-224. doi:10.1080/02688690500201838
[9] A. M. Owen, A. C. Roberts, C. E. Polkey, B. J. Sahakian and T. W. Robbins, “Extra-Dimensional versus Intra-Di- mensional Set Shifting Performance Following Frontal Lobe Excisions, Temporal Lobe Excisions or Amygdalo- Hippocampectomy in Man,” Neuropsychologia, Vol. 29, No. 10, 1991, pp. 993-1006. doi:10.1016/0028-3932(91)90063-E
[10] S. Jazbec, C. Pantelis, T. Robbins, T. Weickert, D. R. Wein- berger and T. E. Goldberg, “Intra-Dimensional/Extra-Di- mensional Set-Shifting Performance in Schizophrenia: Im- pact of Distractors,” Schizophrenia Research, Vol. 89, No. 1, 2007, pp. 339-349. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.08.014
[11] S. S. Gau and C. Y. Shang, “Executive Functions as En- dophenotypes in ADHD: Evidence from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB),” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol. 51, No. 7, 2010, pp. 838-849.
[12] J. H. Barnett, T. W. Robbins, V. C. Leeson, B. J. Saha- kian, E. M. Joyce and A. D. Blackwell, “Assessing Cognitive Function in Clinical Trials of Schizophrenia,” Neu- roscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 34, No. 8, 2010, pp. 1161-1177. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.01.012
[13] R. Swainson, J. R. Hodges, C. J. Galton, J. Semple, A. Michael, B. D. Dunn, J. L. Iddon, T. W. Robbins and B. J. Sahakian, “Early Detection and Differential Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease and Depression with Neuropsycho- logical Tasks,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disor- ders, Vol. 12, No. 4, 2001, pp. 265-280. doi:10.1159/000051269
[14] D. Flugel, A. O'Toole, P. J. Thompson, M. J. Koepp, M. Cercignani, M. R. Symms and J. Foong, “A Neuropsy- chological Study of Patients with Temporal Lobe Epile- psy and Chronic Interictal Psychosis,” Epilepsy Research, Vol. 71, No. 2, 2006, pp. 117-128. doi:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2006.05.018
[15] J. Torgersen, C. Helland, H. Flaatten and K. Wester, “Re- versible Dyscognition in Patients with a Unilateral, Mid- dle Fossa Arachnoid Cyst Revealed by Using a Laptop Based Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB),” Jour- nal of Neurology, Vol. 257, No. 11, 2010, pp. 1909-1916. doi:10.1007/s00415-010-5634-0
[16] J. Torgersen, K. Strand, T. W. Bjelland, P. Klepstad, R. Kvale, E.Soreide, T. Wentzel-Larsen and H. Flaatten, “Cog- nitive Dysfunction and Health-Related Quality of Life af- ter a Cardiac Arrest and Therapeutic Hypothermia,” Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavia, Vol. 54, No. 6, 2010, pp. 721-728. doi:10.1111/j.1399-6576.2010.02219.x
[17] T. W. Robbins, M.James, A. M. Owen, B. J. Sahakian, L. McInnes and P. Rabbitt, “Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): A Factor Analytic Study of a Large Sample of Normal Elderly Volunteers,” Dementia Basel Switzerland, Vol. 5, No. 5, 1994, pp. 266- 281.
[18] G. Motamedi and K. Meador, “Epilepsy and Cognition,” Epilepsy and Behaviour, Vol. 4, Supplement 2, 2003, pp. S25-S38. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2003.07.004
[19] D. Wechsler, “Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale,” 3rd Edi- tion, The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, 1997.
[20] D. Wechsler, “Wechsler Memory Scale—Revised. Manual,” The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, 1987.
[21] R. M. Reitan and D. Wolfson, “The Halstead-Reitan Neu- ropsychological Test Battery: Theory and Clinical Inter- pretation,” 2nd Edition, Neuropsychology Press, Phoenix, 1993.
[22] C. Lowe and P. Rabbitt, “Test/Re-Test Reliability of the CANTAB and ISPOCD Neuropsychological Batteries: Theoretical and Practical Issues. Cambridge Neuropsy- chological Test Automated Battery. International Study of Post-Operative Cognitive Dysfunction,” Neuropsycholo- gia, Vol. 36, No. 9, 1998, pp. 915-923. doi:10.1016/S0028-3932(98)00036-0
[23] B. J. Sahakian, R. G. Morris, J. L. Evenden, A. Heald, R. Levy, M. Philpot and T. W. Robbins, “A Comparative Stu- dy of Visuospatial Memory and Learning in Alzheimer- Type Dementia and Parkinson’s Disease,” Brain, Vol. 111, No. 3, 1988, pp. 695-718. doi:10.1093/brain/111.3.695
[24] B. C. Beats, B. J. Sahakian and R. Levy, “Cognitive Per- formance in Tests Sensitive to Frontal Lobe Dysfunction in the Elderly Depressed,” Psychology and Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1996, pp. 591-603. doi:10.1017/S0033291700035662
[25] J. C. Jackson, S. M. Gordon, E. W. Ely, C. Burger and R. O. Hopkins, “Research Issues in the Evaluation of Cogni- tive Impairment in Intensive Care Unit Survivors,” Intensive Care Medicine, Vol. 30, No. 11, 2004, pp. 2009-2016. doi:10.1007/s00134-004-2422-2
[26] A. M. Owen, B. J. Sahakian, J. Semple, C. E. Polkey and T. W. Robbins, “Visuo-Spatial Short-Term Recognition Memory and Learning after Temporal Lobe Excisions, Frontal Lobe Excisions or Amygdalo-Hippocampectomy in Man,” Neuropsychologia, Vol. 33, No. 1, 1995, pp. 1-24. doi:10.1016/0028-3932(94)00098-A
[27] A. M. Owen, R. G. Morris, B. J. Sahakian, C. E. Polkey and T. W. Robbins, “Double Dissociations of Memory and Executive Functions in Working Memory Tasks Following Frontal Lobe Excisions, Temporal Lobe Excisions or Amygdalo-Hippocampectomy in Man,” Brain, Vol. 119, No. 5, 1996, pp. 1597-1615. doi:10.1093/brain/119.5.1597
[28] M. B. Jurado and M. Rosselli, “The Elusive Nature of Ex- ecutive Functions: A Review of Our Current Understanding,” Neuropsychological Reviews, Vol. 17, No. 3, 2007, pp. 213-233. doi:10.1007/s11065-007-9040-z

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.