Effects of a shift from a mixed diet to a lacto-vegetarian diet on some coronary heart disease risk markers

Download Download as PDF (Size:78KB)  HTML    PP. 16-22  
DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.21003    3,506 Downloads   7,500 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Background: There is convincing evidence that vegetarians have lower incidence of coronary heart disease, but there is a debate as to why this is the case. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a shift from a mixed diet to a lacto-vegetarian diet would lead to a decrease in risk for coronary heart diseases indicated by surrogate markers. Design: Twenty volunteers participated in the study (4 men and 16 women, mean age 44 years, range 27 - 61) from a town in western Sweden. Clinical examinations were performed, blood samples were drawn and dietary survey, i.e. repeated 24-h recalls were carried out before (0 months) and 3, 6 and 12 months after the change from a mixed diet to a lacto-vegetarian diet. A dietician educated the volunteers with regard to the vegetarian dietary regimen, organized and taught the vegetarian cooking courses. Results: The dietary shift lead to an increase in the intake of total carbohydrates and fibre and a decrease in fat, protein and sucrose. The coronary heart disease risk markers body weight, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and low-density lipoptrotein cholesterol decreased significantly. Conclusions: There was a decrease in disease risk markers even though the ratio polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids was unchanged. The main finding in this study is that there was a weight loss, sustained for one year, without any recommendation to decrease the energy intake or any focus on weight reduction.

Cite this paper

Johansson, G. , Källgård, B. and Öckerman, P. (2012) Effects of a shift from a mixed diet to a lacto-vegetarian diet on some coronary heart disease risk markers. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2, 16-22. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.21003.

References

[1] Fraser, G. (2009) Vegetarian diets: What do we know of their effects on common chronic diseases? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89, 1607S-1612S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736K
[2] Rao, V. and Al-Weshaly, A. (2008) Plant-based diets and control of lipids and coronary heart disease risk. Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 10, 478-485. doi:10.1007/s11883-008-0075-2
[3] Micha, R., Sarah, K., Wallace, S. and Mozaffarian, D. (2010) Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation, 121, 2271-2283. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.924977
[4] Appleby, P., Thorogood, M., Mann, J. and Key, T. (1998) Low body mass index in non-meat eaters: The possible roles of animal fat, dietary fiber and alcohol. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 22, 454-460. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0800607
[5] Berkow, S. and Barnard, N. (2006) Vegetarian diets and weight status. Nutrition Reviews, 64, 175-188. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2006.tb00200.x
[6] Key, T., Appleby, P. and Rosell, M. (2006) Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 65, 35-41. doi:10.1079/PNS2005481
[7] Johansson, G., Holmén, A., Persson, L., Hogstedt, B., Wassén, C., Ottova, L. and Gustafsson, J.-A. (1992) The effect of a shift from a mixed diet to a lacto-vegetarian diet on human urinary and fecal mutagenic activity. Carcinogenesis, 13, 153-157. doi:10.1093/carcin/13.2.153
[8] Johansson, G., Ottova, L. and Gustafsson, J.-A. (1990) Shift from a mixed diet to a lactovegetarian diet: Influence on some cancer-associated intestinal bacterial enzyme activities. Nutrition and Cancer, 14, 239-246. doi:10.1080/01635589009514099
[9] Johansson, G., Callmer, E. and Gustafsson, J.-A. (1992) Changing from a mixed diet to a Scandinavian vegetarian diet: Effects on nutrient intake, food choice, meal pattern and cooking methods. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 46, 707-716.
[10] Johansson, G., Callmer, E. and Gustafsson, J.-A. (1992) Validity of repeated dietary measurements in a dietary intervention study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 46, 717-728.
[11] Dansinger, M., Glaeson, J., Griffith, J., Selker, H. and Schaefer, E. (2005) Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, weight watchers, and zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 43-53. doi:10.1001/jama.293.1.43
[12] Sacks, F., Bray, G., Carey, V., Smith, S., Ryan, D., Anton, S. and Williamson, D. (2009) Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. New England Journal of Medicine, 360, 859- 873. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0804748
[13] Shai, I., Schwarsfuchs, D., Henkin, Y., Shahar, D., Witkow, S., Greenburg, I. and Stampfer, M. (2008) Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. New England Journal of Medicine, 359, 229-241. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0708681
[14] Heaton, K. (1973) Food fibre as an obstacle to energy intake. Lancet, 2, 1418-1421. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(73)92806-7
[15] Shai, I., Spence, J., Schwarzfuchs, D., Henkin, Y., Parraga, G., Rudich, A. and Stampfer, M. (2010) Dietary Intervention to Reverse Carotid Atherosclerosis. Circulation, 121, 1200-1208. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.879254
[16] Howard, B., Van Horn, L., Hsia, J., Manson, J., Stefanick, M., Wassertheil-Smoller, S. et al. (2006) Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease: The women’s health initiative randomized controlled dietary modification trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 295, 655-666. doi:10.1001/jama.295.6.655
[17] Lindstrom, J., Peltonen, M., Eriksson, J., Louheranta, A., Fogelholm, M., Uusitupa, M. and Tuomilehto, J. (2006) High-fibre, low-fat diet predicts long-term weight loss and decreased type 2 diabetes risk: The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Diabetologia, 49, 912-920. doi:10.1007/s00125-006-0198-3
[18] Galgani, J., Uauy, R., Aguirre, C. and Diaz, E. (2008) Effect of the dietary fat quality on insulin sensitivity. British Journal of Nutrition, 100, 471-479. doi:10.1017/S0007114508894408
[19] Trichopolou, A., Psaltopoulou, T., Orfanos, P., Hsieh, C.-C. and Trichopoulos, D. (2007) Low-carbohydrate-high-protein diet and long-term survival in a general population cohort. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61, 575-581.
[20] Lagiou, P., Sandin, S., Weiderpass, E., Lagiou, A., Mucci, L., Trichopolous, D. and Adami, H.-O. (2007) Low-carbohydrate-high protein diet and mortality in a cohort of Swedish women. Journal of Internal Medicine, 261, 366-374. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2007.01774.x
[21] Deka, A. and Vita, J. (2011) Tea and cardiovascular disease. Pharmacological Research, 64, 136-145. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2011.03.009
[22] Dulloo, A., Seydoux, J., Girardier, L. and Chantre, P. (2000) Green tea and thermogenesis: Interactions between catechin-polyphenols, caffeine and symphatetic activity. International Journal of Obesity Metabaloci Disorders, 24, 252-258. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801101
[23] Bolton, R., Heaton, K. and Burroughs, L. (1981) The role of dietary fiber in satiety, glucose, and insulin-studies with fruit and fruit juices. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 34, 211-217.
[24] Flood-Obbagy, J. and Rolls, B. (2009) The effect of fruit in different forms on energy intake and satiety at a meal. Appetite, 52, 416-422. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2008.12.001
[25] Haber, G., Murphy, D., Heaton, K. and Burroughs, L. (1977) Depletion and disruption of dietary fiber-effects on satiety, plasma-glucose, and serum insulin. Lancet, 2, 679-682. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(77)90494-9
[26] Moorhead, S., Welch, R., Barbara, M., Livingstone, E., Mccourt, M., Burns, A. and Dunne, A. (2006) The effects of the fibre content and physical structure of carrots on satiety and subsequent intakes when eaten as part of a mixed meal. British Journal of Nutrition, 96, 587-595. doi:10.1079/BJN20061790
[27] Ferdowsian, H. and Barnard, N. (2009) Effects of plant-based diets on plasma lipids. American Journal of Cardiology, 104, 947-956. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.05.032
[28] Fardet, A. (2010) New hypotheses for the health-protective mechanisms of whole-grain cereals: What is beyond fibre? Nutrition Research Reviews, 23, 65-134. doi:10.1017/S0954422410000041
[29] Baumgartner, S., Mensink, R. and Plat, J. (2011) Plant sterols and stanols in the treatment of dyslipidemia: New insights into targets and mechanisms related to cardiovascular risk. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 17, 922-932. doi:10.2174/138161211795428795
[30] Jenkins, D., Jones, P., Lamarche, B., Kendall, C., Faulkner, D., Cermakova, L. and Frolich, J. (2011) Effect of a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods given at 2 levels of intensity of dietary advice on serum lipids in hyperlipidemia. A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 306, 831-839. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1202
[31] Iggman, D., Gustafsson, I.-B., Berglund, L., Vessby, B., Marckmann, P. and Riserús, U. (2011) Replacing dairy fat with rapeseed oil causes rapid improvement of hyperlipedaemia: A randomized controlled study. Journal of Internal Medicine, 270, 356-364. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02383.x
[32] Sacks, F. and Katan, M. (2002) Randomized clinical trials on the effects of dietary fat and carbohydrate on plasma lipoproteins and cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Medicine, 113, 13S-24S. doi:10.1016/S0002-9343(01)00987-1
[33] Warensjo, E., Sundstrom, J., Vessby, B., Cederholm, T. and Riserus, U. (2008) Markers of dietary fat quality and fatty acid desaturation as predictors of total and cardiovascular mortality: A population-based prospective study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88, 203-209.
[34] Howarth, N., Saltzman, E. and Roberts, S. (2001) Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutrition Reviews, 59, 129- 139. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2001.tb07001.x
[35] McCarty, M. (1999) Vegan proteins may reduce risk of cancer, obesity, and cardiovascular disease by promoting increased glucagon activity. Medical Hypothesis, 53, 459-485. doi:10.1054/mehy.1999.0784
[36] McCarty, M. (2000) The origin of western obesity: A role for animal protein? Medical Hypothesis, 54, 488-494. doi:10.1054/mehy.1999.0882
[37] Adamsson, V., Reumark, A., Fredriksson, I.-B., Hammarstrom, E., Vessby, B., Johansson, G. and Risérus, U. (2011) Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolaemic subjects: A randomized controlled trial (NORDIET). Journal of Internal Medicine, 269, 150-159. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02290.x
[38] Becker, W., Lyhne, N., Pedersen, A., Aro, A., Fogelholm, M. and Thórsdottír, I. (2004) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2004. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen.
[39] Lichtenstein, A., Appel, L. and M, B. (2006) Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation, 114, 82-96. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.176158
[40] World Health Organization Technichal Report Series 2003; 916: i-viii, 1-149., backcover. (2003). Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases (Vol. 916).
[41] Zhang, Z., Hu, G., Caballero, B., Appel, L. and Chen, L. (2011) Habitual coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 93, 1212-1219. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.004044

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2016 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.