PSYCH> Vol.1 No.1, April 2010

Psychometric Evaluation of the Perceived Stress Scale in Early Postmenopausal Chinese Women

DownloadDownload as PDF (Size:158KB)  HTML    PP. 1-8  

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) in a population-based sample of early postmenopausal Chinese women in Hong Kong. Methods: 509 postmenopausal women, 50 to 64 years, recruited from the community through random telephone dialing were interviewed. The inter-view included the PSS, the Center of the Epidemiological Study of Depression Scale (CES-D), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the menopausal symptom checklist, and questions on sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors. Principle component analysis was used to determine the component structure of the PSS items. The reliability related to internal consistency was measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and test-retest by intra-class correlation coefficients. Construct validity was investigated with subgroup comparisons on the basis of sociodemographic characteristics, and through correlations with the CES-D, the STAI, menopausal symptoms, and health behaviors. Results: Principle component analysis of the PSS showed that the scale consisted of 2 factors, which explained 52% of variance. Internal consistency was adequate (Cronbach’s α = 0.81) and the test-retest reliability after an interval of 2 weeks was 0.86. The PSS distinguished well, and in the expected manner, between subgroups on the basis of age, work status, and marital status, providing evidence of construct validity. The PSS was also correlated with CES-D, STAI, menopausal symptoms, and health behaviors; hence the construct validity was further supported. Conclusions: The PSS appears to be a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring psychological perceived stress for Chinese women in midlife.

Cite this paper

Yu, R. & Ho, S. (2010). Psychometric Evaluation of the Perceived Stress Scale in Early Postmenopausal Chinese Women. Psychology, 1, 1-8. doi: 10.4236/psych.2010.11001.

References

[1] S. C. Ho, S. G. Chan, Y. B. Yip, A. Cheng, Q. Yi and C. Chan, “Menopausal Symptoms and Symptom Clustering in Chinese Women,” Maturitas, Vol. 33, No. 3, December 1999, pp. 219-227.
[2] S. M. McKinlay, D. J. Brambilla and J. G. Posner, “The Normal Menopause Transition,” Maturitas, Vol. 14, No. 2, January 1992, pp. 103-115.
[3] J. W. Eckert and S. C. Shulman, “Daughters Caring for their Aging Mothers a Midlife Developmental Process,” Journal of Gerontological Social Work, Vol. 25, 1996, pp. 17-32.
[4] H. Iso, C. Date, A. Yamamoto, H. Toyoshima, N. Tanabe, S. Kikuchi, et al., “Perceived Mental Stress and Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease among Japanese Men and Women: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Eval-uation of Cancer Risk Sponsored by Monbusho (JACC Study),” Circulation, Vol. 106, No. 10, September 2002, pp. 1229-1236.
[5] M. Hamer, G. J. Molloy and E. Stamatakis, “Psychological Distress as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Events: Pathophysiological and Behavioral Mechanisms,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol. 52, No. 25, December 2008, pp. 2156-2162.
[6] S. Cohen, D. A. Tyrrell and A. P. Smith, “Psychological Stress and Susceptibility to the Common Cold,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 325, No. 9, August 1991, pp. 606-612.
[7] N. R. Nielsen, T. S. Kristensen, P. Schnohr and M. Gronbaek, “Perceived Stress and Cause-Specific Mortality among Men and Women: Results from a Prospective Cohort Study,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 168, No. 5, September 2008, pp. 481-491.
[8] A. Steptoe and M. Marmot, “Burden of Psychosocial Adversity and Vulnerability in Middle Age: Associations with Biobehavioral Risk Factors and Quality of Life,” Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 65, No. 6, Novem-ber-December 2003, pp. 1029-1037.
[9] S. Cohen and G. M. Williamson, “Perceived Stress in a Probability Sample of the United States,” In S. Spacapan and S. Oskamp, Eds., The Social Psychology of Health, Newbury Park, Sage, California, 1988, pp. 31-67.
[10] C. Mimura and P. Griffiths, “A Japanese Version of the Perceived Stress Scale: Translation and Preliminary Test,” International Journal of Nursing Studies, Vol. 41, No. 4, May 2004, pp. 379-385.
[11] E. Remor, “Psychometric Properties of a European Spanish Version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS),” Spanish Journal of Psychology, Vol. 9, No. 1, May 2006, pp. 86-93.
[12] C. Song, G. Kenis, A. van Gastel, E. Bosmans, A. Lin, R. de Jong, et al., “Influence of Psychological Stress on Immune-Inflammatory Variables in Normal Humans. Part II. Altered Serum Concentrations of Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents and Soluble Membrane Antigens of Monocytes and T Lymphocytes,” Psychiatry Research, Vol. 85, No. 3, March 1999, pp. 293-303.
[13] V. E. Burns, M. Drayson, C. Ring and D. Carroll, “Per-ceived Stress and Psychological Well-Being are Associated with Antibody Status after Meningitis C Conjugate Vaccination,” Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol. 64, No. 6, November-December 2002, pp. 963-970.
[14] H. Y. Yu, S. C. Ho, S. Y. Ho, S. G. Chan, J. Woo and A. T. Ahuja, “Carotid Atherosclerosis and the Risk Factors in Early Postmenopausal Chinese Women,” Maturitas, Vol. 63, No. 3, July 2009, pp. 233-239.
[15] S. Cohen, T. Kamarck and R. Mermelstein, “A Global Measure of Perceived Stress,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 24, No. 4, December 1983, pp. 385-396.
[16] L. S. Radloff, “The CES-D Scale: A Self-Report Depres-sion Scale for Research in the General Population,” Ap-plied Psyhological Measurement, Vol. 1, 1977, pp. 385-401.
[17] C. K. Cheung and C. Bagley, “Validating an American Scale in Hong Kong: The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D),” Journal of Psychol-ogy, Vol. 132, No. 2, March 1998, pp. 169-186.
[18] C. D. Spielberger, R. L. Gorsuch and R. E. Luschene, “State Trait Anxiety Inventory: A Test Manual/Test Form,” Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA, 1970.
[19] M. Tsoi, E. Ho and K. Mak, “Becoming Pregnant Again after Stillbirth or the Birth of a Handicapped Child,” In: L. Dennerstein and I. Fraser, Eds., Hormone and Behavior, Elsevier Science, 1986, pp. 310-316.
[20] D. T. Shek, “Reliability and Factorial Structure of the Chinese Version of the Purpose in Life Questionnaire,” Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 44, No. 3, May 1988, pp. 384-392.
[21] D. T. Shek, “The Factorial Structure of the Chinese Version of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis,” Educational and Psychological Mea-surement, Vol. 51, 1991, pp. 985-999.
[22] D. T. Shek, “The Chinese Version of the State-Trait An-xiety Inventory: Its Relationship to Different Measures of Psychological Well-Being,” Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 49, No. 3, May 1993, pp. 349-358.
[23] N. E. Avis, P. A. Kaufert, M. Lock, S. M. McKinlay and K. Vass, “The Evolution of Menopausal Symptoms,” Baillieres Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 7, No. 1, January 1993, pp. 17-32.
[24] J. A. Baecke, J. Burema and J. E. Frijters, “A Short Ques-tionnaire for the Measurement of Habitual Physical Activity in Epidemiological Studies,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 36, No. 5, November 1982, pp. 936-942.
[25] S. C. Ho and S. G. Chan, “Habitual Physical Activity, Health Fitness and Behavior in Hong Kong Adults,” Health Services Research Committee Report 216102, Hos-pital Authority, Hong Kong, 2002.
[26] S. C. Ho, S. G. Chan, Y. B. Yip, S. Y. Chan and A. Sham, “Factors Associated with Menopausal Symptom Reporting in Chinese Midlife Women,” Maturitas, Vol. 44, No. 2, February 2003, pp. 149-156.
[27] M. S, Hunter, “Predictors of Menopausal Symptoms: Psychosocial Aspects,” Baillieres Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 7, No. 1, January 1993, pp. 33-45.
[28] K. F. Chung and M. K. Tang, “Subjective Sleep Disturbance and Its Correlates in Middle-Aged Hong Kong Chinese Women,” Maturitas, Vol. 53, No. 4, March 2006, pp. 396-404.
[29] P. Meerlo, A. Sgoifo and D. Suchecki, “Restricted and Disrupted Sleep: Effects on Autonomic Function, Neu-roendocrine Stress Systems and Stress Responsivity,” Sleep Medicine Reviews, Vol. 12, No. 3, June 2008, pp. 197-210.
[30] P. Schnohr, T. S. Kristensen, E. Prescott and H. Scharling, “Stress and Life Dissatisfaction are Inversely Associated with Jogging and Other Types of Physical Activity in Leisure Time–The Copenhagen City Heart Study,” Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, Vol. 15, No. 2, April 2005, pp. 107-112.
[31] K. R. Fox, “The Influence of Physical Activity on Mental Well-Being,” Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 2, No. 3A, September 1999, pp. 411-418.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.