Share This Article:

Strength Limit of Earth: A New Fundamental Phenomenal Factor for Universe’s Precise Scientific Perceptions and Descriptions

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1126KB) PP. 1-7
DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104034    140 Downloads   284 Views  


Intuition of many different unsolved problems and questions remains the “sorest troubles” in basis and applied sciences particular in physics today. Also presented physical models doesn’t describe world’s framework aright and these make lots of defects to understand sciences and solve scientific problems. Therewith no one can formulate the complicate relation(s) between all existences’ and sciences’ components. However, no key parameter introduces to discover applicable alphabetic special strings for this purpose till now. No theory exists for help to reconciliation, connection and combination of all correct parts of the current physical framework and theories to construct a whole unification theory for everything through unifying of them. Defining a factor that indicates the earth’s strength limit help to reaching mentioned aims and response to unsolved problems in divers sciences such as: How began the universe? How the universe(s) work? Is the speed of light varying imperceptibly? And are the constants of physics changed? Strength limit of earth complicate pivotal and fundamental parameter introduced in this study through different aspects of its specifications and definitions, which helps finding and showing extend connections in addition demonstrates the exact relations of the entire world’s components. Results represented that different scientific definitions of this factor which illustrated in this original work show the unity, correlation, continuity and dependency of all universe parts. Moreover, gravity, area density, Euler’s constant and earth’s strength limit are determinant factors that perform assistant and vital roles in cognition of various sciences’ interactions. Depth perception of presented parameter will develop faster scientific discoveries in the world.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Alashti, M. (2017) Strength Limit of Earth: A New Fundamental Phenomenal Factor for Universe’s Precise Scientific Perceptions and Descriptions. Open Access Library Journal, 4, 1-7. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1104034.


[1] Grillo, G. Loop Quantum Gravity.
[2] Sakurai, J.J. and Napolitano, J. (2010) Modern Quantum Mechanics. 2nd Edition, Pearson, 68.
[3] Novello, M. and Bergliaffa, S.E. (2003) Cosmology and Gravitation: Xth Brazilian School of Cosmology and Gravitation; 25th Anniversary (1977-2002), Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Springer Science & Business Media, 95.
[4] Superstring.
[5] Classical Unified Field Theories.
[6] ’t Hooft, G. and Veltman, M. (1974) One Loop Divergencies in the Theory of Gravitation. Annales de l’Institut Henri Poincaré, 20, 69.
[7] Veltman Martinus, J.G. (1975) Quantum Theory of Gravitation-Course 5. In: Balian, R. and Zinn-Justin, J., Eds., Methods in Field Theory-Les Houches Session XXVIII Summer School in Theoretical Physics, 77, North Holland Publishing Company, Netherlands, Oxford, New York, and World Scientific Publishing, Singapore.
[8] Goroff, M.H. and Sagnotti, A. (1985) Quantum Gravity at Two Loops. Physics Letters B, 160, 81-86.
[9] Donoghue, J.F. (1995) Introduction to the Effective Field Theory Description of Gravity. In: Cornet, F. and Herrero Marie, J., Eds., Proceedings of the Advanced School on Effective Theories, Al-munecar, Spain, 1 Jan. 1997 Effective Theories, World Scientific Publishing Co Pte Ltd., Singapore.
[10] Weinberg, S. (1996) The Quantum Theory of Fields 2: Modern Applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[11] Hamber, H.W. (2009) Quantum Gravitation—The Feynman Path Integral Approach. Springer Publishing.
[12] Zee, A. (2010) Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell. 2nd Edition, Princeton University Press, 172.
[13] Penrose, R. (2007) The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe. Vintage, 1017.
[14] Dirac, P.A.M. (1930) A Theory of Electrons and Protons. Proceedings of the Royal Society A, 126, 360.
[15] Anderson, C.D. (1933) The Positive Electron. Physical Review, 43, 491-494.
[16] Special Relativity.
[17] Messiah, A. (1981) Quantum Mechanics 2. North-Holland Publishing Company, 875.
[18] Nicolai, H., Peeters, K. and Zamaklar, M. (2005) Loop Quantum Gravity: An Outside View. Classical and Quantum Gravity, 22, R193-R247.
[19] Goswami, J., Pankaj, S. and Singh, P. (2006) Quantum Evaporation of a Naked Singularity. Physical Review Letters, 96, 31302.
[20] Rovelli, C. (2000) Notes for a Brief History of Quantum Gravity.
[21] Green, M.B., Schwarz, J.H. and Witten, E. (1987) Superstring Theory. Volume 1: Introduction. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[22] Ibanez, L.E. (2000) The Second String (Phenomenology) Revolution. Classical & Quantum Gravity, 17, 1117-1128.
[23] History of String Theory.
[24] Douglas, M.R. (2003) The Statistics of String/M Theory Vacua. Journal of High Energy Physics, 0305, 46.
[25] Ashok, S. and Douglas, M. (2004) Counting Flux Vacua. Journal of High Energy Physics, 0401, 60.
[26] Rickles (2014) A Brief History of String Theory: From Dual Models to M-Theory. The Frontiers Collection, Springer, 230-236
[27] van Nieuwenhuizen, P. (1981) Supergravity. Physics Reports, 68, 189-398.
[28] Woit, P. (2011) Implications of Initial LHC Searches for Super-symmetry.
[29] Cassel, S., Ghilencea, D.M., Kraml, S., Lessa, A. and Ross, G.G. (2011) Fine-Tuning Implications for Complemen-tary Dark Matter and LHC SUSY Searches. Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), 5, 120.
[30] Falkowski, A. (Jester) (2011) What LHC Tells About SUSY.
[31] Tapper, A. (2010) Early SUSY Searches at the LHC. Imperial College, Lon-don.
[32] Jha, A. (2013) One Year on from the Higgs Boson Find, Has Physics Hit the Buffers? The Guardian. Photograph: Harold Cunningham/Getty Images. GMG, London.
[33] Standard Model.
[34] CERN (2010) Particle Chameleon Caught in the Act of Changing.
[35] Blumhofer, A. and Hutter, M. (1997) Family Structure from Periodic Solutions of an Improved Gap Equation. Nuclear Physics B, 484, 80-96.
[36] M-Theory.
[37] Giudice, G.F. (2013) Naturalness after LHC8. PoS EPS. HEP, 163.
[38] Composite Higgs Models.
[39] Newton’s Laws of Motion.
[40] Lubliner, J. (2008) Plasticity Theory. Revised Edition, Dover Publications.
[41] Salehi Alashti, M. (2015) Accurate Age of the Earth Calculation by a New Fundamental Parameter. Open Access Library Journal, 2, e1296.
[42] United States Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology (2008) The International System of Units (SI), Vol 330. In: Taylor, B.N. and Thompson, A., Eds., NIST Special Publication, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, 52.
[43] Cohen, B. (2002) The Investigation of Difficult Things: Essays on Newton and the History of the Exact Sciences in Honour of D.T. Whiteside. In: Harman, P.M. and Shapiro, A.E., Eds., The Investigation of Difficult Things, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 353.
[44] Plastino, A.R. and Muzzio, J.C. (1992) On the Use and Abuse of Newton’s Second Law for Variable Mass Problems. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, 53, 227-232. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.
[45] Newton, I. (1999) The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Translated by Bernard, I., Cohen and Whitman, A. Preceded by a Guide to Newton’s Principia by I. Bernard Cohen Assisted by Julia Budenz. University of California Press, California, Proposition 75, Theorem 35, 956.
[46] Ehlers, J. (1973) Survey of General Relativity Theory. In: Werner, I., Ed., Relativity, Astrophysics and Cosmology, Academic Publishing Company, Springer, Netherlands, Dordrecht-Holland, 16.
[47] Kenyon, I.R. (1990) General Relativity. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 244 p.
[48] Mohr, P.J., Taylor, B.N. and Newell, D.B. (2012) CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Con-stants: 2010. Reviews of Modern Physics, 84, 1527.
[49] Weinberg, S. (1972) Gravitation and Cosmology: Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relativity. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 688 p.
[50] Groten, E. (2012) The Geodesist’s Handbook 2012 Part 5: General Information; Geodetic Standards and Conventions. In: International Association of Geodesy (IAG) Office and IAG Communication and Outreach Branch (COB), Ed., Springer Journal of Geodesy, 86, 962-963.
[51] Mohr, P.J., Taylor Barry, N. and Newell, D.B. (2012) CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2010 (2012 Adjustment of 2010 CODATA Values). Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 41, 043109.
[52] Mohr, P.J., Taylor, B.N. and Newell, D.B. (2015) CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2014. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg.
[53] Clabon Walter, A. (2000) Allen’s Astrophysical Quantities, Chapter 2: General Constants and Units Part 3: General Astronomical Constants. In: Cox, A.N., Ed., 4th Edition, AIP Press, Springer-Verlag, New York, 12.
[54] Williams, D.R. (2004) Earth Fact Sheet. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771.
[55] US Geological Survey (1997) The Age of the Earth. Branch of Isotope Geology, United States Department of the Interior, United States Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California.
[56] Bianconi, E., Piovesan, A., Facchin, F., Beraudi, A., Casadei, R., Frabetti, F., Vitale, L., Pelleri Maria, Ch., Tassani, S., Perez-Amodio, F., Piva, S., Strippoli, P. and Canaider, S. (2013) An Estimation of the Number of Cells in the Human Body. Annals of Human Biology, 40, 463-471.
[57] Wikipedia Articles on Atmosphere (2016).
[58] James, B. and Scott, T. (2008) Galactic Dynamics. 2nd Edition, Princeton University Press, Princeton and Oxford, Princeton.
[59] Groten, E. (2000) Parameters of Common Relevance of Astronomy. Geodesy and Geodynamics Journal of Geodesy, 74, 134-140.
[60] Luzum, B., Capitaine, N., Fienga, A., Folkner, W., Fukushima, T., Hilton, J., Hohenkerk, C., Krasinsky, G., Petit, G., Pitjeva, E., Soffel, M. and Patrick, W. (2011) The IAU 2009 System of Astronomical Constants: The Report of The IAU Working Group on Numerical Standards for Fundamental Astronomy. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, 110, 293-304.
[61] Williams, D.R. (2006) Planetary Fact Sheets.
[62] Lewars, E.G. (2008) Modelling Marvels. Computational Anticipation of Novel Molecules. Springer, Springer Science and Business Media B.V., The Netherlands, 70-71.
[63] Weiss Ray, F. (1971) Solubility of Helium and Neon in Water and Seawater. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, 16, 235-241.
[64] Merriam-Webster (1991) The Merriam-Webster New Book of Word Histories. Merriam-Webster Incorporated, Springfield, Massachusetts, 513.
[65] (2000) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Internet Version 2005 Edition, CRC Press LLC, N. W. Corporate, Boca Raton.
[66] Wikipedia Article on Earth (2016)
[67] Dalrymple, G.B. (1991 & 1994) The Age of the Earth. Stanford University Press, California.
[68] Dalrymple, G.B. (2001) The Age of the Earth in the Twentieth Century: A Problem (Mostly) Solved. Geological Society of London Special Publications, 190, 205-221.
[69] Newman, W.L. (2007) Age of the Earth. Publications Services, USGS, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC.
[70] Stassen, C. (1997) The Age of the Earth. TalkOrigins Archive; Exploring the Creation and Evolution Controversy, 1.
[71] Staff (2007) Useful Constants. International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service.
[72] Mirzakhani, M. (2007) Weil-Petersson Volumes and Intersection Theory on the Moduli Space of Curves. Journal of the American Mathematical Society, 20, 1-23.
[73] Bizouard, C. (2014) Useful Constants. International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service.
[74] Zeilik, M. and Gregory, S.A. (1998) Introductory Astronomy & Astrophysics. 4th edn, Saunders College Publishing, 56.
[75] Clara, M. (2016) Cosmic Speed Measurement Suggests Dark Energy Mystery. Scientific American, Space and Physics Editor’s Note.
[76] Wall, M. (2016) The Universe May Be Expanding Faster Than Astronomers Thought. Scientific American.
[77] Zbiral, G. (2012) Does Gravitation Have an Influence on Electromagnetism? Journal of Modern Physics, 3, 1223-1230.
[78] Visconti, G. (2001) Fundamentals of Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere. Springer, Berlin, 470.
[79] Sokal, A. (1996) Don't Pull the String Yet on Superstring Theory. New York Times.
[80] Theory of Everything (2017)

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.