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Research on the Relationship between Enterprise Resource Integration and Enterprise Performance—Taking Online Travel Enterprises as an Example

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DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2017.79073    137 Downloads   277 Views  

ABSTRACT

At present, China’s online travel companies are expanding their market share by continuously burning money, and most enterprises are in a profit dilemma. Future tourism is the competition of comprehensive resources, and the process of resource integration is directly related to the performance of online tourism enterprises, and it is also the key for online travel enterprises to win in the fierce competition environment. Therefore, this paper aims to improve the competitive advantage of online tourism enterprises by optimizing the online tourism enterprise resource integration process, which brings high enterprise performance to online tourism enterprises.

1. Introduction

The 21st century is an information era, and enterprises have created a new business competition environment with the help of information technology, and a new business mode of tourism, which is operated by the Internet as a carrier, is also emerging as an online tourism enterprise. With the continuous heating of online tourism, more and more capital is flowing into the online travel market, and the industry is divided and the competition is becoming more and more intense. In order to compete for market share, there are frequent price wars among online travel companies, and with the huge increase in marketing costs and operating costs, most online travel companies suffer huge losses. Data show that: In 2016, Ctrip annual net operating income of about 19.2 billion yuan, up 76% from a year earlier, a net loss of 1.4 billion yuan; Tuniu in the first quarter of 2017 net income of 456 million yuan ($66.3 million), compared with the same period in 2016 increased by 60.4%, compared with American accounting standards under, net loss in the first quarter of 2017 was 287.4 million yuan ($41.7 million). JingYu culture reported earnings in the first half of 2017, according to JingYu culture net operating income of 2.696 billion yuan, up 163.02% from a year earlier, the loss of 256 million yuan, is double losses in the first half of the same period last year. Taken together, the three companies’ net losses continue to grow and the current situation of online travel companies getting into a profit trap raises concerns.

While other online travel companies are losing money, Ctrip has seen a surge in profits. According to the report, in the first quarter of 2017, Ctrip’s net operating income was 6.1 billion yuan ($884 million), up 46 percent from a year earlier, while net operating income rose 20 percent in the first quarter of 2017. The growth of Ctrip has benefited from the integration of online tourism enterprises, which has alleviated the low price competition with online travel enterprises and reduced the cost.

The RBV believes that enterprises have the potential to achieve excess performance if they have valuable, scarce, inimitable and irreplaceable resources [1] [2] . Resources are inputs into the production process of enterprises, which can be divided into tangible resources [3] . Both of them have important influence on the formation of enterprise resources integration capacity and the output and efficiency of enterprises.

The resources of online tourism enterprises can be either from external resources or existing related resources within enterprises. Online tourism enterprises need to integrate resources through certain processes. Only through the integration of resources, enterprises can improve their various dynamic functions [4] , and the enterprises’ abilities can ensure the improvement of enterprise performance. The resource integration process of online travel enterprises is extremely important.

At present, few scholars have studied the influence of online tourism enterprise resource integration performance from the perspective of resource integration. Based on the resource integration process, this paper studies how the resources integration of online tourism enterprises can affect enterprise performance.

2. Literature Review

Research on Online Tourism Enterprises

“Online tourism enterprises” is a new form of tourism enterprises. To be better understand its meaning, we first summarize the connotation of “online tourism”.

The concept of online travel first appeared in Europe and the United States, and was first developed in the early 1990s, first introduced in 1993 by Ravi Kalatoko, and developed by John Hagel [5] . Online travel is the travel service industry and the combination of electronic commerce, use “online” for travel services, to provide tourists’ travel related information query, tourism products and services and travel services evaluation function as the main purpose, after covered including hotel, transportation management departments, the scenic spot, car rental companies, travel agencies at home and abroad and other travel service and product suppliers and OTAs, search engines, telecom operators, tourism information and community sites and online travel platform emerging tourism commerce.

Understanding the meaning of online travel, “online travel companies” defined in this paper is to point to in under the background of open Internet network, to the Internet as a basic business platform, with electronic information technology, mobile e-commerce, intelligent terminal equipment and other high-tech as the support, an online business information consultation, search of tourism, tourist products ordering, payment, tourist transportation and hotel reservation, the intelligent voice guide, the online travel business such as virtual reality tourism as the main body of tourism enterprises. At present, China’s more well-known online tourism enterprises have Ctrip, Tuniu, Tongcheng, Spring and autumn tourism, Lvmama, Mango and so on. Foreign well-known online Travel companies include Priceline, Expedia, Trip Advisor, Travel Zoo, Make My Trip, etc.

The development of online tourism enterprises in developed countries in western countries started earlier, so a number of scholars have conducted targeted research on the development of online tourism enterprises. Mark Font (2003) thinks that culture, innovation, resource integration is the most important element in the development of online travel companies, only tourist products, special to attract customers, expand market share, thereby enhancing the online travel market competitiveness of the enterprise [6] . But because of the market’s shortcomings, online travel companies sometimes make false propaganda and secretly raise the cost of bad behavior. Today’s online travel service company rate is mixed and disorderly, therefore, to establish a perfect tourism product quality control and service management system, steady and continuous development for online travel industry is essential; in addition, the comprehensive quality of employees can reflect the service standard of a company and bring great impetus to the development of the company, therefore, the companies should vigorously train employees’ basic service skills and enhance their professional quality [7] . For this kind of situation, some scholars put forward to use administrative means to establish a perfect supervision system, supervision of the behavior of the online travel companies, enterprises want to long-term development, it is necessary to achieve the good faith management, to set up unified supervision and assessment system at the same time, formulate scientific and reasonable rules, the online travel the enterprise the management behavior of institutional constraints [8] . In addition, the existing problem of online tourism enterprises is that service evaluation standard is vague. The sales of tourism products should be considered in the customers’ perspective and put the interests of customers first so that the online tourism enterprises can attract the customers to spend [9] .

The development of China’s online tourism enterprises is relatively late and there are some disadvantages in international competition. Moreover, the center of enterprise development is unclear, low competitiveness, small proportion of international market, and insufficient research on online travel enterprises, China’s online tourism enterprises still have a long way to go, and it will take a great effort to catch up with the development level of foreign online tourism enterprises [10] . Online travel companies in our country has always been a strange phenomenon, the development of online travel companies most profitable dilemma, enterprise endogenous growth, but still to continue “burn money” to realize the expansion of market share. In response to this phenomenon, many scholars have conducted in-depth studies from different perspectives. Some scholars have fond that venture capital has an important impact on the growth of online travel, and the capital and capital value added service of venture capital is affecting the marketing ability, technology ability and human resources of online tourism enterprises, which indirectly affects the growth of online tourism enterprises [11] . Pressure from earning, the online travel companies appeared the situation of the diversification, scholars through in-depth study of online travel enterprise profit model, found the diversified development of China’s online travel companies is very conductive to online travel companies out of the loss of circle as soon as possible [12] . Some scholars also think that online tourism enterprise business mode can be divided into comprehensive supermarket model, search engine model and professional model, at present, large online travel companies are choosing one-step platform for online travel business model for innovation direction, and gradually became the leader of tourism product supply chain, while small or medium online travel enterprises to the road of specialization become an inseparable part of tourism product supply chain [13] . The phenomenon of the control price of online travel enterprises has caused the resistance of tourism suppliers and the dissatisfaction of local industry associations, Zou Guangyong and He Jianmin (2017) analyzed this problem by using bilateral market theory, demand elasticity theory and utility theory and related research methods [14] .

The development of online travel enterprises in western developed countries is relatively early, so the research on online tourism enterprises is also quite sufficient, the literature on this subject than domestic is adequate, but western research mainly pay attention to the technology application of online travel companies, and business management pattern, few related studies of online travel enterprise resources integration ability. From at present, the research of online travel companies in China is not enough, Chinese scholars’ study of online travel companies focused on the concept of online travel companies, profit model, business model innovation and so on, these research results to some extent, it does have a big role, but there are also some deficiencies, for example, the study focuses on the theory and ignores the importance of the integration of offline resources to the development of online travel enterprises. This paper makes up for the gaps in the research. Starting from the perspective of resource-based view, and aimed at online travel companies, in-depth analysis of its resource integration ability, study how online travel enterprises resource integration ability affects corporate performance, for the rapid and healthy development of the online travel companies provide constructive advice.

3. Related Research and Hypothesis of Resource Integration Process and Enterprise Performance

Resources integration is a complex dynamic process, is refers to the enterprises of different sources, different levels, different structure, different content selection, absorbing, configuration of the resources of the organic fusion, activation etc to make it more strong, flexible, orderly, systematic, and value, and to reconstruct the original resources system, discard worthless resources, to form a new system of core resources [15] .

Online travel enterprise resource integration process is that online travel companies are facing in the process of business activities outside option available, facing the internal configuration using the ability of different types of tourism resources, it determines the effectiveness of online travel enterprise resources can be fully effective play, will also affect the online travel business in the future market competitive advantage and growth.

On resources integration process, many scholars put forward different views: Brush (2001) put forward the enterprise resource development path, namely identification, absorb resources, personal resources into and utilizing organizational resources [16] . And people think that after the integration of resources, such as Hitt, should also leverage resource and make it become the sustainable competitive advantage of enterprise itself, only in this way, enterprise resource integration to be meaningful, to make contribution for the excess earning of enterprise [17] [18] , Rao Yangde (2006) thinks the resource integration process consists of three steps: resource identification and selection, resource acquisition and allocation, and resource activation and integration [19] . In short, the enterprise resource integration should include the process of recognition to the tourism resources utilization of resources, while on the description of this process is slightly different, different scholars usually differ in the number and name of the activity, but the basic concept is the same. This paper argues that resource integration process can be divided into four stages, namely the resource identification, resource acquisition, resource allocation and resource utilization, the former two main targets are the enterprise external behavior, and then the two are the behavior of the enterprise internal combination and utilization of resources. To sum up, the online travel enterprise resource integration ability formed in the tourism resources of identification, in the process of acquisition, configuration, and use, therefore, clear resources integration process in the analysis of formation of online travel enterprise resource integration ability plays an important role.

Resource identification refers to the process of analyzing and validating the external resources required by the enterprise based on its natural resource endowment, and finally determining the resources needed for the enterprise [20] . This paper mainly adopts the viewpoint of Brush (2001) [16] , Reynolds & Miller (1992) [21] , and Newbert (2008) [22] , because most researchers use these points to analyze the related problems of resource information. Resource identification process is the starting point of resource integration capability, is related to the formation of resources integration ability, clear is the connections between resources reorganization of value chain and the most direct and effective step of resource integration. If resources are not identified, resources are not available and the formation of resource integration is a hollow statement, and the performance of the enterprise is impossible to speak of. The relationship between resource identification process and enterprise performance can be played through the formation of enterprise resource integration ability.

Therefore, this article assumes that:

H1a: There is a positive correlation between resource identification and enterprise performance.

Resource acquisition refers to the process of obtaining the required resources and making them serve the enterprise based on the identification and identification of resources [15] . Resource acquisition is an indispensable important link in the process of resource integration, access to resources is any enterprise cannot be ignored in the process of development are a key link, through external access, can build up the useful resources through internal digestion, absorption, distribution and configuration, to lay the solid foundation for the next step in the resource integration, so as to strengthen the enterprise resources integration ability [23] . Reynolds and Miller (1992) believe that enterprises can obtain a lot of resources through the Internet and transform the acquired resources into the unique advantages and abilities of enterprises, which will improve efficiency and bring good performance to enterprises [21] . Related literature shows that the identification and resources are particularly important in the process of the development of the enterprise, they are not only related to the enterprise can be important for their development, enterprise resources integration ability formation and the status of the enterprise performance is good or bad.

Therefore, this article assumes that:

H2a: There is a positive correlation between resource acquisition and enterprise performance.

Resource allocation refers to the process of adjusting and combining resources to match and complement each other and gain competitive advantage after acquiring the necessary resources [2] . Allocation of resources is a central part of the process of resource integration, and the essential role in the process of resource integration, up to undertake resource acquisition, downward connection resources use, so it has very important influence on the improvement of enterprise performance [24] . Enterprise resource configuration is not only brought new strategic resources for the enterprise, more formed a kind of internal integration ability, this ability is no substitute rivals, unable to imitate and copy, is also one of the power enterprise to obtain high performance [1] .

Therefore, this article assumes that:

H3a: There is a positive correlation between resource allocation and enterprise performance.

Resource utilization is to use the configured resources, form a market strong competitiveness, through play a dual role of resources and capacity to produce products or services, the process of creating value for customers [15] . Resource utilization is the last link of the process of resources integration, resources value realization process, is the enterprise have also enterprise resource integration ability into the process of enterprise performance, is the key to survival in the market. If resources are not utilized, they have no resources. The resources obtained are not properly utilized, the ability and efficiency of resource integration can be reduced, the advantages of the enterprise will not be sustained, and the competitive advantage of the enterprise will be weakened [25] . Thus it can be seen that the ability of resources to integrate resources will be stronger, and its role in corporate performance will be more obvious. Therefore, this article assumes that:

H4a: There is a positive correlation between resource utilization and enterprise performance.

Based on this, this paper puts forward the influence path model of the online tourism enterprise resource integration process on enterprise performance (as shown in Figure 1).

In order to verify the hypothesis of this study and obtain the relationship

Figure 1. The model of the impact path of online tourism enterprise resource integration process on enterprise performance.

between them, this paper uses AMOS analysis software to test the model of figure 1 through the method of path analysis.

4. Study Design

4.1. Survey Object Selection and Questionnaire Collection

In order to guarantee the objectivity and validity of data, we choose the main Chinese online tourism enterprise managers and staff, on the basis of the questionnaire to collect, mainly with the help of friends, by E-mail, WeChat, responsible for the investigation by the enterprises in the online travel business informatization and the relevant department manager and staff questionnaire, and then track respondents and companies surveyed by telephone, thus improve the questionnaire recovery rate. In the first place, 50 questionnaires were carried out in Ctrip, Tongcheng travel and Take a trip around, that the three online travel companies. The 50 questionnaires were not included in the final analysis questionnaire and I correct the questionnaire according to the results of the pre-survey and the feedback. And the questionnaire was not included in the final analysis questionnaire. The formal research time was from April 11, 2017 to May 25, 2017. During the period, the study conducted 500 questionnaires in Ctrip, Tongcheng, Qunar, Lvmama, and Take a trip around. And the final effective questionnaire was 430. The recovery rate was 86%. The basic information of the sample is shown in Table 1 (Data source: collected from the survey data).

4.2. Variable Selection

Based on the hypothesis of resource identification, resource acquisition, resource allocation, resource utilization and enterprise performance, the initial problem pool of resource integration process and enterprise performance is proposed, as Table 2 (Data source: collected from the survey data).

4.3. Reliability Validity Check

Generally speaking, the reliability coefficient of the questionnaire is 0.70 and above is acceptable reliability value (Devellis, 1991), which is the reliability of the questionnaire. The effective questionnaire of this survey was 430, and the reliability analysis was conducted with SPSS19.0, and the results were shown in Table 3.

Table 3 shows that the value of Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient of each dimension of the overall questionnaire and questionnaire is greater than 0.7, so it can be inferred that the questionnaire has higher internal consistency. As shown in Table 4, KMO value of 0.951, is greater than 0.9 is very suitable for factor analysis, through the Bartlett ball test shows that Bartlett ball test value of 6602.885, degrees of df was $455, Sig. < 0.05 (i.e., p values < 0.05), explain the correlation between the original variables, factor analysis is effective.

4.4. The Data Analysis

From the theoretical part, it can be seen that online tourism enterprise resource identification, resource acquisition, resource allocation and resource utilization have an impact on enterprise performance. In order to obtain the relationship, this paper uses AMOS analysis software and path analysis method to verify the model of Figure 1.

Potential independent variables in model, potential dependent variable, and did not measure variables, including resource identification (X1), resource access (X2), resource allocation (X3), and resource utilization (X4) is an exogenous variable, because the variables are not affected by other variables in the model, the influence of enterprise performance (X5) is the endogenous variable, because the variables affected by resource identification (X1), resource access (X2), resource allocation (X3), and the influence of resource utilization (X4).

In the theoretical part, has clarified the enterprise resource identification, resource acquisition, resource allocation and resource utilization impact on enterprise performance, i.e., the X1 and X5 (p51), X2 - X5 (p52), X3 and X5 (p53), X4, X5 (p54), using SPSS19.0 concluded between variable coefficient value, and build the following equation:

X5 = p51 X1 + p52 X2 + p53 X3 + p54 X4 + e5

X1 resource identification, X2 resource acquisition, X3 resource allocation, X4 resource utilization, X5 enterprise performance, ei standard residual, regression results are shown in Table 5.

We need to evaluate the indirect effects according to the various influence coefficients of the variables according to the path coefficient, which mainly have direct influence coefficient, indirect influence coefficient and implicit correlation coefficient. As shown in Table 6.

Theoretically, the indirect influence coefficient of the two variables, the direct influence coefficient, the implied correlation coefficient and the unanalyzed influence coefficient are equal to the observed value.

5. Discussion on the Relationship between Resource Integration Process and Enterprise Performance of Online Tourism Enterprises

H1a believes resource identification has positive correlation to the enterprise performance, Table 6 shows that resource identification and enterprise performance between the obvious positive correlation based on the zero sequence (p51 = 0. 230, p < 0. 05), namely resource identification and performance

Table 1. Sample base case.

Table 2. The integration process of online tourism enterprises and the initial problems of enterprise performance.

Table 3. Reliability analysis table.

Table 4. KMO and Bartlett tests.

Table 5. Regression results.

Table 6. Final statistical results.

Note: Due to the rounding in the calculation, the observed value and the sum of the coefficients have some deviation.

directly but not significant positive correlation between (p51 = 0. 015). Therefore, hypothesis 1 is supported. The results show that although the resource identification have no direct relationship with the enterprise performance, but it affects the process of resources integration, and resources integration process but has a direct effect to corporate performance. Therefore, enterprises should carefully identify key resources during the development process.

H2a believes resource acquisition has positive correlation to the enterprise performance, Table 6 shows that resource identification and enterprise performance between the obvious positive correlation based on the zero sequence (p52 = 0. 263, p < 0. 05), namely the resource acquisition and performance directly but not significant positive correlation between (p52 = 0. 012). Assuming 2 is supported, the results show that although the resource access and there is no direct relationship between enterprise performance, but it affects the process of resources integration, and thus is still in the process of development for enterprises to be key resources, promote the development of enterprises.

H3a believes the allocation of resources has a positive relationship between the corporate performance, Table 6 shows that the allocation of resources and enterprise performance between the obvious positive correlation (based on the zero sequence p53 = 0. 163, p < 0.01), with the resources and performance between direct and significant positive correlation (p52 = 0. 025, p < 0. 01). Hypothesis 4 support, therefore, the results show that the resource utilization is not only a direct positive relationship between corporate performance and that there are indirect positive correlation, therefore, the enterprise after the access to resources, should according to the development of internal and external environment to match these resources effectively, enhance the ability of enterprise integration of these resources.

H4a believes resources use has a positive relationship between the corporate performance, Table 6 shows that between resource utilization and enterprise performance obviously positive correlation based on the zero sequence (p53 = 0. 161, p < 0.01), with the resources and performance between direct and significant positive correlation (p52 = 0. 029, p < 0. 01). Hypothesis 4 support, therefore, the results show that the resource utilization is not only a direct positive relationship between corporate performance and that there are indirect positive correlation, therefore, the enterprise after the configuration of resources, should according to the development of internal and external environment to these for effective utilization of resources, make use of these resources for the enterprise to bring efficiency and output.

In highly uncertain competitive environment, the online travel companies must always be on the market value of tourism resources, when a certain tourism resource is very scarce, online travel companies should by a certain means to obtain the tourism resources, with internal related tourism resources integration and take advantage of, and constantly strengthen the resources integration ability, improve business performance. To sum up, online travel companies ability of resource integration must pass through the tourism resources of external recognition and access to and internal configuration and the use of four process, because of the tourism resources is the basis of online travel companies build competitive advantage, is also an important source of corporate performance.

6. Conclusions

The purpose of this article is to study online travel enterprise resources integration process and the relationship between corporate performance and to test multiple hypothesis, this paper puts forward to the empirical analysis of 430 questionnaires, the results show that the assumption of obtained data support. Studies have shown that facing the external competition environment, online travel companies must integrate useful tourism resources, form a powerful tourism resources integration ability, in order to continuously maintain the competitive advantage to improve enterprise performance.

Theoretically, as an enterprise resource view, one of the main theories of strategic management, their theories have not been empirically, valuable, scarce resources such as how to bring enterprise competitive advantage and improve enterprise performance, resource integration process and the relationship between corporate performance and so on. In this paper, the research results help deepen everyone understanding of online travel enterprise resource integration, not only enriched the resource-based theory, in practice, also for online travel enterprise integration of tourism resources, and improve enterprise performance theory instruction are put forward. This article research also has the following limitations: first of all, this paper combines a number of well-known scholars questionnaire about the process of resource integration, such as resource integration process of the reliability of the questionnaire still needs to be empirically in practice many times; Secondly, the relationship between resource integration and enterprise performance of online tourism enterprises is to be graded in a self-assessment way, while self-assessment is subjective and can lead to deviation. Once again, the data in this paper comes from online travel companies in China, but in different countries and different backgrounds, the results may vary.

Cite this paper

Guo, C. and Zhang, M. (2017) Research on the Relationship between Enterprise Resource Integration and Enterprise Performance—Taking Online Travel Enterprises as an Example. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 7, 1031-1044. doi: 10.4236/ajibm.2017.79073.

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