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Transformational Leadership, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intentions: The Direct Effects among Bank Representatives

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DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2017.74029    681 Downloads   1,107 Views  

ABSTRACT

Transformational leadership is the current design for numerous financial institutions which manifests how bank executives could impact psychological as well as behavioral repercussions of their bank representatives. The ultimate intention of this descriptive research study is to identify the connection between transformational leadership, job satisfaction and organizational commitment of workforces operating in the financial market of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A five-point Likert-scale questionnaire, containing 38 survey items, separated right into four components which developed and reviewed. Four financial institutions were sorted out on a straightforward and unique testing principle. An overall of 300 questionnaires apportioned in four banks from which 181 questionnaires reciprocated with 60.33 percent response rate. For the objective of manipulation and analysis, useable data grasped to a software package called SPSS. The integrity of the questionnaire was examined and found to be 0.85. The research outcomes unveiled a robust assistance for the proposed significant and positive connection between transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment of bank representatives. The outcomes additionally suggested the inverted relationship among personnel’s job satisfaction as well as for purposes to abdicate from their financial institutions.

1. Introduction

A multitude of financial institutions has carried out superior quality of practices so as to endure in banking service and be available in exposure to challenging competitors. Bank personnel are the advanced functionality components that would indeed adopt the breezes from steer to their opponents in the marketplace [1] . Suitable bank employees with commitment, efficiency, and involvement are essential to critical success and economic conveniences. Bank personnel ought to lead and grappling of in an efficient, reliable, and an appropriate fashion in spite that bank employees were social, linguistically, and ethnically varied with each other. Dynamic bank personnel is extremely imperative as well as an integrator of financial societies that leads a synchronized approach to meet a general requirement. Business effectiveness meant on the leadership style of the institution. Leadership principles are probably conceived to be a critical element in the execution throughout business makeover [2] [3] .

Leadership must be augmented from traditional inflexible autocratic style to modern and amiable style if bank innovators prefer to develop an efficacious significance on organizations, clusters as well as entities. The renowned variable of this particular research study is transformational leadership. The fundamental purpose of this investigation is to examine whether transformational leadership executed by financial executives of Saudi Arabia or otherwise as research studies discovered that Arab financial institutions utilized bureaucratic and authoritative leadership styles where leadership streamlined [4] . The organizational com- mitment could associate with bank personnel’s degree of engagement in their task as well as the institution. Certainly, there are three original styles of organizational commitment which are affective, continuance and normative. In the present research, the focal point will be an organizational commitment as a whole. Researchers indicate that organizational commitment is a crucial variable that incredibly impinges individuals’ enthusiasm to undertake efficiently, cognizance of being linked with, and sureness in corporate leadership [5] .

Saudi Arabian Financial Industry

An organization that is managing to nurture international monetary collaboration stated that Saudi Arabia has a middle-sized, bank-oriented corporate governance in the financial sector, in which financial institutions play a pivotal role in the funding of the organizations and be able to exercise some control via the board structure [6] . Its financial institutions have utilized with excellent loan-to- deposit proportions and little publicity to multinational financial obligation as well as hazardous lending, as an outcome of vigorous economic policy, including exorbitant reserve and liquidity needs for financial institutions. Proportional to its local competitors, Saudi Arabia’s financial industry is reasonably shielded from the international economic markets; different small-scale states of Middle Eastern political organization, which participate in the substantial cross-border financing, most of Saudi financial institutions’ constant publicity goes to the residence. Unavailable of mortgage regulation, financial institutions had little publicity to national property arenas. This notion, together with its background of economic vigilance, could have added to the approximately remarkable efficiency of the Saudi financial industry with the current debt crisis as well as taking the place of an economic situation. Adhering the international economic turmoil and credit development decelerated, financial institutions needed to enhance loan-loss arrangements and limiting revenues. No Saudi Arabian financial institutions required the funding additions carried out to their local competitors by leading financial institutions [7] .

It was interesting to observe that Saudi Arabia’s financial industry is uninterrupted to direct exposure of dynamic progress even though the general macroeconomic context is being problematic [8] . Agreeing to the outcomes of an assessment launched in March 2014 by research specialist solutions Ernst and Young, 53 percent of Saudi locals have a total dependence on their essential economic services provided by the finance industry, enormously over the international standard of 44 percent. Respondents to the questionnaire detailed that the keynote such as characteristic, the sensitivity of the information, and costing of services was among the significant elements in building confidence. Almost 70 percent stated that their dependence on financial institutions had boosted in 2012 when the last research was carried out. The constructive consequences emanated in the rise of a resilient year for Saudi financial institutions. The twelve largest borrowers perceived earnings climb by 7.18 percent in 2013, while consolidated properties broadened by even further compared to 9 percent amounting to USD498.7 billion, and collaterals raised by 10 percent with the amount of USD389.3 billion. According to Oxford Business Group in 2014, the credit expansion of the kingdom was healthy as it surpasses the current percentage of loans up to 12.41 percent over the past year [9] .

2. Literature Review

2.1. Leadership

A broad spectrum of explanations for leadership and leadership styles increased over a decade. In this groundwork, leadership is one of the most abundant research aspects within the management humanities as a result of the indispensable ramifications for specific attributes and organizational efficiency, and the mechanism of communication in affecting human resources to accomplish a distinctive objective. It includes several measurements, for instance, qualities, expectancies, and supervisions viewed in the workplace. In a scientific evaluation of [10] on leadership has indeed been identified with three comprehensive styles. Such forms continue to practice in diverse organizational environments, societies, and working frame in these modern times. Among the most remarkable efforts are transactional, transformational and laissez-faire. Transactional leadership pertains with human resources that substitute benefits for the initiative, efficiency, and profession on a little source while transformational leadership applies to unrealistic observation with an objective that can inspire their workforces [11] . In delegative leadership style, leaders have least possible participation in decision making. It enables workforces to make their personal conclusions, yet they are still in-charge of the consequence. Leadership is the foundation of organizational growth, for that reason, leaders ought to determine the ideal leadership style to develop visions, establish approaches, and utilize its power to impact his lower-ranked employees a called for by the financial institution.

Experimental data has exhibited that leadership performs an essential function in organizational restructuration as well as development, particularly in the financial organization. Improvements in the corporate vision, framework, and leadership are hovering in several institutions. Also, it is undoubtedly taking place relating to bureaucracy and business society. The Saudi Arabian financial section has adopted in this research considering of its relevance in the business and economic climate’s exceptional contribution to the gross domestic product. The top financial and credit institutions worldwide have the tendency to embrace developments in the workforce training and organization as a transformation from conventional and hierarchical to a much more versatile arrangement which is considered to be a complicated procedure. Consequently, the financial industry demands leaders able to wield an extensive series of confused problems and integration, arrange and assess mutual collaborations [12] . This understanding, as well as the performance of leadership styles, provides an organization the benefit over their adversaries. A finance industry requires a leader having such attributes which are the transformational leader. This research will certainly concentrate on transformational leadership due to its helpful, efficient, typical kinds of greater work contentment, as well as the most appropriate leadership style for the connection between directors and their bank representatives [13] .

2.2. Transformational Leadership

The buzzword transformational leadership had first created in the research of Downtown in 1973, a principle even more acquired and established attractiveness by Burns in 1978. The concept of transformational leadership broadened by Bass in 1985 [14] . Transformational leadership drives as the most appropriate descriptions of leadership to lead organizational efficiency, adjustment as well as technologies. Transformational leaders tend to exhibit an individual success, high expectations, and acknowledgment, as well as design, preferred behaviors. For instance, academic scientists checked out an exploratory design to analyze the connection in between transformational leadership and group potency of 51 operational team units with 243 participants. The analysis underlined the significance of copious components such as communication, leadership, as well as effectiveness for armed forces decision makers in one of the government-sponsored defense and departments [15] . In the same environment, researchers measured the importance of leadership styles and job stress among bank employees. Their findings prompted that top executives must embrace transformational leadership behaviors to diminish exhaustion and work tension amongst staff members in Ghana’s financial sector [16] .

Researchers unveiled that transformational leadership has correlated to work- forces’ creative thinking and organizational improvement. Some studies concentrate on the partnership in between transformational leadership to organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and organizational trust [17] ; and moreover turnover intention [18] . This design of leadership emerges with multiple leadership behaviors. Individualized consideration signifies that leaders focus on concern, growth, as well as appreciate of their workforces. Intellectual stimulation holds leaders’ propensities to introduce and challenge the status quo of innovative designs. Inspirational motivation attributes to leaders’ inclination in supporting their workforces by hoisting their awareness using an excellent foresight of the eventuality. Idealized influence embodies leader’s personal attraction and assertiveness that make them an exemplar of outstanding which stimulates and affect their staff members [19] . Excellent supervisory ambidexterity is a new qua- lity of transformational leadership which is likewise crucial for a transformational leader. They added that without using both expedition and exploitation associated strategies all at once, transformational leadership could not execute efficiently. These remarkable qualities as an ingredient of organizations’ capacity are required to be active in the executive progress and future transforming need [20] . In this research, academic scholars claimed that transformational leaders are the most decisive, powerful, and worthwhile for an organization.

2.3. Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction as a complicated and diverse theory has obtained a substantial interest in the job and organizational literature in social psychology, management, and another discipline. Due to its excellent value, academic scholars and experts have provided their definitions in copious directions. Nevertheless, the most-used interpretations in business literary works are as a universal workforce’s pleasurable mental and psychological situation along with their commitment [21] , or the degree to which workforce comfortable or disgruntled with their works and organizations. Maybe a depiction attached with workforce’s behavior might bring about desirable results. It also examined in degrees of understanding by utilizing multiple constructs or categories. Besides, job satisfaction might be a cultured concept that consists of both intrinsic and extrinsic variables. Researches clarified that intrinsic variables have generated from within job-related rewards consisting of accomplishment, acknowledgment, improvement, as well as responsibility. While extrinsic variables originate from outside structure of environment-related rewards such as commercial negotiation, service treatments, and techniques, an outstanding of partnership with the executive supervisors as well as working environments [22] .

Job satisfaction is an essential subject matter in each institution as it concentrates on both practical and altruistic viewpoints. Following the practical standpoint, a staff member merits to approach in a well-mannered and positive tone. While the altruistic view insinuates that employee or job satisfaction could lead to individual behaviors that develop organizational efficiency [23] . Reference [24] analysis linked transformational leadership with employee job satisfaction. His findings indicate that both variables have a significant interconnection with each other. It signifies that motivational actions of transformational leader could create adjustments in a psychological disposition of participants. Additionally, research study recommends that staff members should be regarded their leader as being trustworthy described more job satisfaction and less work instability [25] . It can be an expert forecaster of intentions or final thoughts of staff members to desisting from the workplace. Having broad application, researchers of both empirical and academic documentation provides the concept that specific distinctions can discuss irregularity in employee perspectives and behaviors through job satisfaction.

2.4. Organizational Commitment

Also, Meyer and Allen’s recommended three-component design considered as the most extensively adopted concepts in organizational commitment [28] . It underlines continuance commitment (employees weigh up the pros and cons of leaving the organization), affective commitment (employees affection to stay with the institution), and normative commitment (employees feel a sense of obligation to the team). These unique models of commitment will unquestionably have changing results on the organization’s effectiveness, and also an individual could present facets of every one of them. They revealed that staff members who are highly dedicated are least necessary to abandon the organization. High quantities of organizational commitment could deliver positive corporate performance along with support to the team [29] . However, to continue the staff members in the various institutions, executive managers must implement pleasurable and facilitative job setting. It is additionally the primary obligation of the administration to provide training programs for impression management and abilities to intensify the individuality qualities of staff members within suited channels [30] .

2.5. Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

Each administration has an obligation to consider regarding the relevance of staff member’s job satisfaction as well as their organizational commitment to accomplish the sufficient degree of organizations. These two variables should constantly be observed and determined while understanding various components that directly or indirectly influence both job satisfaction and organizational commitment by personalities. Staff members are the cornerstone from financial resources and also have a continuous impression on the premium of assistance delivered. A substantial connection between job satisfaction and organizational commitment has validated in the earlier research studies. Researchers attested that there is a necessary attachment between job satisfaction and organizational commitment [31] . If a staff member contented with the assignment, high top quality of engagement will unquestionably provide. Based upon all of them, the forecasters from these variables might create an excellent method for the production of multiple strategies in healthcare establishments. For instance, academic scientists explore the association between instructors’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment as well as measures either educator’s age moderates the link between their contentment and dedication. They discovered that job satisfaction favorably associated along with organizational commitment [32] . The reciprocity from each variable dissents in a method intended for the educators’ age. They found that more experienced teachers reveal higher degrees from organizational commitment due to some enigmas: i) shortage from readily accessible options, ii) challenging for staff members to leave because of fewer work possibilities, and iii) or even disturbance from their daily living.

Reference [33] figure out and review to which measure the job satisfaction is suitable for the development of the organizational commitment. It ascertained in the examination that job satisfaction and organizational commitment had manifested a substantial connection to each other. Moreover, revealed that job satisfaction is reliable on all dimensions of commitment. Several types of research have been proposed to figure out if there is a distinction in the qualities of job satisfaction experienced by ladies and gentlemen. Reference [34] check out the association between job satisfaction and organizational commitment from sales representative as well as the magnitude of which sales reps’ sexuality measured the connections between the variables. The analysis displayed that relationship from variables is favorably correlated. Furthermore, its relationship is moderated by sex, such that this is more plausible for gentlemen in comparison to ladies. They considered that just as long as they are delighted along with multiple pro- jects attributes are more indispensable to all of them, women could decide on projects that spend much less. Also, it mentioned that the longer they continued to be in their works, the more suitable they execute a greater degree of involvement in decision-making to reach business purchases. Current research studies validate the hypothesis that job satisfaction is a positive predictive index of organizational commitment [35] . The theoretical, as well as the academic structure of this particular investigation, considers that job satisfaction leads to organizational commitment.

2.6. Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intentions

Previously years, an assortment of conceptual designs for the turnover method have been established and executed. Normally, workforce turnover accustomed into two classifications: voluntary turnover and involuntary turnover. Voluntary turnover describes selection primarily created through workers leaving behind the institution, consisting of all retirement types; involuntary turnover pertains to the arrangement from turnover mostly created by the venture, featuring fire, discharge, and diverse applications. For supervisors from institutions, involuntary turnover may anticipate as well as manage, however, voluntary turnover often to be erratic ahead of time [36] . While designs have varied sources from a vast sphere of disciplines, numerous analysts have speculated that job satisfaction is the important determinant of turnover intentions. Turnover intention is a lengthy procedure given that starts along with considering about leaving the institution followed by the objective to seek a new work opportunity, and the ultimate cognitive measure is indeed engaged for the purpose to desist. The goal to quit is not merely considered as a significant component from real turnover yet also delivers vital, relevant information for management to regulate staff members’ avoidance behaviors. Workforces with higher turnover intention often manage to become less active and profitable [37] .

Considerable connections between job satisfaction and turnover intention have introduced in dozens of research studies. Researchers reported that job satisfaction had an adverse and decreased connection on turnover intention [38] . An observational analysis implies that extrinsic and intrinsic have an inverted relationship on staff members’ turnover intentions [39] . Financial experts and academic scholars understood that strong abrogating correlation between job satisfaction and turnover intention is the attestation of the reality that fascinated staff members along with their responsibilities, the turnover symmetry minimized in the organization. Pursuing this further, staff officials serving for extended times in their institution had a high concentration of job satisfaction. Based on the analysis-synthesis paper from International Labour Office in Geneva, extending the period of hours per worker can boost performance as well as organizational productivity. Because of this, staff members were certainly not vulnerable to desist [40] . As turnover impacted through work frustration, financial executives ought to weigh thoroughly and strengthened job satisfaction to minimize the expense from employee turnover and create monthly-loyalty programs among bank representatives.

2.7. Transformational Leadership, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment

The leadership styles similar to a building, human resource, emblematic and political from a supervisor could define employee job satisfaction. Infinite empirical studies have explained the relationship between leadership styles and followers’ job satisfaction. For instance, academic scholars implied that job satisfaction determined by these leadership styles and they could contribute to individuals’ comfort with their assignment [41] , as well as in the quality and effectiveness of the organization [42] . The analyst affirmed that executives promoting mindset could improve and influence the elements associated with staff members’ job satisfaction. If managers are in an excellent rapport with their workers, it could result having the satisfied personnel. Moreover, if workforces have provided the advantage to involve in strategic planning of organization, would certainly increase their job satisfaction [43] . The research prescribed transferring the traditional autocratic management style into participative management.

Reference [44] discovered a healthy relationship between leadership styles, values and standards at job satisfaction, motivation, performance and organizational commitment. Supervisors ought to can utilize several techniques for complex scenarios. Separate management methods need to be administered based on institution’s culture to intensify organizational efficiency. Examination demonstrated that subordinates operating in collectivist cultures acquire job satisfaction from a manager with instructions and inspiration whereas subordinates working in individualistic cultures are content with their actions as a result of self-reliance and work possibilities granted by their managers. Reference [45] documented that staff member along with an individualistic dimension of organizational culture and constitutional dimension of leadership style blending to influence undoubtedly on the quality of job lifestyle. There are numerous managerial techniques which might have an impact on staff members’ job satisfaction, and their organizational commitment however one must necessarily acknowledge thereby is transformational leadership. This research study recognizes transformational leadership due to its own helpful, imaginative as well as efficient attributes. Nowadays, most of the institutions are split-shift from traditional autocratic style to transformational style since staff members are not merely viewing financial advantages yet they likewise demand assistance and support from their administration.

2.8. Theoretical Framework

The below research model (Figure 1) is demonstrating the correlation between the independent variable (IVs) and dependent variables (DVs). In this research study, transformational leadership and job satisfaction are acting as IV while organizational commitment, as well as turnover intentions, are treating as DVs.

Figure 1. Research proposed model.

The figure is explaining that transformational leadership is undoubtedly influencing workforces’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment from which is inferred our first two theories H1 and H2. Whereas job satisfaction is affecting workforces’ organizational commitment positively and turnover intention negatively on this detailed our H3 and H4.

3. Research Design

The research analysis was carried out with a proposal to examine the correlation between transformational leadership, job satisfaction, as well as an organizational commitment of bank representatives serving in the banking sector in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In this research four banks, Al Bilad, Al Rajhi, Riyad, and Saudi British have used as a representation through simple proceeding procedure. Individually distributed questionnaires had been utilized to manage data. The questionnaire comprised of 38 survey items, out of which 20 questions investigated transformational leadership, seven questions were associated with job satisfaction while 11 survey items contained the organizational commitment of bank employees. 300 questionnaires scattered to four sample banks out of which 211 were declared, but 181 were applicable as 30 surveys were unfinished or filled out mistakenly. Strengthening the response rate and assure representativeness, supplemental questionnaires were disseminated using online correspondence.

The instrument applied in the contemporary research was individually directed questionnaire as of leading principal research and sampling is the most valuable medium for this nature of investigation [46] . The questionnaires confirmed productive and practical instrument as it needed a subtle period to manage data and all the difficulties or ambiguities that respondents might have had discarded at the place. Besides, as the investigation had certain variables, the acknowledgments could not perceive without requesting direct inquiries. Multifactor leadership questionnaire established by [47] was used to measure the respondents’ awareness regarding the transformational leadership. The MLQ is a 5-point Liker scale used, where 1 = not at all and 5 = frequently, if not always. The exploration implemented a 5-point Likert questionnaire where 1 = completely unsatisfied and 5 = completely satisfied, to ascertain the overall job satisfaction of bank representatives, as proposed by [48] . The questionnaire outlined and executed based on international standards. The researcher used the instrument where 1 = Strongly Disagree and 5 = Strongly Agree, which created by [49] to measure the turnover intentions of the bank representatives. Based on the survey interpretation, the reliability and validity of this instrument were defined to be 0.85 i.e. Cronbach α value. The researchers have ratified a questionnaire detailed by [50] to measure a significant variable of the analysis that is the organizational commitment of the bank representatives. It was a 5-point Likert scale survey where 1 = strongly Disagree, and 5 = strongly Agree, and 11 specific items were decided from this sampling to delimit the organizational commitment of bank representatives.

Validity and reliability are the standards of compatibility. This procedure designates if the research instrument weighed what it signifies to measure. In general understanding, Cronbach’s alpha of 0.7 has accepted as high and valid. A mark of the detailed reliability of questionnaire exhibited a coefficient of 0.877. The implication is that the 38 survey items measured the independent and dependent variables did that reliability and validity.

An equal quantity of 300 questionnaires has scattered to destination banks operating in Jeddah. The response rate was 60.33 percent. Al Bilad returned 75 questionnaires, 48 from Al Rajhi, 26 from Riyad Bank, and 32 surveys collected from Saudi British Bank. The surveys delivered were either totally countered or carried few unsettled questions for which mid-points have taken.

The Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) has used in entering the collected data. The responses of the bank representatives about transformational leadership, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions calculated. For meaningless responses, mid-points (average) considered suitable, as five-point Likert-type scale opted for use and the meaningless responses were used as undecided responses and counted as such. It measured whether the relationship exists between transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment on the basis of responses of bank representatives, the effect of job satisfaction on organizational commitment and turnover intentions was also observed. The research outcomes presented in the next section.

4. Findings of the Study

4.1. Demographic Analysis

Table 1 exhibits the demographic information of this research. The population consisted of the banking sector in Jeddah and data had been collected from Al Bilad Bank (41.4 percent), Al Rajhi Bank (26.5 percent), Riyad Bank (14.4 percent) and Saudi British Bank (17.7 percent). Survey respondents included 75.7 percent males and 24.3 percent females. 59.9 percent of the interviewees belonged to 21 - 30 years of age, 33.3 percent employees belonged to 31 - 40 years old. Employees having master’s degree showed 53 percent of the sample, graduated

Table 1. Demographic analysis.

employees were 43.1 percent of the sample whereas, 3.9 percent of the sample belonged to employees lying in a category other than mentioned above. Employees having experience less than two years comprised 18.8 percent of the sample, 2 - 4 years experienced bank employees were 34.4 percent of the sample, 4 - 6 years experienced employees comprised 33.7 percent of the sample whereas, 12.2 percent of the sample displayed bank employees having experience of more than six years.

4.2. Descriptive Statistics

Table 2 displays the mean values of transformational leadership, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intentions. The mean value for general job satisfaction calculated as 3.44 determining the satisfaction level of bank employees towards several perspectives of their job. The results indicate the aggregate mean value of 2.42 for transformational leadership defines the employees’ views about a creative and team-oriented leadership style of the supervisor. Results attest that bank employees discontented from their managers. Based on bank employees’ responses, it discovered that managers do not support their innovative thinking. They do not acknowledge their personal input before taking or implementing a decision. The mean value for organizational commitment calculated as 3.28 depicts the level of emotional attachment of bank employees have with their organizations. The results confirm that bank employees are faithful to their institutions. They consider the pride to be part of it, find similarity between their individual and organizational values, and continuously receive a particular job for the smooth operation of the organization as per their capacity. The mean value of a turnover calculated as 2.56 which indicate the turnover intentions of bank employees. Results show that bank employees have no intention to quit their jobs and they are not seeking for new employment. They prefer to stay in their current organizations.

4.3. Regression Analysis

Table 3 presents the outcomes of regression analysis, which illustrate the dependence of job satisfaction and organizational commitment (dependent variables) on transformational leadership (independent variable) and dependence of organizational commitment and turnover intentions on job satisfaction. The value of R specifies the high point of the relationship between IVs and DVs and lies between 0 - 1. If R value is close to 1, it means that the correlation between dependent and independent variables is vigorous. Usually, a model is considered to be acceptable if importance value decreases between 0 percent and 5 percent. Regression coefficients (β) represent the degree to which one or more independent variables have connected to the dependent variable.

Table 2. Descriptive statistics.

Table 3. Regression analysis.

Note: TL = Transformational Leadership; JS = Job Satisfaction; OC = Organizational Commitment; TI = Turnover Intention.

The regression analysis of transformational leadership and job satisfaction specifies that 42 percent (R2 = 0.422) variation in job satisfaction is due to the transformational leadership while remaining 58 percent is the inexplicable variability. R value as 0.65 displays a healthy relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction. The results (F = 130.689, P < 0.05) specifies that the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction is significantly important and our model is appropriate. Results suggest that transformational leadership and job satisfaction has connected to each other at the .05 significance level. Regression coefficients (β) of transformational leadership as 0.82 confirm that there exists an active and massively significant correlation between transformational leadership and job satisfaction. Likewise, 1 unit in transformational leadership will bring 0.82 unit variations in job satisfaction in a constructive direction.

The regression analysis of transformational leadership and organizational commitment reveals that 24 percent (R2 = 0.242) difference in organizational commitment is anticipated from transformational leadership while remaining 76 percent is the inexplicable variability. The value as 0.49 explains a close relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment. The results (F = 57.230, P < 0.05) confirms that the relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment is exceedingly remarkable and our model is suitable. Results represent that transformational leadership and organizational commitment has correlated to each other at the 0.05 significance level. Regression coefficients (β) of transformational leadership as 0.70 which exemplifies that there exists an active and massively significant relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment. Furthermore, 1 unit in transformational leadership will carry 0.70 unit variations in organizational commitment in a progressive direction.

The regression analysis of job satisfaction and employees’ turnover intentions explains that job satisfaction takes 2.8 percent (R2 = 0.028) difference in employees’ turnover intentions. R value as 0.169 displays a comparatively weak relationship between job satisfaction and employees’ turnover intentions. The results (F = 5.237, P < 0.05) indicates that the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intentions is profoundly vital and our model is relevant. Results illustrate that job satisfaction and turnover intentions have negatively linked to each other at the 0.05 significance level. A regression coefficient (β) of job satisfaction as −0.146 confirms that there exists a negative relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Moreover, one unit in job satisfaction will deliver 0.146 section differences in turnover intentions in the adverse direction. This statistics discloses that greatly contented bank employees have fewer views to abandon their workplace.

The regression analysis of job satisfaction and organizational commitment indicates that 14 percent (R2 = 0.147) variation in organizational commitment is due to the job satisfaction while remaining 84 percent is the unexplained variability. The R value as 0.38 reveals a great relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The results (F = 30.795, P < 0.05) means that the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment is highly notable and our model is relevant. Results describe that job satisfaction, and organizational commitment has absolutely and rigidly associated with each other at the 0.05 significance level. A regression coefficient (β) of overall job satisfaction as 0.43 records that there exists a precise and highly notable relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Also, 1 unit in job satisfaction will lead 0.43 unit variations in organizational commitment in a definite direction.

5. Discussion

The hypothesis 1 specifies that an active connection exists between transformational leadership and employees’ job satisfaction. Under hypothesis 2 forecasts a positive association between transformational leadership and employees’ organizational commitment. On the manner from above analytical findings, it discovered that transformational leadership has considerably positive impact at the degree of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Transformational leadership delivers 42 percent improvement and 24 percent in job satisfaction and organizational commitment apiece. The results from the research underpin both the hypothesis and validate that through embracing transformational leadership style, bank managers may attain extra satisfaction as well as fully committed personnel. If staff members are delighted along with their job, they are going to conduct far better which are ultimately lead to the effectiveness of the organizations. Staff members who have closed work-relationship with transformational leader possess a greater amount of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The outcome is relevant as it suggests that transformational leadership which is a contemporary, as well as modern concept principle in the topic of leadership have appreciated through the bank representatives of the financial institutions. Workers are comfortable and satisfied through this method of supportive leadership as it stimulates them by embracing a perspective that nurtures staff members, presents them a vision, promotes confidence, assists them to create innovatively, individualized consideration and expand the interaction which eventually develops their level of job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

Hypothesis 3 and 4 of the research has linked to the influence of job satisfaction on organizational commitment and bank employees’ turnover intentions. Under hypothesis 3 affirms that more fulfilled bank representatives have fewer purposes to desist their organization. The statistical conclusions noticed a different and notable correlation between job satisfaction and employees’ intentions to leave their organization which attests that our hypothesis 3 has allowed. Also, the outcomes reveal that higher level of job satisfaction among bank employees would occur in a lower rate of turnover. Job satisfaction is significant on staff members’ turnover intentions as fewer appeased employees will have complex sentiments and finally choose to discontinue from their present organization and explore for a better place of work. The significant percentage of quitting the institution can manifest to be detrimental to an organization’s copiousness if equipped and proficient employees are often leaving their responsibilities and shifting to other bank agencies with a high percentage of new hires. Hypothesis 4 replies that more top contented staff members have committed to their organizations. Regression effects of this link ascertained that there exists a precise and highly meaningful connection between job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

The research findings support hypothesis 4 and validate the effects of past evidence that job satisfaction has a substantial impact on organizational commitment in an explicit guidance. If bank employees are delighted with their careers, they will be more interested and dependable to their organizations. It witnessed that staff members will not view other employment in parallel to their present jobs and questionable to transfer towards other institutions. Furthermore, to maintain their current satisfying works, workers will provide their real performance, that can be beneficial for the organization. Hence, if bank executives prefer to get more dedicated employees, they should strive to strengthen staff members’ level of satisfaction with their assignments that will conclusively appear in moderate turnover rate.

This investigation has narrowed to three conventional banks and one Islamic bank. One Islamic bank did not show the entire community of Islamic banks. This determinant restricts the completion of the research. The generalization of the present study has curtailed because of the small sample size and nature of the sample (mainly young males). There is a possibility that conclusions might have limited external validity, and these results cannot execute on a different community. Also, the research analysis has decreased to the impact of overall transformational leadership and job satisfaction. It seemed not recognize the influence of distinct elements of transformational leadership and job satisfaction. Moreover, transformational leadership is a recent theory which modifies organization values, culture, beliefs and leadership styles although sometimes personal values as well as organization’s culture are not transformable.

This comprehensive study analyzed the correlation linking transformational leadership, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions. A future study could expect infinite variables such as job performance. And as the scope of organizational size is determining the variables in this investigation, future researchers should view examining the smaller size of organizations. Comparative study of this detailed research can create among global organizations and small-medium industries. By echoing and introducing a unique design of leadership with distinct procedures can indeed be improved and performed efficiently in a diversified culture. It is likewise plausible that additional research preparing on the elements of job satisfaction that involved compensation, management, innovation, work environment, promotion and other areas to an even remarkable level can indeed underline, as neither of these perspectives has dissected in detail in the present research.

6. Conclusions and Recommendations

As this analysis examined the populace from the banking industry, future exploration ought to study on identical research structure at distinct populace clusters like the telecommunication, development, hospitality or even the production market. That could be a challenging entailing more than one sector of the examined populace enhances the findings from the outcome of an evaluation can produce. Although transformational leadership is a tool to establish a greater amount from job satisfaction and organizational commitment variables, it is advisable for the potential academic scientists to administer meetings to acquire additional comprehensive details on the aspects that contribute to staff members’ turnover intention.

The research recommended that transformational leaders ought to support staff members to end up being ingenious, cutting-edge and provide such vigorous concepts to satisfy the organizational goals. Transformational leaders are promoted to cultivate an even more solid preparation as well as systems that could boost the workers’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment which are eventually lead to the lower rate of turnover. Unluckily, this form of leadership is not exercised by the bank managers of Saudi Arabia. The results of this recent study depicted that if bank executives use transformational leadership attitude, they would get more contented and dedicated bank representatives.

Cite this paper

Abouraia, M. and Othman, S. (2017) Transformational Leadership, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intentions: The Direct Effects among Bank Representatives. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 7, 404-423. doi: 10.4236/ajibm.2017.74029.

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