Evaluation of an Educational Programme to Facilitate Critical Thinking of Student Nurses

Download Download as PDF (Size:4745KB)  HTML   XML  PP. 1-24  
DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103064    283 Downloads   398 Views  


This article deals with phase 4 of the study, namely the evaluation of the educational programme developed in phase 2. The development of the educational programme was aimed at the facilitation of the development of critical thinking in the student nurse. The purpose of phase four (4) was to evaluate whether the researcher had achieved the objective of the educational programme, namely to facilitate the development of critical thinking skills of the final year student nurse. Specific objectives were therefore set for phase 4. Further, hypotheses were formulated and tested during this phase of the study. The aim of formulating a hypothesis was to determine whether any development had taken place in the experimental group who participated in the educational programme. All fourth-year nursing students (47) who complied with the inclusion criteria participated in the educational programme. Each participant consented in writing to be part of the programme—including the pretest and posttest. A total of 53 students participated as the control group in the pretest and posttest. All the participants in the experimental and control groups of the study were registered for the Comprehensive Diploma in Nursing at the University of Namibia. Reasons were advanced in chapter 3 for the fact that the participants in the study were final-year students at the Windhoek and Oshakati campuses of the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences. It was concluded that the implementation and evaluation of a three-day educational programme on the facilitation of the development of critical thinking within a quasi-experimental design had desired results. Students from both the main campus (Windhoek) and the Northern Campus (Oshakati) of the Department of Nursing at the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences of the University of Namibia were included in the quasi-experiment. Internal validity of the design was ensured by eliminating the threats to an experimental design.

Cite this paper

Pretorius, L. , Amukugo, H. , Dyk, A. and Small, L. (2016) Evaluation of an Educational Programme to Facilitate Critical Thinking of Student Nurses. Open Access Library Journal, 3, 1-24. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1103064.


[1] Quinn, F.M. (2000) Principles and Practice of Nurse Education. 4th Edition, Stanley Nelson, Cheltenham.
[2] Quinn, F.M. and Hughes, S.J. (2007) Quinn’s Principles and Practice of Nurse Education. 5th Edition, Stanley Nelson, Cheltenham.
[3] Burnard, P. (1995) Learning Human Skills. An Experiential and Reflective Guide for Nurses. 3rd Edition, Butterworth-Heineman, Oxford.
[4] Howard College (2006) Quality Enhancement Plan: Critical Thinking… for Learning, for Earning, for Life!
[5] Conger, M.M. and Mezza, I. (1996) Fostering Critical Thinking in Nursing Students in the Clinical Setting. Nurse Educator, 21, 11-15.
[6] Robinson, D.L. (1998) Clinical Decision Making for Nurse Practitioners: A Case Study Approach. Lip-pincott-Raven, Washington.
[7] Teekman, B. (2000) Exploring Reflective Thinking in Nursing Practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31, 1125-1135.
[8] De Villiers, L. (1999) Criteria for a Nursing Curriculum for the New Millennium. Health SA Gesondheid, 4, 61-70.
[9] Redding, D.A. (2001) The Development of Critical Thinking among Students in Baccalaureate Nursing Education. Holistic Nursing Practice, 15, 57-64.
[10] Souers, C. (2002) Teaching Strategies. Nurse Educator, 27, 9-12.
[11] Jones, R.P. (2001) Foundations of Critical Thinking. Harcourt College Publishers, Fortworth.
[12] Burnard, P. (1989) Developing Critical Thinking Ability in Nurse Education. Nurse Education Today, 9, 271-275.
[13] Johns, R.M. (2002) Before Critical Thinking Comes Independent Thinking: The Special Educational Challenge of Students to Think. The Successful Professor, 1, 1-12.
[14] Van Den Berg, M.E.S. (2000) Is There a Need for critical Thinking Skills’ Modules at Tertiary Level. South African Journal of Higher Education, 14, 98-107.
[15] Andolina, M. (2001) Critical Thinking for Working Students. Thomson Learning, Albany.
[16] Dillard, N. and Laidig, J. (1998) Curriculum Development: An Overview. In: Billings, D.M. and Halstead, J.A., Eds., Teaching in Nursing, Saunders, Tokyo, 69-81.
[17] Grundy, S. (1987) Curriculum: Product or Praxis. Falmer, Philadelphia.
[18] Hagerman, L.-A. (2004) Developing Critical Thinking through a Case Study Approach: A Publication of the Instructional Development Centre. Teaching at Trent, 7, 1-3.
[19] Finke, L.M. and Boland, D.L. (1998) Curriculum Designs. In: Billings, D.M. and Halstead, J.A., Eds., Teaching in Nursing, Saunders, Tokyo, 117-134.
[20] Heimlich, J.E. and Norland, E. (1994) Developing Teaching Style in Adult Education. Jossey-Bass, San Fransisco.
[21] Grotelueschen, A.D. (N.D.) Program Evaluation. In: Knox, A.B., Ed., Developing, Administering and Evaluating Adult Education, Electronic Version, Jossey-Bass, San Fransisco.
[22] Boland, D.L. (1998) Developing Curriculum. Frameworks, Outcomes and Competencies. In: Billings, D.M. and Halstead, J.A., Eds., Teaching in Nursing, Saunders, Tokyo, 135-149.
[23] Jeska, S.B. (1998) Competence Assessment Models and Methods. In: Kelly-Thomas, K.J., Ed., Clinical and Nursing Staff Development: Current Competence, Future Focus, 2nd Edition, Lippincott, Philadelphia, 121-144.
[24] Posner G.J. and Rudnitsky, A.N. (1997) Course Design. A Guide to Curriculum Development for Teachers. 5th Edition, Longman, New York.
[25] Wright, I. (2003) Is That Right? Critical Thinking and the Social World of the Young Learner. Pippin, Toronto.
[26] Jensen, E. (2006) Enriching the Brain: How to Maximize Every Learner’s Potential. Jossey Bass, San Francisco.
[27] Massello, D.J. (1998) Operations Management: Administering the Program. In: Kelly-Thomas, K.J., Ed., Clinical and Nursing Staff Development: Current Competence, Future Focus, 2nd Edition, Lippincott, Philadelphia, 337-379.
[28] Alfaro-Le Fevre, R. (2004) Critical Thinking and Clinical Judgment. 3rd Edition, Saunders, St. Louis.
[29] Bandman, E.L. and Bandman, B. (1988) Critical Thinking in Nursing. Appleton & Lange, Connecticut.
[30] Naidoo, K. (1996) Nurturing Self-Direction in Adult Learning. South African Journal of Higher Education, 10, 86-91
[31] Oermann, M.H. and Gaberson, K.B. (1998) Evaluation and Testing in Nursing Education. Springer, New York.
[32] Richardson, V. (1998) The Diverse Learning Needs of Students. In: Billings, D.M. and Halstead, J.A., Eds., Teaching in Nursing, Saunders, Tokyo, 17-34.
[33] Follman, J. (2003) Research on Nurses’ Critical Thinking. Cul de sac? Nurse Educator, 28, 255-256.
[34] Jooste, K. (2003) Leadership in Health Services Management. Juta, Lansdowne.
[35] Canton, P. (1996) Professional Development as Transformative Learning. New Perspectives for Teachers of Adults. Jossey-Bass, San Francis-co.
[36] Babbie, E. and Mouton, J. (2001) The Practice of Social Research. South Africa Oxford University Press, Cape Town.
[37] Polit, D.E. and Beck, C.T. (2006) Essentials of Nursing Research. 6th Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia.
[38] Hicks, F.D. (2001) Critical Thinking: Toward a Nursing Science Perspective. Nursing Science Quarterly, 14, 14-21.
[39] Khosravani, S., Manoochehri, H. and Memarian, R. (2005) Developing Critical Thinking Skills in Nursing Students by Group. The Internet Journal of Advanced Nursing Practice, 7, 3. http://www.scirp.org/(S(351jmbntvnsjt1aadkposzje))/reference
[40] Davis, N.T., Kumtepe, E.G. and Aydeniz, M. (2007) Fostering Continuous Improvement and Learning through Peer Assessment: Part of an Integral Model of Assessment. Educational Assessment, 12, 112-135.
[41] Carlisle, C. and Ibbotson, T. (2005) Introducing Problem-Based Learning into Research Methods Teaching: Student and Facilitator Evaluation. Nurse Education Today, 25, 527-541. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2005.05.005
[42] Vockell, E.L. and Asher, J.W. (1995) Educational Research. 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.