FNS> Vol.2 No.6, August 2011

Nutritional Contribution of Some Senegalese Forest Fruits Running across Soudano-Sahelian Zone

DownloadDownload as PDF (Size:358KB)  HTML    PP. 606-612  

ABSTRACT

As a good food supply for the local people in various Senegalese regions, the forest fruits are becoming very important. They are using between foods or main condiment for dishes in many part of Africa. These fruits represent non negligible sources of vitamins, carbohydrates and minerals. Instead of more commercialized species such as Adansonia digitata L., Detarium senegalensis J.F.Gmel., Saba senegalensis (A.DC.) Pichon, Tamarindus indica L., this article focused on nutritional values of other fruits with little interest or neglected. These species were Ficus gnaphalocarpa, L., Cordyla pinnata (Lepr. ex A.Rich.) Milne-Redh. and Icacina senegalensis, harvested in soudano-sahelian zone; while Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A. Bruce belongs to Sudanese zone. The fruit pulps were isolated and freeze dried before analysis. The results showed that acidity, vitamin C and total minerals were significantly different from one fruit to another. S. latifolius with the highest acidity content (402.43 mg/100 g) and best vitamin C content if 1488 mg/100 g were found. Also as results, S. latifolius provided high protein content nearby the 20%. The caloric contributing (kcal/100 g) were 102.5, 177 and 132 respectively for F. gnaphalocarpa, C. pinnata, and S. latifolius. The ash contents were the same for all species (4.5%), indicating the richness in mineral elements. Furthermore, all species in this study were good sources of iron, copper and zinc. However, small amounts of sodium were noticed in all samples. Analysis of total sugars and their profile showed that I. senegalensis and C. pinnata were more appreciated. These results predicted the useful incomes for forest fruits in human being. Lot of medicinal virtues has been recognized from these fruits. The increase in value and the preservation of the biodiversity are necessary particularly for C. pinnata which presents a serious threat because of the strong income for wood production.

Cite this paper

N. Ayessou, C. Ndiaye, M. Cissé, M. Gueye and M. Sakho, "Nutritional Contribution of Some Senegalese Forest Fruits Running across Soudano-Sahelian Zone," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 6, 2011, pp. 606-612. doi: 10.4236/fns.2011.26085.

References

[1] Food and Agriculture Organization, “Etude de la Filière des Produits Forestiers de Cueillette,” FAO, PROjet de GEstion Durable et participative des énergies traditionnelles et de substitution (PROGEDE), 1999.
[2] Ministere de l’Environnement et de la Protection de la Natur, “Politique Forestière du Sénégal pour 2005-2025,” 2005. http://www.fao.org/forestry/15132-0a9d7bd3b848771f0d9522338fd799be4.pdf
[3] A. Kalinganire, J. C. Weber, A. Uwamariya and B. Kone, “Improving Rural Livelihoods through Domestication of Indigenous Fruit Trees in the Parklands of the Sahel,” In: F. K. Akinnifesi, Ed., Indigenous Fruit Trees in the Tropics: Domestication, Utilization and Commercialization, CAB International, London, 2007, pp. 186-203. doi:10.1079/9781845931100.0186
[4] B. Koné, A. Kalinganire and M. Doumbia, “La Culture du Jujubier: Un Manuel Pour l’Horticulteur Sahélien,” Manuel Technique No. 10, World Agroforestry Center, 2009.
[5] Food and Agriculture Organization, “Importance des PFNL dans la Sécurité Alimentaire au Sénégal Rapport Préliminaire,” FAO, Accra, 1999.
[6] C. O. Perera and E. A. Baldwin, “Biochemistry of Fruits and Its Implications on Processing,” In: D. Arthey and P. R. Ashurst, Eds., Fruit Processing: Nutrition, Products, and Quality Management, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, 2001, pp. 25-27.
[7] E. Faye, M. Diatta, A. N. S. Samba and J. Lejoly, “Usages et Dynamique de la Flore Ligneuse dans le Terroir Villageois de Latmingué (Sénégal),” Journal des Sciences et Technologies, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2008, pp. 43-58.
[8] C. T. Allemande, “Plan d’Aménagement et de Gestion Sylvo-Pastorale de la Forêt Classée de Dankou,” Edition GTZ, Dakar, 2005. http://www.peracod.sn/IMG/pdf/PLAN-AMENAGEMENT-FORET-DANKOU-SEPT2005.pdf
[9] J. Giner, V. Gimeno, A. Espachs, P. Elez, G. V. Barbosa-Cánovas and O. Martín, “Inhibition of Tomato (Licopersicon esculentum Mill.) Pectin Methylesterase by Pulsed Electric Fields,” Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2000, pp. 57-67. doi:10.1016/S1466-8564(00)00003-5
[10] A. Samba, C. Camire and H. A. Margolis, “Allometry and Rainfall Interception of Cordyla Pinnata in a Semi-arid Agroforestry Parkland, Senegal,” Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 154, No. 1-2, 2001, pp. 277-288. doi:10.1016/S0378-1127(00)00633-2
[11] S. M. Keita, J. T. Arnason, B. R. Baum and R. Marles, “Etude Ethnopharmacologique Traditionnelle de Quelques Plantes Médicinales Anthelminthiques de la Haute-Guinée (République de Guinée),” Revue de Médecines et Pha- rmacopées Africaines, Vol. 13, 1999, pp. 49-65.
[12] M. N’Diaye, F. B. Kéita and P. Martin, “Principaux Fruits de Cueillette Consommés et Commercialisés en Guinée,” Fruits, Vol. 58, No. 2, 2003, pp. 99-116.
[13] P. Soloviev, T. D. Niang, A. Gaye and A. Totte, “Variabilité des Caractères Physico-chimiques des Fruits de Trois Espèces Ligneuses de Cueillette Récoltés au Sénégal: Adansonia Digitata, Balanites Aegyptiaca et Tamarindus Indica,” Fruits, Vol. 59, No. 2, 2004, pp. 109-119. doi:10.1051/fruits:2004011
[14] S. M. Itef, “Séminaire sur les Statistiques Forestières en Afrique,” Food and Agriculture Organization, Thiès, 1991.
[15] G.-A. Ambé, “Les Fruits Sauvages Comestibles des Savanes Guinéennes de C?te-d’Ivoire: Etat de la Connaissance par Une Population Locale, les Malinké,” Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2001, pp. 43-58.
[16] Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature, “Soutien Informationnel aux Politiques, de Conservation, de Gestion et d’Utilisation des Plantes Médicinales au Sénégal,” Edition UICN, Dakar, 2006.
[17] M. Cissé, M. Sakho, M. Dornier, C. M. Diop, M. Reynes and O. Sock, “Caractérisation du Fruit du Baobab et Etude de sa Transformation en Nectar,” Fruits, Vol. 64, No. 1, 2009, pp. 19-34.
[18] D. A. Gabar, M. Sakho, M. Dornier, M. Cissé and M. Reynes, “Le Baobab Africain (A. digitata L.): Principales Caractéristiques et Utilisations,” Fruits, Vol. 61, No. 1, 2006, pp. 55-69.
[19] M. Muchuweti, G. Zenda, A. R. Ndhlala and A. Kasiyamhuru, “Sugars, Organic Acid and Phenolic Compounds of Ziziphus Mauritiana Fruit,” European Food Research & Technology, Vol. 221, No. 3-4, 2005, pp. 570-574. doi:10.1007/s00217-005-1204-6
[20] F. D. Ugese, P. K. Baiyeri and B. N. Mbah, “Nutritional Composition of Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) Fruit Pulp Across Its Major Distribution Zones in Nigeria,” Fruits, Vol. 63, No. 3, 2008, pp. 163-170. doi:10.1051/fruits:2008006
[21] E. A. Abdel-Rahim, S. S. El-Saadany and M. M. Wasi “Biochemical Action of Balanites Aegyptiaca Fruits as Possible Hypoglycemic Agent,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1986, pp. 307-315. doi:10.1016/0308-8146(86)90054-3
[22] Association Francaise de Normalisation, “Produits Dérivés des Fruits et Légumes, Jus de Fruits,” éd. Association Francaise de Normalisation, Paris, 1982.
[23] M. Cissé, “Caractérisation de Quelques Fruits du Sénégal, Stabilisation et Concentration de Jus de Fruits Tropicaux par des Techniques Membranaires,” Thèse de Doctorat, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Dakar, 2007.
[24] P. Danthu, P. Soloviev, A. Totté, E. Tine, N. Ayessou, A. Gaye, T. D. Niang, M. Seck and M. Fall, “Caractères Physico-chimiques et Organoleptiques Comparés de Jujubes Sauvages et des Fruits de la Variété Gola Introduite au Sénégal,” Fruits, Vol. 57, No. 3, 2001, pp. 173-182. doi:10.1051/fruits:2002016
[25] C. Grollier, C. Debien, M. Dornier and M. Reynes, “Principales Caractéristiques et Voies de Valorisation du Tamarin,” Fruits, Vol. 53, No. 4, 1998, pp. 271-280.
[26] S. W. Souci, W. Fachmann and H. Kraut, “Food Composition and Nutrition Tables,” MedPharm, Stuttgart, 2008.
[27] N. C. Ayessou, M. Gueye, E. Dioh, M. Konteye, M. Cissé and M. Dornier, “Composition Nutritive et Apport Energétique du Fruit de Maerua pseudopetalosa, Aliment de Soudure au Sénégal,” Fruits, Vol. 64, No. 3, 2009, pp. 147-156. doi:10.1051/fruits/2009010
[28] C. F. Bourgeois, “Les Vitamines dans les Industries Agroalimentaires,” TEC et DOC, Paris, 2002.
[29] R. B. Rodriguez, H. C. Menezes, L. M. C. Cabral, M. Dornier, G. M. Rios and M. Reynes, “Evaluation of Reverse Osmosis and Osmotic Evaporation to Concentrate Camu-Camu Juice (Myrciaria dubia),” Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 63, No. 1, 2004, pp. 97-102. doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2003.07.009
[30] J. Graumlich, T. M. Ludden, C. Conry-Cantilena, L. R. Cantilena, Y. Wang and M. Levine, “Pharmacokinetic Model of Ascorbic Acid in Humans during Depletion and Repletion,” Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 14, No. 9, 1997, pp. 1133-1139. doi:10.1023/A:1012186203165
[31] J. Kubola, S. Siriamornpun and N. Meeso, “Phytochemicals, Vitamin C and Sugar Content of Thai Wild Fruits,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 126, No. 3, 2011, pp. 972-981. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.11.104
[32] K. H. Schmidt, V. Hagmaier, D. H. Hornig, J. Vuilleumier and G. Rutishauser, “Urinary Oxalate Excretion after Large Intakes of Ascorbic Acid in Man,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 34, No. 3, 1981, pp. 305-311.
[33] M. Levine, “New Concepts in the Biology and Biochemistry of Ascorbic Acid,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 314, No. 14, 1986, pp. 892-902. doi:10.1056/NEJM198604033141407
[34] Food and Agriculture Organization, “Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements,” FAO/WHO, Bangkok, 1998.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.