Share This Article:

Forearm Bone Mineral Density of Normal Indian Population

PP. 1-5
DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100691    1,887 Downloads   2,176 Views  

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Bone density measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) recognized now as a safe and accurate technique [1] is being done frequently. But the T-score and Z-score values are interpreted using the reference value of Asian population provided by the manufacturer and not of Indian population. This may lead to improper diagnosis of Osteoporosis in Indian population. In this context we compared the young reference values and age-related values of bone density of the normal Indian population with the reference value of Asian population provided by the manufacturer. Methods: Through DEXA normal healthy individuals who were prospective renal donors were scanned. Results & Conclusion: Bone Mineral Density (BMD) of distal radius and ulna, proximal radius and ulna, proximal radius of normal Indian female and BMD of proximal radius and ulna of male population are found to be less considering the reference value of Asian population provided by the manufacturer. Hence it may be inappropriate to use the reference value of Asian population provided by the manufacturer to calculate the T-score and Z-score in Indian population.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Rajan, R. and Subramanian, K. (2014) Forearm Bone Mineral Density of Normal Indian Population. Open Access Library Journal, 1, 1-5. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1100691.

References

[1] Fordham, J.N., Simpson, Pitcher, O., Bates, J. and Jones, S.B. (1994) An Open Access Bone Densitometry Service: Report of First Year’s Operation. The British Journal of Rheumatology, 33, 668-673.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/33.7.668
[2] Startoris, D.J. (1994) Coding and Reimbursement Issues for Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. American Journal of Roentgenology, 163, 137-139.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/ajr.163.1.8010200
[3] Prince, R.L., Smith, M., Dick, M.I., Price, R.I., Webb, P.G., Henderson, N.K. and Harris, M.M. (1991) Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. A Comparative Study of Exercise, Calcium Supplementation and Harmone-Replacement Therapy. The New England Journal of Medicine, 325, 1189-1195.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199110243251701
[4] Dawson-Hughes, B., Harris, S.S., Krall, E.A. and Dallal, G.E. (1997) Effect of Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Density in Men and Women 65 years of Age or Older. The New England Journal of Medicine, 337, 670-676.
[5] WHO Study Group (1994) Assessment of Fracture Risk and Its Application to Screening for Post Menopausal Osteoporosis. WHO Technical Report Series 843, Geneva.
[6] Packe, G.E., Douglas, J.G., McDonald, A.F., Robins, S.P. and Reid, D.M. (1992) Bone Density in Asthmatic Patients Taking High Dose Inhaled Beclomethasone Dipropionate and Intermittent Systemic Corticosteroids. Thorax, 47, 414-417.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thx.47.6.414
[7] Toussirot, E., Michel, F. and Wendling, D. (2001) Bone Density, Ultrasound Measurements and Body Composition in Early Ankylosing Spondylitis. Rheumatology, 40, 882-888.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/40.8.882
[8] Kumar, V., Kalita, J., Gujral, R.B., Sharma, V.P. and Misra, U.K. (2001) A Study of Bone Densitometry in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome after Stroke. Postgraduate Medicine Journal, 77, 519-522.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/pmj.77.910.519
[9] Smith, R., Athanasou, N.A., Ostlere, S.J. and Vipond, S.E. (1995) Pregnancy Associated Osteoporosis. QJM, 88, 865-878.
[10] Kalkwarf, H.J., Specker, B.L., Bianchi, D.C., Ranz, J. and Ho, M. (1997) The Effect of Calcium Supplementation on Bone Density during Lactation and after Weaning. The New England Journal of Medicine, 337, 523-528.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199708213370803
[11] Borders, J., Kerr, E., Sartoris, D.J., Stein, J.A., Ramos, E., Moscona, A.A. and Rensic, D. (1989) Quantitative Dual Energy Radiographic Absorptiometry of the Lumbar Spine in Vivo Comparison with Dual-Photon Absroptiometry. Radiology, 170, 129-131.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiology.170.1.2909085
[12] Wahner, H.W., Dunn, W.L., Mazees, R.B., Towsley, M., Lindsay, R., Markhard, L. and Dempster, D. (1985) Dual Photon Gd-153 Absorptiometry of Bone. Radiology, 156, 203-206.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiology.156.1.4001406
[13] Arici, M., Erturk, H., Altun, B., Usalan, C., Ulusoy, S., Erdem, Y., Sivri, A., Yasavul, U., Turgan, C. and Caglar, S. (2000) Bone Mineral Density in Haemodialysis Patients: A Comparative Study of Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Quantitive Ultrasound. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 15, 1847-1851.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/15.11.1847
[14] Ruegsegger, P., Elsasser, U., Anliker, M., Gnehm, H., Kind, H. and Prader, A. (1976) Qualification of Bone Mineralization Using Computed Tomography. Radiology, 121, 93-97.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/121.1.93
[15] Yamada, M., Ito, M., Hayashi, K., Ohki, M. and Nakamura, T. (1994) Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry of the Calcaneus: Comparison with Other Techniques to Assess Bone Density and Value in Predicting Risk of Spine Fracture. American Journal of Roentgenology, 163, 1435-1440.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/ajr.163.6.7992742
[16] Mazess, R.B., Barden, H.S., Bisek, J.P. and Lunar, J.H. (1990) Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry for Total Body and Regional Bone Mineral and Soft Tissue Composition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 51, 1106-1112.
[17] Ryan, P.J., Blake, G.M., Herd, R., Parker, J. and Fogelman, I. (1994) Post Menopausal Vertebral Osteoporosis: Can Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Forearm Bone Density Substitute for Axial Measurements? Rheumatology, 33, 546-549.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/33.6.546
[18] Nagia, S., Arya, V., Verma, B.R., Gujral, R.B. and Mithal, A. (1997) Spinal Bone Mineral Density in Normal Indian Females. ESICON, Lucknow.
[19] Petlay, G.N., Cotton, A.M., Murills, A.J., Taylor, P.A., Cooper, C., Cawley, M.I.D. and Wilkin, T.J. (1996) Reference Ranges of Bone Mineral Density for Women in Southern England: The Impact of Local Data on the Diagnosis of Osteoporosis. The British Journal of Radiology, 69, 655-660.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/0007-1285-69-823-655
[20] Anburajan, M., Rethinasabapathy, C., Korath, M.P., Ponnappa, B.G., Kumar, K.S., Panicker, T.M.R., Govindan, A., Prasad, G.N.S. and Jagadeesan, K. (2001) Age Related Proximal Femur Bone Mineral Loss in South Indian Women: A Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Study. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 49, 442-445.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.