Share This Article:

Contamination of Environment with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in India

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1441KB) PP. 1268-1278
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.611111    2,867 Downloads   3,310 Views   Citations


Environment in India is contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to occurring of large anthropogenic activities i.e. fuel combustion, mineral roasting and biomass burning. Hence, contamination of 13 toxic PAHs: phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz (a) anthracene, ben-zo (b) fluoranthene, benzo (k) fluoranthene, benzo (a) pyrene, benzo (ghi) perylene, dibenz (ah) anthracene, indeno1,2,3-(cd) pyrene, coronene and coronene in the environment (i.e. ambient particulate matter, road dust, sludge and sewage) of the most industrialized area: Raipur city, India is described. The ΣPAH13 concentration in the 16 environment materials was ranged from 7980 - 1,051,300 μg/kg with mean value of 172,613 ± 154,726 μg/kg. The concentration variations, toxicities and sources of the PAHs in various environmental compartments are discussed.

Cite this paper

Patel, K. , Ramteke, S. , Naik, Y. , Sahu, B. , Sharma, S. , Lintelmann, J. and Georg, M. (2015) Contamination of Environment with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in India. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 1268-1278. doi: 10.4236/jep.2015.611111.


[1] Bjorseth, A. and Dennis, A. (1980) Proceedings of International Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbon Symposia, PAH-IV: Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Chemistry and Biological Effects. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH, 1125 p.
[2] Finlayson-Pitts, B.J. and Pitts, J.N. (2000) Chemistry of the Upper and Lower Atmosphere. Academic Press, San Diego.
[3] Pickering, R.W. (1999) A Toxicological Review of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Journal of Toxicology—Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology, 18, 101-135.
[4] Baran, S. and Oleszczuk, P. (2003) The Concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sewage Sludge in Relation to the Amount and Origin of Purified Sewage. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 12, 523-529.
[5] Pérez, S., Farré, M., Jesús García, M. and Barceló, D. (2001) Occurrence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sewage Sludge and their Contribution to its Toxicity in the ToxAlert® 100 Bioassay. Chemosphere, 45, 705-712.
[6] Blanchard, M., Teil, M.J., Ollivon, D., Legenti, L. and Chevreuil, M. (2004) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Polychlorobiphenyls in Wastewaters and Sewage Sludges from the Paris Area (France). Environmental Research, 95, 184-197.
[7] Harrison, E.Z., Oakes, S.R., Hysell, M. and Hay, A. (2006) Organic Chemicals in Sewage Sludge. Science of Total Environment, 367, 481-497.
[8] Cai, Q.Y., Mo, C.H., Wu, Q.T., Zeng, Q.Y. and Katsoyiannis, A. (2007) Occurrence of Organic Contaminants in Sewage Sludges from Eleven Wastewater Treatment Plants, China. Chemosphere, 68, 1751-1762.
[9] Lorenzi, D., Entwistle, J.A., Cave, M. and Dean, J.R. (2011) Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Street Dust: Implications for Human Health. Chemosphere, 83, 970-977.
[10] Tang, X., Shen, C., Cheema, S.A., Chen, L., Xiao, X., Zhang, C., Liu, W., Li, F. and Chen, Y. (2010) Levels and Distributions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Agricultural Soils in an Emerging e-waste Recycling town in Taizhou Area, China. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, 45, 1076-1084.
[11] Amuda, O.S. and Adelowo-Imeokparia, F.E. (2007) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Municipal Waste Ashes from Three Waste Dumps in Lagos, Nigeria. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 21, 141-144.
[12] Pengchai, P., Nakajima, F. and Furumai, H. (2005) Estimation of Origins of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Size-Fractionated Road Dust in Tokyo with Multivariate Analysis. Water Science and Technology, 51, 169-175.
[13] Boonyatumanond, R., Murakami, M., Wattayakorn, G., Togo, A. and Takada, H. (2007) Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Street Dust in a Tropical Asian Mega-City, Bangkok, Thailand. Science of the Total Environment, 384, 420-432.
[14] Naspinski, C., Lingenfelter, R., Cizmas, L., Naufal, Z., He, L.Y., Islamzadeh, A., Li, Z.W., Li, Z., McDonald, T. and Donnelly, K.C. (2008) A Comparison of Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds Detected in Dust Samples from Various Regions of the World. Environment International, 34, 988-993.
[15] Hassanien, M.A. and Abdel-Latif, N.M. (2008) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Road Dust over Greater Cairo, Egypt. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 151, 247-254.
[16] Han, B., Bai, Z.P., Guo, G.H., Wang, F., Li, F., Liu, Q.X., Ji, Y.Q., Li, X. and Hu, Y.D. (2009) Characterization of PM10 Fraction of Road Dust for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Anshan, China. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 170, 934-940.
[17] Wang, W., Huang, M.J., Kang, Y., Wang, H.S., Leung, A.O., Cheung, K.C. and Wong, M.H. (2011) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Surface Dust of Guangzhou, China: Status, Sources and Human Health Risk Assessment. Science of the Total Environment, 409, 4519-4527.
[18] Yu, B., Xie, X., Ma, L.Q., Kan, H. and Zhou, Q. (2013) Source, Distribution, and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Street Dust from Tianjin, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21, 2817-2825.
[19] Mohd Radzi, N.A.S., Bakar, N.K.A., Emenike, C.U. and Abas, M.R. (2015) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Contamination Level and Risk Assessment in Urban Areas, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Desalination and Water Treatment.
[20] Martuzevicius, D., Kliucininkas, L., Prasauskas, T., Krugly, E., Kauneliene, V. and Strandberg, B. (2011) Resuspension of Particulate Matter and PAHs from Street Dust. Atmospheric Environment, 45, 310-317.
[21] Sharma, H., Jain, V.K. and Khan, Z.H. (2007) Characterization and Source Identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Urban Environment of Delhi. Chemosphere, 66, 302-310.
[22] Hassan, Y. and Sarma, H.P. (2013) Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS) in Roadside Soils from Industrial and High Traffic Area of Greater Guwahati City, Assam, India. Archives of Applied Science Research, 5, 85-93.
[23] Ray, S., Khillare, P.S., Kim, K.H. and Brown, R.J. (2012) Distribution, Sources, and Association of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Black Carbon, and Total Organic Carbon in Size-Segregated Soil Samples Along a Background-Urban-Rural Transect. Environmental Engineering Science, 29, 1008-1019.
[24] Cheng, H.R., Deng, Z.M., Chakraborty, P., Liu, D., Zhang, R.J., Xu, Y., Luo, C.L., Zhang, G. and Li, J. (2013) A Comparison Study of Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Three Indian Cities Using PUF Disk Passive Air Samplers. Atmospheric Environment, 73, 16-21.
[25] Fu, F.F., Tian, B.Y., Lin, G.S., Chen, Y.Q. and Zhang, J.H. (2010) Chemical Characterization and Source Identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Aerosols Originating from Different Sources. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 60, 1309-1314.
[26] Wingfors, H., Hägglund, L. and Magnusson, R. (2011) Characterization of the Size-Distribution of Aerosols and Particle-Bound Content of Oxygenated PAHs, PAHs, and n-Alkanes in Urban Environments in Afghanistan. Atmospheric Environment, 45, 4360-4369.
[27] Lintelmann, J., Fischer, K., Karg, E. and Schroppel, A. (2005) Determination of Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Aerosol Samples by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 381, 508-519.
[28] EPA (2005) Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part II Technical Support Document for Describing Available Cancer Potency Factors. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento.
[29] CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment) (2008) Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines for Carcinogenic and Other Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Environmental and Human Health Effects, Scientific Supporting Document, 218 p.
[30] Magi, E., Bianco, R., Ianni, C. and Carro, M.D. (2000) Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Sediments of the Adriatic Sea. Environmental Pollution, 119, 91-98.
[31] Li, G.C., Xia, X.H., Yang, Z.F., Wang, R. and Voulvoulis, N. (2006) Distribution and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yellow River, China. Environmental Pollution, 144, 985-993.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.