Share This Article:

Children Flat Foot and Lower Limb Rotational Profile: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:729KB) PP. 326-335
DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2015.510044    3,204 Downloads   3,652 Views  

ABSTRACT

Flat foot in children is a common deformation, which appears during the first years of life. It requires a rigorous evaluation to rule out congenital or neurological abnormality. It is characterized by a decrease of the plantar concavity indeed collapse of the foot, often associated with other morphostatic deformations. The aim of this study is to find a correlation between the essential flat foot in children and lower limb disorders torsional. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study, recruiting 110 children (220 feet) aged between 3 and 6 years old. Each child was given an assessment of the morphology of the foot (Contact Index II…) and lower limb rotational profile (intoeing and femoral antétorsion and tibal torsion). Among 110 children, 21 (19.1%) have bilateral flat feet and 7 (6.4%) have unilateral flat feet, associated with an average value of Contact Index II equal to 0.921; the minimum value is 0.880 and the maximum value is 1.17. All children with flat feet have excessive femoral antétorsion; 45 (92%) are associated with a hip intoeing and 38 (80%) present an insufficient external tibial torsion. The analysis of multiple regression shows a significantly elevated correlation among the flat foot and excessive internal rotation of the hip (F = 70.36, r = 0.77, P < 0.001), excessive femoral antetorsion (F = 54.78, r = 0.73, P < 0.001) and insufficient external tibial torsion (F = 7.79, r = 0.37, P < 0.001).

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Sonia, J. , Nadia, L. , Manel, A. , Samia, F. , Mohamed, B. , Walid, O. , Afif, Z. and Faycel, K. (2015) Children Flat Foot and Lower Limb Rotational Profile: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study. Open Journal of Orthopedics, 5, 326-335. doi: 10.4236/ojo.2015.510044.

References

[1] Khouri, N. (2008) Pied plat idiopathique de l’enfant et de l’adolescent. Conférence d’enseignement 2008. Cahier d’enseignement de la SOFCOT no 97. Elsevier, Paris, 197-205.
[2] Dalarque, A., Demortière, E., Collado, H., Mesure, S., Rubino, T. and Gonzalez, J.F. (2006) Bilan articulaire de la cheville et du pied chez l’adulte. EMC (Elsevier Masson SAS, Paris), Podologie. (27-010-A-25), 13 p.
[3] Wicart, P. and Toullec, E. (2010) Pied plat valgus idiopathique. In: Seringe, R., Besse, J.-L. and Wicart, P., Eds., Les déformations du pied de l’enfant et de l’adulte (à l’exclusion de l’avant-pied). Cahiers d’enseignement de la SOFCOT, Elsevier Masson SAS, Paris, 3-315.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-2-84299-912-4.00027-4
[4] Zafiropoulos, G., Pasad, K.S.R.K., Kouboura, T. and Danis, G. (2009) Flat Foot and Femoral Anteversion in Children—A Prospective Study. The Foot, 19, 50-54.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foot.2008.09.003
[5] Zeller, R. and Seringe, R. (1994) Troubles statiques des membres inférieurs. Journal de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture, 5, 72-77.
[6] Caton, J., Neyret, P., Falise, C. and Ait Si Selmi, T. (1997) Anomalies de torsion du squelette au membre inférieur. Encycl. Med. Chir (Elsevier, Paris), Appareil locomoteur, 15-392-A, 10 p.
[7] Cahuzac, J.P. (2008) Vices de torsion des membres inférieurs. Société Francaise d’Orthopédie Pédiatrique (SOFOP), 3, 395-397.
[8] Staheli, L.T. (1993) Rotational Problems in Children. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American), 75, 939-949.
[9] Fenoll, B., Senab, C. and Cadilhac, C. (2001) Les “pieds qui tournent”. In: Moulies, D. and Tanguy, A., Eds., chirurgie et orthopédie du pied de l’enfant. Monographie du groupe d’étude en orthopedie pédiatrique, Sauramps medical, Montpellier, 349.
[10] Taussig, G. (1995) Les anomalies de rotation des membres inférieurs chez l’enfant. Journal de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture, 6, 131-136.
[11] Viehwegera, E., Bérardb, C., Berruyerb, A. and Simeonic, M.-C., Groupe Varax (2007) Bilan articulaire des membres inférieurs d’un enfant atteint d’une infirmité motrice cérébrale. Annales de réadaptation et de médecine physique, 50, 258-265.
[12] Goldcher, A. (2012) Podologie. 6 ères edition, Elsevier Masson SAS, Paris.
[13] Denormandie, P., Lonjon, G. and Seringe, R. (2010) Testing musculaire du pied. In: Seringe, R., Besse, J.-L. and Wicart, P., Eds., Les grandes déformations du pied de l’enfant et de l’adulte (à l’exclusion de l’avant-pied), Elsevier Masson SAS, Paris, 41-45.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-2-84299-912-4.00014-6
[14] Didia, B.C., Omu, E.T. and Obuoforibo, A.A. (1987) The Use of Footprint Contact Index II for Classification of Flat Feet in a Nigerian Population. Foot & Ankle International, 7, 285-289.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107110078700700504
[15] Quamra, S.R., Deodhar, S.D. and Jit, I. (1980) Podographical and Metrical Study for Pes Planus in a Northwestern Indian Population. Human Biology, 52, 435-445.
[16] Maes, R., Dojcinovic, S., Andrianne, Y. and Burny, F. (2006) Etude de la voute plantaire: Corrélations entre des paramètres podométriques et radiologiques. Revue Médicale de Bruxelles, 27, 429-422.
[17] Bleck, E.E. (1983) Metatarsus Adductus: Classification and Relationship to Outcomes of Treatment. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, 3, 2-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01241398-198302000-00002
[18] Toullec, E. (2012) Pied plat de l’adulte. EMC (Elsevier Masson SAS), Paris, Podologie (27-060-A-10).
[19] Piat, A. (2000) Pied palt valgus. EMC (Elsevier Masson SAS), Paris, Podologie (27-060-A-10), 7 p.
[20] Wicart, P. and Maestro, M. (2010) Examen clinique du pied. In: Seringe, R., Besse, J.L. and Wicart, P., Eds., Les déformations du pied de l’enfant et de l’adulte (à l’exclusion de l’avant-pied), Elsevier Masson SAS, Paris, 31-39.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-2-84299-912-4.00013-4
[21] Cigala, F. and Capuano, L. (2010) Histoire naturelle du pied plat valgus idiopathique. In: Diméglio, A., Ed., Le pied de l’enfant et de l’adolescent. Pathologie locomotrice et médecine orthopédique 36, Elsevier Masson SAS, Paris, 448.
[22] Turek, S. (1984) Orthopaedics: Principles and Their Application. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1236-1237.
[23] Arnold, A.S., Komattu, A.V. and Delp, S.L. (1997) Internal Rotation Gait: A Compensatory Mechanism to Restore Abduction Capacity Decreased by Bone Deformity? Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 39, 40-44.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.1997.tb08202.x
[24] Lerat, I.L. and Taussing, G. (1982) Les anomalies de rotation des membres inférieurs. Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique, 68, 1-74.
[25] Accadbled, F.M.C. and Cahuzac, J.P. (2007) Anomalies rotationnelles des membres inférieurs che l’enfant. EMC (Elsevier Masson SAS), Paris.
[26] Glard, Y. (2012) Relation entre antétorsion fémorale et torsion tibiale chez l’enfant: à propos de 1399 cas. Revue de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique, 98, S298.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rcot.2012.08.061
[27] Harris, R.I. and Beath, T. (1948) Hypermobile Flat Foot with Short Tendo Achillis. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, American Volume, 30, 116-138.
[28] Tachdjian, M.O. (1990) Flexible pesplanevalgus. In: Pediatric Orthopaedics, 2nd Edition, Saunders, Philadelphia, 83-85.
[29] Rushforth, G.F. (1978) The Natural History of Hooked Forefeet. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, British Volume, 60, 530-532.
[30] Cahuzac, J.P., Vardon, D. and Sales de Gauzy, J. (1995) Development of the Clinical Tibiofemoral Angle in Normal Adolescents. A Study of 427 Normal Subjects from 10 to 16 Years of Age. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, British Volume, 77, 729-732.
[31] Tachdjian, M. (1990) Torsional (Or Rotational) Déformities of Lower Limb. WS & Company Ltd., Scarborough, ON.
[32] Bollini, G. and Jacquemier, M. (1988) Physiologie du développement des membres inférieurs et conséquences sur le pied. Chirurgie et Orthopédie du pied. Sauramps Medical.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.