Share This Article:

Influence of Symbiotic Interaction between Fungus, Virus, and Tomato Plant in Combating Drought Stress

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:315KB) PP. 1633-1640
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.610163    2,229 Downloads   2,892 Views  

ABSTRACT

The influence of the three-way interaction between the fungus (Curvularia protuberata), virus (CThTV), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in combating drought stress was evaluated in this study. The plants in this greenhouse experiment were grown under conditions of 400 ± 150 μmol·m-2·s-1 photon flux density, 45% to 50% relative humidity (RH), and 30°C ± 2°C. Tomato seeds were germinated and inoculated with the combination of the fungus and virus at the seedling stage. The plants were allowed to grow for two weeks and randomly selected individuals were utilized. The selected plants were grown in one gallon pots containing organic potting soil. The treatments included non-symbiotic (NS), virus-free (VF), and symbiotic (An) plants. Each treatment received twelve samples and each sample was allowed to grow for an additional two weeks under drought stress. At that time, plants were exhibiting drought stress symptoms including visible wilting. Six samples from each treatment were utilized in determining selected physiological responses of tomato at pre-anthesis stage. The remaining six samples from each treatment were re-watered once and allowed to grow until they reached the anthesis stage. When they showed visible signs of wilting, the same physiological responses measured during pre-anthesis were conducted. The samples of each treatment were utilized at the end of each stage in determining photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, photosynthetic pigments, water potential, and soluble sugar content. Plant growth, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, water potential, and soluble sugar content were similarly affected by the various treatments. However, carotenoids were significantly higher at pre-anthesis in the symbiotic plants in comparison to other treatments. Additionally, photosynthesis appeared to be significantly higher at anthesis compared to pre-anthesis for all treatments.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Al-Hamdani, S. , Stoelting, A. and Morsy, M. (2015) Influence of Symbiotic Interaction between Fungus, Virus, and Tomato Plant in Combating Drought Stress. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 1633-1640. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.610163.

References

[1] Krings, M., Taylor, T.N., Hass, H., Kerp, H., Dotzler, N. and Hermsen, E.J. (2007) Fungal Endophytes in a 400 Million-yr-Old Land Plant: Infection Pathways, Spatial Distribution and Host Responses. New Phytologist, 174, 648-665.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.02008.x
[2] Pirozynski, K.A. and Malloch, D.W. (1975) The Origin of Land Plants: A Matter of Mycotrophism. Biosystems, 6, 153-164.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0303-2647(75)90023-4
[3] Pilon-Smits, E.A.H., Terry, N., Sears, T., Kim, H., Zayed, A., Hwang, S., van Dun, K., Voogd, E., Verwoerd, T.C., Krutwagen, R.W.H.H. and Goddijn, O.J.M. (1998) Trehalose-Producing Transgenic Tobacco Plants Show Improved Growth Performance under Drought Stress. Journal of Plant Physiology, 152, 525-532.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0176-1617(98)80273-3
[4] Vinocur, B. and Altman, A. (2005) Recent Advances in Engineering Plant Tolerance to Abiotic Stress: Achievements and Limitations. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 16, 123-132.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2005.02.001
[5] Márquez, L.M., Redman, R.S., Rodriguez, R.J. and Roossinck, M.J. (2007) A Virus in a Fungus in a Plant: Three-Way Symbiosis Required for Thermal Tolerance. Science, 315, 513-515.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1136237
[6] Rodriguez, R.J., Henson, J., Van Volkenburgh, E., Hoy, M., Wright, L., Beckwith, F., Kim, Y. and Redman, R.S. (2008) Stress Tolerance in Plants via Habitat-Adapted Symbiosis. ISME, 2, 404-416.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2007.106
[7] Morsy, M.R., Oswald, J., He, J., Tang, Y. and Roossinck, M.J. (2010) Teasing Apart a Three-Way Symbiosis: Transciptome Analyses of Curvularia protuberate in Response to Viral Infection and Heat Stress. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 401, 225-230.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.09.034
[8] USGCRP (2009) Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. In: Karl, T.R., Melillo, J.M. and Peterson, T.C., Eds., United States Global Change Research Program, Cambridge University Press, New York.
[9] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2013) Hunger.
http://www.fao.org/hunger/en/
[10] Rodriguez, R.J., Redman, R.S. and Henson, J.M. (2004) Symbiotic Lifestyle Expression by Fungal Endophytes and the Adaptation of Plants to Stress: Unraveling the Complexities of Intimacy. The Fungal Community, 683-695.
[11] Rodriguez, R.J., White Jr., J.F., Arnold, A.E. and Redman, R.S. (2009) Fungal Endophytes: Diversity and Functional Roles. New Phytologist, 182, 314-330.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.02773.x
[12] Redman, R.S., Sheehan, K.B., Stout, R.G., Rodriguez, R.J. and Henson, J.M. (2002) Thermotolerance Generated by Plant/Fungal Symbiosis. Science, 298, 1581.
[13] Penna, S. (2003) Building Stress Tolerance through Over-Producing Trehalose in Transgenic Plants. Trends in Plant Science, 8, 355-357.
[14] Crowe, J.H., Crowe, L.M. and Chapman, D. (1984) Preservation of Membranes in Anhydrobiotic Organisms: The Role of Trehalose. Science, 223, 701-703.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.223.4637.701
[15] Subramanian, K.S., Santhanakrishnan, P. and Balasubramanian, P. (2006) Responses of Field Grown Tomato Plants to Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonization under Varying Intensities of Drought Stress. Scientia Horticulturae, 107, 245-253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2005.07.006
[16] McDermitt, D.K., Norman, J.M., Davis, J.T., Ball, J., Arkebauer, T.J., Welles, J.M. and Roemer, S.R. (1989) CO2 Response Curves Can Be Measured with a Field-Portable Closed-Loop Photosynthesis System. Annals of Forest Science, 46, 416s-420s.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:19890593
[17] Doong, R.L., MacDonald, G.E. and Shilling, D.G. (1993) Effect of Fluoridone on Chlorophyll, Carotenoid, and Anthocyanin Content of Hydrilla. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 31, 55-59.
[18] Al-Hamdani, S.H., Todd, G.W. and Francho, D.A. (1990) Response of Wheat Growth and CO2 Assimilation to Altering Root-Zone Temperature. Canadian Journal of Botany, 68, 2698-2702.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/b90-341
[19] Chatterton, N.J., Harrison, P.A., Bennett, J.H. and Thornley, W.R. (1987) Fructan, Starch and Sucrose Concentrations in Crested Wheatgrass and Redtop as Affected by Temperature. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (Montrouge), 25, 617-623.
[20] Dubois, M., Gilles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Rebers, P.A. and Smith, F. (1956) Colorimetric Method for Determination of Sugars and Related Substances. Analytical Chemistry, 28, 350-356.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac60111a017
[21] Conlin, L.K. and Nelson, H.C.M. (2007) The Natural Osmolytetrehalose Is a Positive Regulator of the Heat-Induced Activity of Yeast Heat Shock Transcription Factor. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 27, 1505-1515.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.01158-06
[22] Paul, M.J., Primavesi, L.F., Jhurreea, D. and Zhang, Y. (2008) Trehalose Metabolism and Signaling. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 59, 417-441.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.59.032607.092945
[23] Smith, J.H.C. and French, C.S. (1963) The Major and Accessory Pigments in Photosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 14, 181-224.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.14.060163.001145
[24] Inskeep, W.P. and Bloom, P.R. (1985) Extinction Coefficient of Chlorophyll a and b in N,N-Dimethylformamide and 80% Acetone. Plant Physiology, 77, 483-485.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.77.2.483
[25] Farquhar, G.D. and Sharkey, T.D. (1982) Stomatal Conductance and Photosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 33, 317-345.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.33.060182.001533
[26] Albrizio, R. and Steduto, P. (2003) Photosynthesis, Respiration and Conservative Carbon Use Efficiency of Four Field Grown Crops. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 116, 19-36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1923(02)00252-6

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.