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Bevacizumab Related Hypertension and Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome in Gynecologic Malignancies: A case Control Study

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DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.22028    4,727 Downloads   7,984 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Background: Bevacizumab is increasingly being used in the treatment of gynecologic malignancies, but has significant side-effects including hypertension and reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy (RPLS), which must be recognized by the gynecologic oncologist. Methods: A 26-month institutional retrospective review of bevacizumab in the treatment of gynecologic malignancies. Patients were grouped according to whether they had bevacizumab-related hypertension (defined as at least a grade one hypertensive toxicity) or not. There were no differences in patient demographics between the groups. Risk factors for developing bevacizumab-related hypertension were assessed using t-tests, Wilcoxon rank sum test and Fisher’s exact test. Results: Our group has treated 45 patients with bevacizumab. Fifteen (33%) patients had a pre-existing diagnosis of hypertension, 12 (80%) of whom had at least one elevated blood pressure during treatment. The 30 (67%) patients who did not have a pre-existing diagnosis of hypertension still had a high incidence of bevacizumab-related elevated blood pressure (14, 47%). The majority of patients (26, 58%) had at least one therapy cycle complicated by hypertension. Patients who experienced bevacizumab-related hypertension were significantly more likely than not to have a history of hypertension (odds ratio of 4.6, 95% CI 1.1-19.6). There was a 4.4% incidence of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy. Patients with age equal to or greater than 75 years, stage IV disease, and creatinine elevations greater than or equal to 1.4 mg/dL were significantly more likely to develop bevacizumab-related hypertension. Other factors such as numbers of prior chemotherapies, cycles of bevacizumab, BMI, cancer site, and histology were not significantly associated with bevacizumab-related hypertension. Conclusions: Hypertension is a problem for patients on bevacizumab whether or not they have a pre-existing diagnosis. However, those with a history of hypertension were significantly more likely to have bevacizumab-related hypertension.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

S. Cross, E. Ratner, D. Silasi, A. Santin, M. Azodi, T. Rutherford and P. Schwartz, "Bevacizumab Related Hypertension and Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome in Gynecologic Malignancies: A case Control Study," Journal of Cancer Therapy, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2011, pp. 217-223. doi: 10.4236/jct.2011.22028.

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