Share This Article:

Screening of Several Anti-Infectives for in Vitro Activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:2541KB) PP. 1197-1203
DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.416129    2,088 Downloads   2,475 Views  


Aim: To evaluate in vitro the effectiveness of several anti-infective agents alone or in combination against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Method: A convenient stratified sampling method was used to obtain selected anti-infective agents. For individual drug samples, Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) were obtained using the agar-well plate diffusion technique. Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Indices (FICI) were calculated for drug combinations using their MIC as obtained from the broth dilution method. Results: Of the thirty (30) anti-infective agents analyzed, ten (10) had MIC equivalent to or better than rifampicin (reference TB drug). Seven (7) drugs had MIC higher than rifampicin, while twelve (12) showed no growth inhibition of M. smegmatis. Analysis of the effect of drug combinations on M. smegmatis indicated that four (4) combinations, including rifampicin/ethambutol showed synergism. One (1) was additive, two (2) were indifferent and one (1) combination showed antagonism. Conclusion: Notable in the results obtained was the high effectiveness of the carbapenems in inhibiting the growth of M. smegmatis. Carbapenems, though not indicated for TB treatment, has a potential of playing a significant role in the treatment of tuberculosis. Also the drug combinations which showed synergism, especially those that involved the macrolide antibiotics, should further be investigated. These results have to be confirmed by in vivo clinical studies to define their roles in tuberculosis treatment.

Cite this paper

Allotey-Babington, G. , Nettey, H. , Debrah, P. , Adi-Dako, O. , Sasu, C. , Antwi, A. , Darko, Y. , Nartey, N. and Asare, J. (2014) Screening of Several Anti-Infectives for in Vitro Activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Advances in Microbiology, 4, 1197-1203. doi: 10.4236/aim.2014.416129.


[1] North, R.J. and Jung, Y.-J. (2004) Immunity to Tuberculosis. Annual Review of Immunology, 22, 599-623.
[2] Ducati, R.G., et al. (2006) The Resumption of Consumption—A Review on Tuberculosis. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 101, 697-714.
[3] Russell, D.G., et al. (2009) Foamy Macrophages and the Progression of the Human Tuberculosis Granuloma. Nature Immunology, 10, 943-948.
[4] Zignol, M., et al. (2006) Global Incidence of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 194, 479-485.
[5] Sareen, D., et al. (2003) Mycothiol Is Essential for Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman. Journal of Bacteriology, 185, 6736-6740. stract
[6] Parish, T. and Stoker, N.G. (2001) Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protocols. Humana Press, Clifton.
[7] Shiloh, M.U. and Champion, P.A.D. (2010) To Catch a Killer. What Can Mycobacterial Models Teach Us about Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pathogenesis? Current Opinion in Microbiology, 13, 86-92.
[8] Barry, C.E., et al. (2009) The Spectrum of Latent Tuberculosis: Rethinking the Biology and Intervention Strategies. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 7, 845-855.
[9] Altaf, M., et al. (2010) Evaluation of the Mycobacterium smegmatis and BCG Models for the Discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Inhibitors. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland), 90, 333-337.
[10] EUCAST of ESCMID (2000) EUCAST Definitive Document Terminology Relating to Methods for the Determination of Susceptibility of Bacteria to Antimicrobial Agents. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 6, 503-508.
[11] Orhan, G., et al. (2005) Synergy Tests by E Test and Checkerboard Methods of Antimicrobial Combinations against Brucella melitensis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 43, 140-143.
[12] Pankey, G.A. and Sabath, L.D. (2004) Clinical Relevance of Bacteriostatic versus Bactericidal Mechanisms of Action in the Treatment of Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 38, 864-870.
[13] Neal, M.J. (2010) Medical Pharmacology at a Glance, Custom. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken. BaK0o0SIwC&pgis=1
[14] Fernandes, P.B., et al. (1986) In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of A-56268 (TE-031), a New Macrolide. Antimicrobial agents and Chemotherapy, 30, 865-873. stract
[15] Haight, T.H. and Finland, M. (1952) Observations on Mode of Action of Erythromycin. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 81, 188-193.
[16] Piscitelli, S.C., Danziger, L.H. and Rodvold, K.A. (1992) Clarithromycin and Azithromycin: New Macrolide Antibiotics. Clinical Pharmacy, 11, 137-152.
[17] Heifets, L. and Lindholm-Levy, P. (1989) Comparison of Bactericidal Activities of Streptomycin, Amikacin, Kanamycin, and Capreomycin against Mycobacterium avium and M. Tuberculosis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 33, 1298-1301.
[18] Nastro, L.J. and Finegold, S.M. (1972) Bactericidal Activity of Five Antimicrobial Agents against Bacteroides fragilis. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 126, 104-107.
[19] Sande, M.A. and Johnson, M.L. (1975) Antimicrobial Therapy of Experimental Endocarditis Caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 131, 367-375. 7eeb8ad535&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
[20] Eghianruwa, K. (2014) Essential Drug Data for Rational Therapy in Veterinary Practice (Google eBook). AuthorHouse UK.
[21] Staines, H.M. and Krishna, S. (2012) Treatment and Prevention of Malaria: Antimalarial Drug Chemistry, Action and Use. Springer Basel AG, Basel.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.