Share This Article:

Kp Pan Evaporation and ETo Monthly Maps Using Information of 60 Weather Observatories Included in the Climate Normals (1941-1970) from Mexico

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:4522KB) PP. 1475-1500
DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.615136    3,755 Downloads   4,233 Views  

ABSTRACT

The most precise equation in order to estimate the evapotranspiration (ET) of crops is the Penman-Monteith (PM). However, the PM equation needs specific data that, in the majority of Mexico’s irrigation districts, it is not available because there are few automated weather stations. For this reason, it is convenient to develop simple methods that allow to precise estimation of ET. A reliable way to estimate ET is by using the pan evaporation that, according to the revised literature, continues to be used nowadays. Investigators like to include its use in irrigation water management projects in various parts of the world. However, this method uses Kp from the FAO that is not calibrated in Mexico. The use of FAO Kp affects the precision of the results, since some variables like radiation, wind, temperature and relative humidity vary from place to place; therefore ET is under estimated or overestimated. This paper presents an original contribution across method to estimate “Kp pan evaporation and ETo monthly maps”, using information from 60 weather observatories included in The Climate Normals (1941-1970) from Mexico, based on the PM method and the class A pan evaporation. Once the Kp values were obtained from each weather observatory, the Kringing method was used. This way, by interpolating data of the triad “latitude, longitude and Kp” and “latitude, longitude and ET”, monthly normalized maps of Kp and ET were established for Mexico, except the upland areas (Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental), as well as other highland zones above 2700 meters over sea level, for the highest observatory is located in Toluca, State of Mexico (key 14-0039), at 2680 m over sea level.

Cite this paper

Mundo-Molina, M. (2014) Kp Pan Evaporation and ETo Monthly Maps Using Information of 60 Weather Observatories Included in the Climate Normals (1941-1970) from Mexico. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 6, 1475-1500. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.615136.

References

[1] Michalopoulou, H. and Papaioannou, G. (1991) Reference Crop Evapotranspiration over Greece. Agricultural Water Management, 20, 209-221.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3774(91)90018-E
[2] Hashmi, M.A. and Garcia, L.A. (1998) Spatial and Temporal Errors in Estimating Regional Evapotranspiration. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 124, 108-114.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(1998)124:2(108)
[3] Al-Ghobari, H.M. (2000) Estimation of Reference Evapotranspiration for Southern Region of Saudi Arabia. Irrigation Science, 19, 81-86.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002710050004
[4] Omary, M. and Izuno, F.T. (1995) Evaluation of Sugarcane Evapotranspiration from Water Table Data in Everglades Agricultural Area. Agricultural Water Management, 27, 309-319.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3774(95)01149-D
[5] Fereres, E. (2000) Personal Communication.
[6] Allen, R.G., Walter, I.A., Elliot, R., Mecham, B., Jensen, M.E., Itenfisu, D., Howell, T.A., Snyder, R., Brown, P., Eching, S., Spofford, T., Hattendorf, M., Cuenca, R.H., Wright, J.L. and Martin, D. (2000) Issues, Requirement and Challenges in Selecting and Specifying a Standardized ET Equation. Proceedings of the 4th Decennial National Irrigation Symposium of the ASAE, Phoenix, 14-16 November 2000, 201-208.
[7] Snyder, R.L. (1992) Equation for Evapotranspiration Pan to Evapotranspiration Conversions. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 118, 977-980.
[8] Jensen, M.E., Burman, R.D. and Allen, R.G. (1990) Evapotranspiration and Irrigation Water Requirements. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practices No. 70, New York.
[9] Raghuwanshi, N.S. and Wallender, W.W. (1998) Converting from Pan Evaporation to Evapotranspiration. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 124, 275-277.
[10] Grismer, M.E. (2000) Long-Term Evapotranspiration from Coastal Avocado/Citrus Orchard. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 126, 1-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(2000)126:1(1)
[11] Imtiyaz, M., Mgadla, N.P., Manase, S.K., Chendo, K. and Mothobi, E.O. (2000) Yield and Economic Return of Vegetable Crops under Variable Irrigation. Irrigation Science, 19, 87-93.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002710050005
[12] Parmele, L.H. and Mcguiness, J.L. (1974) Comparisons of Measured and Estimated Daily Potential Evapotranspiration in a Humid Region. Journal of Hydrology, 22, 239-251.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(74)90079-1
In: Amatya, D.M., Skaggs, R.W. and Gregory, J.D. (2000) Comparison of Methods for Estimating REF-ET. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 121, 427-435.
[13] Chin, D.A. and Zhao, S. (1995) Evaluation of Evapotranspiration-Pan Networks. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 121, 338-346.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(1995)121:5(338)
[14] Singh, V.P. (1989) Volume 2: Hydrologic System. In: Raghuwanshi, N.S. and Wallender, W.W., Eds., Converting from Pan Evaporation to Evapotranspiration, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 275-277.
[15] Chiew, F.H.S., Kamaladasa, N.N., Malano, H.M. and Mcmahon, T.A. (1995) Penman-Monteith, FAO-24 Reference Crop Evapotranspiration and Class-A Pan Data in Australia. Agricultural Water Management, 28, 9-21.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3774(95)01172-F
[16] Doorenbos, J. and Pruitt, W.O. (1977) Crop Water Requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Papers, Rome.
[17] SARH (1998) Normales Climatológicas (1941-1970). Secretaria de Agricultura y Recursos Hidráulicos, México, D.F.
[18] Ramdas, L.A. (1957) Evaporation and Potential Evapotranspiration over the Indian Sub-Continent. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 27, 137-149. In: Jensen, ME, Burman, RD, and Allen, R.G, (Eds.). (1990). Evapotranspiration and Irrigation Water Requirements. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practices No. 70, New York.
[19] Pruit, W.O. (1966) Empirical Method of Estimating Evapotranspiration Using Primarily Evaporation Pans. Proceedings of the Conference on Evapotranspiration, Chicago, December, 57-61. In: Jensen, ME, Burman, RD, and Allen, RG. (Eds.), (1990). Evapotranspiration and Irrigation Water Requirements. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practices No. 70, New York.
[20] Pruit, W.O. (1986) Traditional Methods Evapotranspiration Research Priorities for the Next Decade. American Society of Agricultural Engineers Paper No. 86-2629, 23 p. In: Jensen, ME, Burman, RD, and Allen, RG. (1990). Evapotranspiration and irrigation water requirements. ASCE manuals and reports on engineering practices No. 70, New York.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.