Share This Article:

Extrapolations on the Use of Rhizobium Inoculants Supplemented with Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K) on Growth and Nutrition of Legumes

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:2747KB) PP. 1207-1226
DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.512130    5,300 Downloads   6,626 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Land scarcity and poor farming management practices has resulted in to intensive agriculture which rendered most of the soil in sub Saharan Africa depleted in essential plant nutrients. High prices of chemical fertilizer are crucial bottleneck toward increasing production of legumes and other food crops in most countries found in sub-Saharan Africa. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potas-sium are among the most limiting nutrients for plant growth as they play different but crucial roles in the plant physiological processes. These macronutrients are fundamental components of cell building blocks including genes and chromosomes. This review intend to show the vital roles played by rhizobial inoculants supplemented with phosphorus and potassium in enhancing growth, yield, photosynthesis, nodulation, nutrient uptake and nitrogen fixation of legumes.

Cite this paper

Mmbaga, G. , Mtei, K. and Ndakidemi, P. (2014) Extrapolations on the Use of Rhizobium Inoculants Supplemented with Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K) on Growth and Nutrition of Legumes. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1207-1226. doi: 10.4236/as.2014.512130.

References

[1] Katungi, E., Farrow, A., Chianu, J., Sperling, L. and Beebe, S. (2009) Common Bean in Eastern and Southern Africa: A Situation and Outlook Analysis. International Centre for Tropical Agriculture, 61 p.
[2] Ndakidemi, P.A. (2006) Manipulating Legume/Cereal Mixtures to Optimize the Above and Below Ground Interactions in the Traditional African Cropping Systems. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5.
[3] David, S., Kirkby, R. and Kasozi, S. (2000) Assessing the Impact of Bush Bean Varieties on Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Uganda: CIAT. Network on Bean Research in Africa.
[4] Buruchara, R. (2007) Background Information on Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Biotechnology, Breeding & Seed Systems for African Crops. The Rockefeller Foundation, Nairobi.
[5] Avis, T.J., Gravel, V., Antoun, H. and Tweddell, R.J. (2008) Multifaceted Beneficial Effects of Rhizosphere Microorganisms on Plant Health and Productivity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40, 1733-1740.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.02.013
[6] Bambara, S. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2010) The Potential Roles of Lime and Molybdenum on the Growth, Nitrogen Fixation and Assimilation of Metabolites in Nodulated Legume: A Special Reference to Phaseolus vulgaris L. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 2482-2489.
[7] Gicharu, G., Gitonga, N., Boga, H., Cheruiyot, R. and Maingi, J. (2013) Effect of Inoculating Selected Climbing Bean Cultivars with Different Rhizobia Strains on Nitrogen Fixation.
[8] Lambrecht, I., Maertens, M., Vranken, L., Merckx, R. and Vanlauwe, B. (2013) Heterogeneous Preferences for Integrated Soil Fertility Management: A Choice Experiment on Climbing Beans in Burundi. Bioeconomics Working Paper Series, Working Paper 2013/32013.
[9] Nienhuis, J. and Singh, S. (1988) Genetics of Seed Yield and its Components in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of Middle-American Origin. Plant Breeding, 101, 143-154.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0523.1988.tb00280.x
[10] Jaradat, A.A. (2010) Genetic Resources of Energy Crops: Biological Systems to Combat Climate Change. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 4, 309.
[11] Blair, M.W., Fregene, M.A., Beebe, S.E. and Ceballos, H. (2007) Marker-Assisted Selection in Common Beans and Cassava. In: Guimarães, E., Ruane, J., Scherf, B., Sonnino, A. and Dargie, J., Eds., Marker-Assisted Selection: Current Status and Future Perspectives in Crops, Livestock, Forestry and Fish, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 81-115.
[12] Boukar, O. and Fatokun, C. (2009) Strategies in Cowpea Breeding. In: Tadele, Z., Ed., New Approaches to Plant Breeding of Orphan Crops in Africa, Organizing Committee of the International Conference on New Approaches to Plant Breeding of Orphan Crops in Africa, Bern, 69-92.
[13] Kelly, J., Adams, M. and Varner, G. (1987) Yield Stability of Determinate and Indeterminate Dry Bean Cultivars. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 74, 516-521.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00289831
[14] Schneider, K.A., Brothers, M.E. and Kelly, J.D. (1997) Marker-Assisted Selection to Improve Drought Resistance in Common Bean. Crop Science, 37, 51-60.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1997.0011183X003700010008x
[15] Kimenju, J., Karanja, N. and Macharia, I. (1999) Plant Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Common Bean in Kenya and the Effect of Meloidogyne Infection on Bean Nodulation. African Crop Science Journal, 7, 503-510.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/acsj.v7i4.27744
[16] Galhardi, R.M.A. (1995) Biotechnology for Poverty Alleviation in Third World Countries. Technology and Developing Countries: Practical Applications, Theoretical Issues, 12, 94.
[17] Elliott, L. and Lynch, J. (1995) The International Workshop on Establishment of Microbial Inocula in Soils: Cooperative Research Project on Biological Resource Management of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). American Journal of Alternative Agriculture, 10, 50-73.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0889189300006160
[18] Verdoodt, A. and Van Ranst, E. (2006) Environmental Assessment Tools for Multi-Scale Land Resources Information Systems: A Case Study of Rwanda. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 114, 170-184.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2005.10.006
[19] Acharya, S., Bera, S., Gupta, K., Basumatary, S., Bera, S. and Ahmed, M. (2012) Bamboo Cultivation in Garo Hills of Meghalaya, North East India: A Potential Agroforestry System to Protect Environment. Biological Sciences and Engineering, 3, 195.
[20] Russell, E.J. (2002) Soil Conditions and Plants Growth. Daya Books (Longmans, Green & Co.).
[21] Sanchez, P.A., Shepherd, K.D., Soule, M.J., Place, F.M., Buresh, R.J., I Izac, A.-M., et al. (1997) Soils Fertility Replenishment in Africa: An Investment in Natural Resource Capital. Replenishing Soil Fertility in Africa, 51, 1-46.
[22] Gruhn, P., Goletti, F. and Yudelman, M. (2000) Integrated Nutrient Management, Soil Fertility and Sustainable Agriculture: Current Issues and Future Challenges. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC.
[23] Bambara, S. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2010) Changes in Selected Soil Chemical Properties in the Rhizosphere of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Supplied with Rhizobium Inoculants, Molybdenum and Lime. Scientific Research and Essays, 5, 679-684.
[24] Graham, P. and Ranalli, P. (1997) Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Field Crops Research, 53, 131-146.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(97)00112-3
[25] Lowe, P. and Baldock, D. (2000) Integration of Environmental 3 Objectives into Agricultural Policy. CAP Regimes and the European Countryside: Prospects for Integration between Agricultural, Regional, and Environmental Policies, 31.
[26] Integration Between Agricultural, Regional, and Environmental Policies, 31.Mia, M.B. and Shamsuddin, Z. (2013) Rhizobium as a Crop Enhancer and Biofertilizer for Increased Cereal Production. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 6001-6009.
[27] Biswas, T.D. and Mukherjee, S. (2001) Textbook of Soil Sciences. Tata McGraw-Hill Education, Noida.
[28] Rausch, C., Daram, P., Brunner, S., Jansa, J., Laloi, M., Leggewie, G., et al. (2001) A Phosphate Transporter Expressed in Arbuscule-Containing Cells in Potato. Nature, 414, 462-470.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35106601
[29] Hüttemann, M., Lee, I., Samavati, L., Yu, H. and Doan, J.W. (2007) Regulation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation through Cell Signaling. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Cell Research, 1773, 1701-1720.
[30] Broun, P.E., Creelman, R.A., DuBell, A.N., Heard, J.E., Jiang, C.-Z., Keddie, J., et al. (2006) Biochemistry-Related Polynucleotides and Polypeptides in Plants. United States Patent No. 7135616.
[31] Pretorius, H. (2009) The Ability of a Novel Compound to Enhance the Effect of Urea on Nitrogen Deficient Tomatoes. University of the Free State, Bloemfontein.
[32] Hörtensteiner, S. and Feller, U. (2002) Nitrogen Metabolism and Remobilization during Senescence. Journal of Experimental Botany, 53, 927-937.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/53.370.927
[33] Maathuis, F.J. (2009) Physiological Functions of Mineral Macronutrients. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 12, 250-258.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2009.04.003
[34] Hokmalipour, S. and Darbandi, M.H. (2011) Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Chlorophyll Content and Other Leaf Indicate in Three Cultivars of Maize (Zea mays L.). World Applied Sciences Journal, 15, 1780-1785.
[35] Evans, J.R. (1989) Photosynthesis and Nitrogen Relationships in Leaves of C3 Plants. Oecologia, 78, 9-19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00377192
[36] Lloyd, J. and Farquhar, G. (1996) The CO2 Dependence of Photosynthesis, Plant Growth Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations and Their Interaction with Soil Nutrient Status. I. General Principles and Forest Ecosystems. Functional Ecology, 10, 4-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2390258
[37] Tairo, E.V. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2013) Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculation and Phosphorus Supplementation on Growth and Chlorophyll Accumulation in Soybean (Glycine max L.). American Journal of Plant Sciences, 4, 2281-2289.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2013.412282
[38] De Ron, A.M., Cubero, J.I., Singh, S.P. and Aguilar, O.M. (2013) Cultivated Legume Species. International Journal of Agronomy, 2013, Article ID: 324619.
[39] Rondon, M.A., Lehmann, J., Ramírez, J. and Hurtado, M. (2007) Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Increases with Bio-Char Additions. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 43, 699-708.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00374-006-0152-z
[40] Rajendran, G., Sing, F., Desai, A.J. and Archana, G. (2008) Enhanced Growth and Nodulation of Pigeon Pea by Co-Inoculation of Bacillus Strains with Rhizobium spp. Bioresource Technology, 99, 4544-4550.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.06.057
[41] Makoi, J.H., Bambara, S. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2013) Rhizobium Inoculation and the Supply of Molybdenum and Lime Affect the Uptake of Macroelements in Common Bean (P. vulgaris L.) Plants. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 7, 784-793.
[42] Nyoki, D. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2014) Effects of Phosphorus and Bradyrhizobium japonicum on Growth and Chlorophyll Content of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 4, 1120-1136.
http://dx.doi.org/10.9734/AJEA/2014/6736
[43] Sylvie, B. and Patrick, A.N. (2009) Effects of Rhizobium Inoculation, Lime and Molybdenum on Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Content of Phaseolus vulgaris L. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 3, 791-798.
[44] Roy, R., Finck, A., Blair, G. and Tandon, H. (2006) Plant Nutrition for Food Security: A Guide for Integrated Nutrient Management (FAO Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bulletins). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome
[45] Barber, J. (2009) Photosynthetic Energy Conversion: Natural and Artificial. Chemical Society Reviews, 38, 185-196.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b802262n
[46] Ahluwalia, V. (2013) Environmental Studies: Basic Concepts. TERI Press, New Delhi.
[47] Hofmann, E.E., Cahill, B., Fennel, K., Friedrichs, M.A., Hyde, K., Lee, C., et al. (2011) Modeling the Dynamics of Continental Shelf Carbon. Annual Review of Marine Science, 3, 93-122.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-marine-120709-142740
[48] Bennett, J. (1981) Biosynthesis of the Light-Harvesting Chlorophyll a/b Protein. European Journal of Biochemistry, 118, 61-70.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1981.tb05486.x
[49] Bennett, J. (1983) Regulation of Photosynthesis by Reversible Phosphorylation of the Light-Harvesting Chlorophyll a/b Protein. Biochemical Journal, 212, 1-13.
[50] Kitajima, K. and Hogan, K. (2003) Increases of Chlorophyll a/b Ratios during Acclimation of Tropical Woody Seedlings to Nitrogen Limitation and High Light. Plant, Cell & Environment, 26, 857-865.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3040.2003.01017.x
[51] Birch, A.N.E., Begg, G.S. and Squire, G.R. (2011) How Agro-Ecological Research Helps to Address Food Security Issues under New IPM and Pesticide Reduction Policies for Global Crop Production Systems. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62, 3251-3261.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/err064
[52] Marchand, P.J. (2000) Autumn: A Season of Change. UPNE, Lebanon.
[53] Simmons, A. (2009) Encyclopedia of Adaptations in the Natural World. ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara.
[54] Zobiole, L., Oliveira Jr., R., Kremer, R., Constantin, J., Yamada, T., Castro, C., et al. (2010) Effect of Glyphosate on Symbiotic N2 Fixation and Nickel Concentration in Glyphosate-Resistant Soybeans. Applied Soil Ecology, 44, 176-180.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2009.12.003
[55] Dimkpa, C., Weinand, T. and Asch, F. (2009) Plant-Rhizobacteria Interactions Alleviate Abiotic Stress Conditions. Plant, Cell & Environment, 32, 1682-1694.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2009.02028.x
[56] Römer, W. and Schilling, G. (1986) Phosphorus Requirements of the Wheat Plant in Various Stages of Its Life Cycle. Plant and Soil, 91, 221-229.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02181789
[57] George, E., Marschner, H. and Jakobsen, I. (1995) Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Uptake of Phosphorus and Nitrogen from Soil. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 15, 257-270.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07388559509147412
[58] Black Jr., C.C. (1973) Photosynthetic Carbon Fixation in Relation to Net CO2 Uptake. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 24, 253-286.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.24.060173.001345
[59] Uchida, R. (2000) Essential Nutrients for Plant Growth: Nutrient Functions and Deficiency Symptoms. In: Silva, J.A. and Uchida, R., Eds., Plant Nutrient Management in Hawaii’s Soils, Approaches for Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, 31-55.
[60] Rojo, M., Carcedo, S.G. and Mateos, M. (1990) Distribution and Characterization of Phosphatase and Organic Phosphorus in Soil Fractions. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 22, 169-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(90)90082-B
[61] Amtmann, A., Hammond, J.P., Armengaud, P. and White, P.J. (2005) Nutrient Sensing and Signalling in Plants: Potassium and Phosphorus. Advances in Botanical Research, 43, 209-257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2296(05)43005-0
[62] Van Bel, A.J. (1990) Xylem-Phloem Exchange via the Rays: The Undervalued Route of Transport. Journal of Experimental Botany, 41, 631-644.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/41.6.631
[63] Waraich, E.A., Ahmad, R., Ashraf, M.Y., Saifullah and Ahmad, M. (2011) Improving Agricultural Water Use Efficiency by Nutrient Management in Crop Plants. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B—Soil & Plant Science, 61, 291-304.
[64] Chrispeels, M.J., Morillon, R., Maurel, C., Gerbeau, P., Kjellbom, P. and Johansson, I. (2001) Aquaporins of Plants: Structure, Function, Regulation and Role in Plant Water Relations. Current Topics in Membranes, 51, 277-334.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1063-5823(01)51009-1
[65] Leigh, R. and Wyn Jones, R. (1984) A Hypothesis Relating Critical Potassium Concentrations for Growth to the Distribution and Functions of This Ion in the Plant Cell. New Phytologist, 97, 1-13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1984.tb04103.x
[66] Hamdi, Y.A. (1982) Application of Nitrogen-Fixing Systems in Soil Improvement and Management. Food & Agriculture Organization, Rome.
[67] Graham, R.D., Welch, R.M., Saunders, D.A., Ortiz-Monasterio, I., Bouis, H.E., Bonierbale, M., et al. (2007) Nutritious Subsistence Food Systems. Advances in Agronomy, 92, 1-74.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(04)92001-9
[68] Ndakidemi, P.A., Bambara, S. and Makoi, J.H. (2011) Micronutrient Uptake in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as Affected by Rhizobium Inoculation and the Supply of Molybdenum and Lime. Plant Omics Journal, 4, 40-52.
[69] Fageria, N.K., Baligar, V.C. and Jones, C.A. (2011) Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Field Crops. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
[70] Killham, K. (1994) Soil Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[71] Rotz, C. (2004) Management to Reduce Nitrogen Losses in Animal Production. Journal of Animal Science, 82, E119-E137.
[72] Stark, C.H. and Richards, K.G. (2008) The Continuing Challenge of Agricultural Nitrogen Loss to the Environment in the Context of Global Change and Advancing Research. Dynamic Soil, Dynamic Plant, 2, 1-12.
[73] Dobbelaere, S., Vanderleyden, J. and Okon, Y. (2003) Plant Growth-Promoting Effects of Diazotrophs in the Rhizosphere. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 22, 107-149.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713610853
[74] Bais, H.P., Weir, T.L., Perry, L.G., Gilroy, S. and Vivanco, J.M. (2006) The Role of Root Exudates in Rhizosphere Interactions with Plants and Other Organisms. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 57, 233-266.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.57.032905.105159
[75] Lugtenberg, B. and Kamilova, F. (2009) Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria. Annual Review of Microbiology, 63, 541-556.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.micro.62.081307.162918
[76] Gaur, Y. (1993) Microbiology, Physiology and Agronomy of Nitrogen Fixation: Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy Part B, 59, 333-333.
[77] Glick, B.R. (1995) The Enhancement of Plant Growth by Free-Living Bacteria. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 41, 109-117.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/m95-015
[78] Giller, K.E. (2001) Nitrogen Fixation in Tropical Cropping Systems. Cabi.
[79] Nyoki, D. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2014) Effects of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculation and Supplementation with Phosphorus on Macronutrients Uptake in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 442-451.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2014.54058
[80] Allen, M.B., Whatley, F. and Arnon, D.I. (1958) Photosynthesis by Isolated Chloroplasts: VI. Rates of Conversion of Light into Chemical Energy in Photosynthetic Phosphorylation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 27, 16-23.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3002(58)90288-9
[81] Allen, J.F. (2002) Photosynthesis of ATP—Electrons, Proton Pumps, Rotors and Poise. Cell, 110, 273-276.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00870-X
[82] Connolly, T.M., Lawing Jr., W.J. and Majerus, P.W. (1986) Protein Kinase C Phosphorylates Human Platelet Inositol Trisphosphate 5’-Phosphomonoesterase, Increasing the Phosphatase Activity. Cell, 46, 951-958.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(86)90077-2
[83] Rengel, Z. (2012) 2. Nutrient Management in Organic Farming and Consequences for Direct and Indirect Selection Strategies. Organic Crop Breeding, Published Online.
[84] Fisher, M.C., Eissenstat, D.M. and Lynch, J.P. (2002) Lack of Evidence for Programmed Root Senescence in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Grown at Different Levels of Phosphorus Supply. New Phytologist, 153, 63-71.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0028-646X.2001.00285.x
[85] Wittwer, S.H. (1995) Food, Climate and Carbon Dioxide: The Global Environment and World Food Production. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
[86] Schachtman, D.P., Reid, R.J. and Ayling, S.M. (1998) Phosphorus Uptake by Plants: From Soil to Cell. Plant Physiology, 116, 447-453.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.116.2.447
[87] Nyoki, D. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2014) Influence of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Phosphorus on Micronutrient Uptake in Cowpea. A Case Study of Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu) and Manganese (Mn). American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 427-435.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2014.54056
[88] Fageria, N., Zimmermann, F. and Baligar, V. (1995) Lime and Phosphorus Interactions on Growth and Nutrient Uptake by Upland Rice, Wheat, Common Bean and Corn in an Oxisol. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 18, 2519-2532.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904169509365081
[89] Tairo, E.V. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2014) Macronutrients Uptake in Soybean as Affected by Bradyrhizobium japonicum Inoculation and Phosphorus (P) Supplements. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 488-496.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2014.54063
[90] Anetor, M. and Akinrinde, E. (2006) Response of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] to Lime and Phosphorus Fertilizer Treatments on an Acidic Alfisol of Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 5, 286-293.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2006.286.293
[91] Hagin, J., Olsen, S. and Shaviv, A. (1990) Review of Interaction of Ammonium-Nitrate and Potassium Nutrition of Crops. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 13, 1211-1226.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904169009364147
[92] Chianu, J.N., Nkonya, E.M., Mairura, F., Chianu, J.N. and Akinnifesi, F. (2010) Biological Nitrogen Fixation and Socioeconomic Factors for Legume Production in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 31, 139-154.
[93] Mylona, P., Pawlowski, K. and Bisseling, T. (1995) Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation. The Plant Cell, 7, 869-885.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.7.7.869
[94] Amtmann, A. and Armengaud, P. (2009) Effects of N, P, K and S on Metabolism: New Knowledge Gained from Multi-Level Analysis. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 12, 275-283.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2009.04.014
[95] Lewis, O.A. (1991) Plants and Nitrogen. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[96] Vance, C.P. (2001) Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation and Phosphorus Acquisition. Plant Nutrition in a World of Declining Renewable Resources. Plant Physiology, 127, 390-397.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.010331
[97] Reich, P. and Schoettle, A. (1988) Role of Phosphorus and Nitrogen in Photosynthetic and Whole Plant Carbon Gain and Nutrient Use Efficiency in Eastern White Pine. Oecologia, 77, 25-33.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00380920
[98] Stevens, G., Motavalli, P.P., Scharf, P.C., Nathan, M. and Dunn, D.D. (2002) Crop Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities. MU Extension, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia.
[99] Fageria, N. and Baligar, V. (2005) Enhancing Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Crop Plants. Advances in Agronomy, 88, 97-185.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(05)88004-6
[100] Crews, T. and Peoples, M. (2004) Legume versus Fertilizer Sources of Nitrogen: Ecological Tradeoffs and Human Needs. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 102, 279-297.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2003.09.018
[101] Hofman, G., Van Cleemput, O. and Association, I.F.I. (2004) Soil and Plant Nitrogen. International Fertilizer Industry Association, Paris.
[102] Ndakidemi, P., Dakora, F., Nkonya, E., Ringo, D. and Mansoor, H. (2006) Yield and Economic Benefits of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and Soybean (Glycine max) Inoculation in Northern Tanzania. Animal Production Science, 46, 571-577.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA03157
[103] Phillips, D.A. (1980) Efficiency of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Legumes. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 31, 29-49.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.31.060180.000333
[104] Neves, M.C.P., Hungria, M. and Sprent, J. (1987) The Physiology of Nitrogen Fixation in Tropical Grain Legumes. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 6, 267-321.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07352688709382252
[105] Graham, P. (1984) Plant Factors Affecting Nodulation and Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Legumes. In: Alexander, M., Ed., Biological Nitrogen Fixation, Springer US, New York, 75-98.
[106] Ramaekers, L. (2011) Climbing for Nitrogen: Genetic Analysis of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Capacity and Adoption Analysis in Climbing Beans. KU Leuven, Leuven.
[107] Rodelas, B., González-López, J., Martinez-Toledo, M., Pozo, C. and Salmeron, V. (1999) Influence of Rhizobium/Azotobacter and Rhizobium/Azospirillum Combined Inoculation on Mineral Composition of Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.). Biology and Fertility of Soils, 29, 165-169.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s003740050540
[108] Rao, I.M., Friesen, D., Osaki, M. and Pessarakli, M. (1999) Plant Adaptation to Phosphorus-Limited Tropical Soils. In: Pessarakli, M., Ed., Handbook of Plant and Crop Stress, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 61-96.
[109] Graham, P. and Vance, C. (2000) Nitrogen Fixation in Perspective: An Overview of Research and Extension Needs. Field Crops Research, 65, 93-106.
[110] Giller, K., Amijee, F., Brodrick, S. and Edje, O. (1998) Environmental Constraints to Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation of Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Tanzania II. Response to N and P Fertilizers and Inoculation with Rhizobium. African Crop Science Journal, 6, 171-178.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/acsj.v6i2.27813
[111] Wortmann, C. (1988) Review of Bean Responses to Applied Fertilizers in Africa. Proceedings of a Workshop on Soil Fertility Research for Bean Cropping Systems in Africa, Addis Ababa, 5-9 September 1988, 111.
[112] Mayona, C. and Kamasho, J. (1988) Research Experiences with Inorganic and Organic Fertilizers in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Cali.
[113] Daba, S. and Haile, M. (2002) Effects of Rhizobial Inoculant and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Nodulation of Common Bean under Intercropped Conditions. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 25, 1443-1455.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/PLN-120005401
[114] Pereira, P., Burris, R. and Bliss, F. (1989) 15N-Determined Dinitrogen Fixation Potential of Genetically Diverse Bean Lines (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Plant and Soil, 120, 171-179.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02377066
[115] Wortmann, C.S., Lunze, L., Ochwoh, V.A. and Lynch, J. (1995) Bean Improvement for Low Fertility Soils in Africa. African Crop Science Journal, 3, 469-477.
[116] Kuklinsky-Sobral, J., Araújo, W.L., Mendes, R., Geraldi, I.O., Pizzirani-Kleiner, A.A. and Azevedo, J.L. (2004) Isolation and Characterization of Soybean-Associated Bacteria and Their Potential for Plant Growth Promotion. Environmental Microbiology, 6, 1244-1251.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2004.00658.x
[117] Ravikumar, R. (2012) Growth Effects of Rhizobium Inoculation in Some Legume Plants. International Journal of Current Science, 2012, 1-6.
[118] Catroux, G. and Amarger, N. (1992) Rhizobia as Soil Inoculants in Agriculture. In: Fry, J.C., Day, M. and Lynch, J., Eds., Release of Genetically Engineered and Other Micro-Organisms, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1-13.
[119] Zablotowicz, R.M. and Reddy, K.N. (2007) Nitrogenase Activity, Nitrogen Content and Yield Responses to Glyphosate in Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean. Crop Protection, 26, 370-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2005.05.013
[120] Dommergues, Y.R. (1987) The Role of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Agroforestry. In: Steppler, H.A. and Nair, P.K.R., Eds., Agroforestry: A Decade of Development, ICRAF, Nairobi, 245-271.
[121] Shantharam, S. and Mattoo, A.K. (1997) Enhancing Biological Nitrogen Fixation: An Appraisal of Current and Alternative Technologies for N Input into Plants. In: Ladha, J.K., de Bruijn, F.J. and Malik, K.A., Eds., Opportunities for Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Rice and Other Non-Legumes, Springer, Dordrecht, 205-216.
[122] Bambara, S. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2010) Phaseolus vulgaris Response to Rhizobium Inoculation, Lime and Molybdenum in Selected Low pH Soil in Western Cape, South Africa. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 5, 1804-1811.
[123] Wortmann, C.S. (1998) Atlas of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Production in Africa. CIAT, Cali.
[124] Soetan, K., Olaiya, C. and Oyewole, O. (2010) The Importance of Mineral Elements for Humans, Domestic Animals and Plants: A Review. African Journal of Food Science, 4, 200-222.
[125] Salad, C. (2007) Diseases of Vegetable Crops. In: Koike, S.T., Gladders, P. and Paulus, A.O., Eds., Vegetable Diseases: A Color Handbook, Academic Press, Burlington, 420.
[126] Gerdemann, J. (1968) Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza and Plant Growth. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 6, 397-418.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.py.06.090168.002145
[127] Rao, I. and Pessarakli, M. (1996) The Role of Phosphorus in Photosynthesis. In: Pessarakli, M., Ed., Handbook of Photosynthesis, Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, 173-194.
[128] Dobrota, C. (2004) The Biology of Phosphorus. In: Valsamy-Jones, E. and Gray, R. Eds., Phosphorus in Environmental Technology: Principles and Applications, IWA Publishers, London, 51-77.
[129] Aller, A.J., Bernal, J.L., Nozal, M. and Deban, L. (1990) Effects of Selected Trace Elements on Plant Growth. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 51, 447-479.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740510404
[130] Sumner, M.E. and Farina, M.P. (1986) Phosphorus Interactions with Other Nutrients and Lime in Field Cropping Systems. In: Stewart, B.A., Ed., Advances in Soil Science, Springer, New York, 201-236.
[131] Nziguheba, G., Palm, C.A., Buresh, R.J. and Smithson, P.C. (1998) Soil Phosphorus Fractions and Adsorption as Affected by Organic and Inorganic Sources. Plant and Soil, 198, 159-168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1004389704235
[132] Wardle, D.A., Bardgett, R.D., Klironomos, J.N., Setälä, H., Van Der Putten, W.H. and Wall, D.H. (2004) Ecological Linkages between Aboveground and Belowground Biota. Science, 304, 1629-1633.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1094875
[133] Thung, M. and Rao, I.M. (1999) Integrated Management of Abiotic Stresses. In: Singh, S.P., Ed., Common Bean Improvement in the Twenty-First Century, Springer, Dordrecht, 331-370.
[134] Hardarson, G. (1993) Methods for Enhancing Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation. In: Bliss, F.A. and Hardarson, G., Eds., Enhancement of Biological Nitrogen Fixation of Common Bean in Latin America, Springer, Dordrecht, 1-17.
[135] Leidi, E.O. and Rodríguez-Navarro, D.N. (2000) Nitrogen and Phosphorus Availability Limit N2 Fixation in Bean. New Phytologist, 147, 337-346.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2000.00703.x
[136] Zaman, M., Saggar, S., Blennerhassett, J. and Singh, J. (2009) Effect of Urease and Nitrification Inhibitors on N Transformation, Gaseous Emissions of Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide, Pasture Yield and N Uptake in Grazed Pasture System. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41, 1270-1280.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.03.011
[137] Wu, S., Cao, Z., Li, Z., Cheung, K. and Wong, M. (2005) Effects of Biofertilizer Containing N-Fixer, P and K Solubilizers and AM Fungi on Maize Growth: A Greenhouse Trial. Geoderma, 125, 155-166.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.07.003
[138] Asimi, S., Gianinazzi-Pearson, V. and Gianinazzi, S. (1980) Influence of Increasing Soil Phosphorus Levels on Interactions between Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae and Rhizobium in Soybeans. Canadian Journal of Botany, 58, 2200-2205.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/b80-253
[139] Rudresh, D., Shivaprakash, M. and Prasad, R. (2005) Effect of Combined Application of Rhizobium, Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterium and Trichoderma spp. on Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Yield of Chickpea (Ciceraritenium L.). Applied Soil Ecology, 28, 139-146.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2004.07.005
[140] Lawton, K. and Cook, R. (1954) Potassium in Plant Nutrition. Advances in Agronomy, 6, 253-303.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60387-9
[141] Clarkson, D.T. and Hanson, J.B. (1980) The Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 31, 239-298.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.31.060180.001323
[142] Olsen, R.A. and Kurtz, L.T. (1982) Crop Nitrogen Requirements, Utilization and Fertilization. In: Stevenson, F.J., Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 567-604.
[143] Wilson, J.B. (1988) A Review of Evidence on the Control of Shoot: Root Ratio, in Relation to Models. Annals of Botany, 61, 433-449.
[144] Pettigrew, W.T. (2008) Potassium Influences on Yield and Quality Production for Maize, Wheat, Soybean and Cotton. Physiologia Plantarum, 133, 670-681.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2008.01073.x
[145] Ayub, M., Nadeem, M., Naeem, M., Tahir, M., Tariq, M. and Ahmad, W. (2012) Effect of Different Levels of P and K on Growth, Forage Yield and Quality of Cluster Bean (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus L.). Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 22, 479-483.
[146] Paudyal, S., Aryal, R.R., Chauhan, S. and Maheshwari, D. (2007) Effect of Heavy Metals on Growth of Rhizobium Strains and Symbiotic Efficiency of Two Species of Tropical Legumes. Scientific World, 5, 27-32.
[147] Ike-Izundu, N.E. (2008) Interaction between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Soil Microbial Populations in the Rhizosphere. Thesis, Rhodes University, Rhodes.
[148] Okon, Y. and Hardy, R. (1983) Developments in Basic and Applied Biological Nitrogen Fixation. Plant Physiology-A Treatise, 8, 5-54.
[149] Seresinhe, T. and Pathirana, K. (2001) Effects of Phosphorous and Potassium on the Growth and Nodulation of Centrosema spp. Journal of Agriculture in the Tropics and Subtropics, 102, 45-52.
[150] Seresinhe, T. and Pathirana, K. (2002) Cover Crop, Centrosema spp., N-Fixation, Phosphorous, Potassium. Journal of Agriculture in the Tropics and Subtropics, 103, 73-79.
[151] Arora, P., Yadav, R., Dilbaghi, N. and Chaudhury, A. (2012) Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Host-Rhizobium Interaction. Frontiers on Recent Developments in Plant Science, 1, 39-59.
[152] Andrade, D., Murphy, P. and Giller, K. (2002) Effects of Liming and Legume/Cereal Cropping on Populations of Indigenous Rhizobia in an Acid Brazilian Oxisol. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 34, 477-485.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(01)00206-1
[153] Salvagiotti, F., Cassman, K.G., Specht, J.E., Walters, D.T., Weiss, A. and Dobermann, A. (2008) Nitrogen Uptake, Fixation and Response to Fertilizer N in Soybeans: A Review. Field Crops Research, 108, 1-13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2008.03.001
[154] Gupta, R., Kalia, A. and Kapoor, S. (2007) Bioinoculants: A Step towards Sustainable Agriculture. New India Publishing, New Delhi.
[155] Dash, S. and Gupta, N. (2011) Microbial Bioinoculants and Their Role in Plant Growth and Development. International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research, 2, 232-251.
[156] Niehaus, K., Lagares, A. and Pühler, A. (1998) A Sinorhizobium meliloti Lipopolysaccharide Mutant Induces Effective Nodules on the Host Plant Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) but Fails to Establish a Symbiosis with Medicago truncatula. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 11, 906-914.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI.1998.11.9.906
[157] Hirsch, A.M., Lum, M.R. and Downie, J.A. (2001) What Makes the Rhizobia-Legume Symbiosis So Special? Plant Physiology, 127, 1484-1492.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.010866
[158] Beringer, J.E. and Johnston, A.W. (1984) The Significance of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Plant Production. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 1, 269-286.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07352688409382181
[159] Maier, R.J. and Triplett, E.W. (1996) Toward More Productive, Efficient and Competitive Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiotic Bacteria. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 15, 191-234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07352689609701941
[160] Cooper, J.E. (2004) Multiple Responses of Rhizobia to Flavonoids during Legume Root Infection. Advances in Botanical Research, 41, 1-62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2296(04)41001-5
[161] Sprent, J.I. and Raven, J.A. (1985) Evolution of Nitrogen-Fixing Symbioses. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Section B. Biological Sciences, 85, 215-237.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0269727000004036
[162] Vance, C.P. (1998) Legume Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation: Agronomic Aspects. In: Spaink, H.P., Kondorosi, A. and Hooykaas, P.J.J., Eds., The Rhizobiaceae, Springer, Dordrecht, 509-530.
[163] Geers, R., Van der Veken, L., Swennen, R. and Michiels, J. (2010) Potential of Multipurpose Intercrops for the Management of Pathogenic Nematodes and Beneficial Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Root Nodulating Rhizobacteria in Banana-Based Cropping Systems. Ph.D. Studies, KU Leuven, Leuven.
[164] Parthipan, S. and Kulasooriya, S. (1989) Effect of Nitrogen- and Potassium-Based Fertilizers on Nitrogen Fixation in the Winged Bean, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus. MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 5, 335-341.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01741764
[165] Premaratne, K. and Oertli, J. (1994) The Influence of Potassium Supply on Nodulation, Nitrogenase Activity and Nitrogen Accumulation of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) Grown in Nutrient Solution. Fertilizer Research, 38, 95-99.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00748769
[166] Weisany, W., Raei, Y. and Allahverdipoor, K.H. (2013) Role of Some of Mineral Nutrients in Biological Nitrogen Fixation. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 2, 77-84.
[167] Subba Rao, N.S. and Tilak, K.V.B.R. (1977) Rhizobial Cultures—Their Role in Pulse Production. In: Subba Rao, N.S., Ed., Souvenier Bulletin, Directorate of Pulse Development, Oxford and IBH, New Delhi, 1-19.
[168] Koide, R.T. (1991) Nutrient Supply, Nutrient Demand and Plant Response to Mycorrhizal Infection. New Phytologist, 117, 365-386.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1991.tb00001.x
[169] Stewart, A., Chapman, W., Jenkins, G., Graham, I., Martin, T. and Crozier, A. (2001) The Effect of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Deficiency on Flavonol Accumulation in Plant Tissues. Plant, Cell & Environment, 24, 1189-1197.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3040.2001.00768.x
[170] Shin, R., Berg, R.H. and Schachtman, D.P. (2005) Reactive Oxygen Species and Root Hairs in Arabidopsis Root Response to Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Deficiency. Plant and Cell Physiology, 46, 1350-1357.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pci145
[171] Boddey, R.M., De Moraes Sá, J.C., Alves, B.J. and Urquiaga, S. (1997) The Contribution of Biological Nitrogen Fixation for Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the Tropics. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 29, 787-799.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(96)00221-0
[172] Christophe, S., Jean-Christophe, A., Annabelle, L., Alain, O., Marion, P. and Anne-Sophie, V. (2011) Plant N Fluxes and Modulation by Nitrogen, Heat and Water Stresses: A Review Based on Comparison of Legumes and Non Legume Plants. In: Shanker, A. and Venkateswarlu, B., Eds., Abiotic Stress in Plants—Mechanisms and Adaptations, InTech.
[173] Bergersen, F. (1971) Biochemistry of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Legumes. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 22, 121-140.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pp.22.060171.001005
[174] Jakobsen, I. (1985) The Role of Phosphorus in Nitrogen Fixation by Young Pea Plants (Pisum sativum). Physiologia Plantarum, 64, 190-196.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1985.tb02334.x
[175] Israel, D.W. (1993) Symbiotic Dinitrogen Fixation and Host-Plant Growth during Development of and Recovery from Phosphorus Deficiency. Physiologia Plantarum, 88, 294-300.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.1993.tb05502.x
[176] Hart, S.R. and Dunn, T. (1993) Experimental Cpx/Melt Partitioning of 24 Trace Elements. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 113, 1-8.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00320827
[177] Stamford, N., Lima, R., Santos, C. and Dias, S. (2006) Rock Biofertilizers with Acidithiobacillus on Sugarcane Yield and Nutrient Uptake in a Brazilian Soil. Geomicrobiology Journal, 23, 261-265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01490450600760658
[178] Singleton, P., AbdelMagid, H. and Tavares, J. (1985) Effect of Phosphorus on the Effectiveness of Strains of Rhizobium japonicum. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 49, 613-616.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1985.03615995004900030016x
[179] Schiffmann, J. (1982) Biological and Agronomic Aspects of Legume Inoculation in Israel. Israel Journal of Botany, 31, 265-281.
[180] Ribet, J. and Drevon, J.-J. (1995) Phosphorus Deficiency Increases the Acetylene-Induced Decline in Nitrogenase Activity in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Journal of Experimental Botany, 46, 1479-1486.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/46.10.1479
[181] Drevon, J.-J. and Hartwig, U.A. (1997) Phosphorus Deficiency Increases the Argon-Induced Decline of Nodule Nitrogenase Activity in Soybean and Alfalfa. Planta, 201, 463-469.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004250050090
[182] Parsons, R., Stanforth, A., Raven, J. and Sprent, J. (1993) Nodule Growth and Activity May Be Regulated by a Feedback Mechanism Involving Phloem Nitrogen. Plant, Cell & Environment, 16, 125-136.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.1993.tb00854.x
[183] Rufty, T.W., Israel, D.W., Volk, R.J., Qiu, J. and Sa, T. (1993) Phosphate Regulation of Nitrate Assimilation in Soybean. Journal of Experimental Botany, 44, 879-891.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/44.5.879
[184] Sa, T. and Israel, D. (1995) Nitrogen Assimilation in Nitrogen-Fixing Soybean Plants during Phosphorus Deficiency. Crop Science, 35, 814-820.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1995.0011183X003500030030x
[185] Ngatunga, E., Lal, R. and Uriyo, A. (1984) Effects of Surface Management on Runoff and Soil Erosion from Some Plots at Mlingano, Tanzania. Geoderma, 33, 1-12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7061(84)90086-7
[186] Muchena, F. and Kiome, R. (1995) The Role of Soil Science in Agricultural Development in East Africa. Geoderma, 67, 141-157.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7061(95)00015-G
[187] Buttery, B., Park, S. and Findlay, W. (1987) Growth and Yield of White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Response to Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilizer and to Inoculation with Rhizobium. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 67, 425-432.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/cjps87-061
[188] Abdelhamid, M.T., Kamel, H. and Dawood, M.G. (2011) Response of Non-Nodulating, Nodulating and Super-Nodulating Soybean Genotypes to Potassium Fertilizer under Water Stress. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 34, 1675-1689.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904167.2011.592563
[189] Abbasi, M.K., Tahir, M.M., Azam, W., Abbas, Z. and Rahim, N. (2012) Soybean Yield and Chemical Composition in Response to Phosphorus-Potassium Nutrition in Kashmir. Agronomy Journal, 104, 1476-1484.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj2011.0379
[190] Mengel, K., Kosegarten, H., Kirkby, E.A. and Appel, T. (2001) Principles of Plant Nutrition. Springer, Dordrecht.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-1009-2
[191] Sangakkara, U., Frehner, M. and Nösberger, J. (2000) Effect of Soil Moisture and Potassium Fertilizer on Shoot Water Potential, Photosynthesis and Partitioning of Carbon in Mungbean and Cowpea. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 185, 201-207.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-037x.2000.00422.x
[192] Imas, P. and Bansal, S. (1999) Potassium and Integrated Nutrient Management in Potato. Proceedings of the Global Conference on Potato, New Delhi, 6-11 December 1999, 6-11.
[193] Odee, D., Sutherland, J., Makatiani, E., McInroy, S. and Sprent, J. (1997) Phenotypic Characteristics and Composition of Rhizobia Associated with Woody Legumes Growing in Diverse Kenyan Conditions. Plant and Soil, 188, 65-75.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1004204413140
[194] Zahran, H.H. (1999) Rhizobium-Legume Symbiosis and Nitrogen Fixation under Severe Conditions and in an Arid Climate. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 63, 968-989.
[195] O’Hara, G. (2001) Nutritional Constraints on Root Nodule Bacteria Affecting Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation: A Review. Animal Production Science, 41, 417-433.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA00087
[196] Makoi, J.H. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2008) Selected Soil Enzymes: Examples of Their Potential Roles in the Ecosystem. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7, 181-191.
[197] Torres Gutiérrez, R. (2008) Phytostimulatory Effect of Rhizobium and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Interaction.
[198] Sumi, L.S. (1997) Seasonal Availability and Mineralization of Nitrogen in Cotton and Soybean Cropping Systems in Mississippi. Master’s Thesis, University of Toronto, Toronto.
[199] Birkhold, K.T. and Darnell, R.L. (1991) Contribution of Carbon and Nitrogen Reserves to Vegetative and Reproductive Growth of Rabbiteye Blueberry. HortScience, 26, 682-682.
[200] Porter, J.R. and Lawlor, D.W. (1991) Plant Growth: Interactions with Nutrition and Environment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[201] Sanginga, N., Dashiell, K., Diels, J., Vanlauwe, B., Lyasse, O., Carsky, R., et al. (2003) Sustainable Resource Management Coupled to Resilient Germplasm to Provide New Intensive Cereal-Grain-Legume-Livestock Systems in the Dry Savanna. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 100, 305-314.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(03)00188-9
[202] Marenya, P.P. and Barrett, C.B. (2009) Soil Quality and Fertilizer Use Rates among Smallholder Farmers in Western Kenya. Agricultural Economics, 40, 561-572.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-0862.2009.00398.x
[203] Martins, O., Gideon, O. and Beatrice, S. (2009) Factors Responsible for Differences in Uptake of Integrated Soil Fertility Management Practices amongst Smallholders in Western Kenya. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 4, 1303-1311.
[204] Phoenix, G.K., Hicks, W.K., Cinderby, S., Kuylenstierna, J.C., Stock, W.D., Dentener, F.J., et al. (2006) Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition in World Biodiversity Hotspots: The Need for a Greater Global Perspective in Assessing N Deposition Impacts. Global Change Biology, 12, 470-476.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01104.x
[205] Onduru, D., De Jager, A., Muchena, F., Gachini, G. and Gachimbi, L. (2008) Exploring Potentials of Rhizobium Inoculation in Enhancing Soil Fertility and Agro-Economic Performance of Cowpeas in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study in Semi-Arid Mbeere, Eastern Kenya. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 2, 187-195.
[206] Panwar, J. and Laxmi, V. (2005) Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Pulses and Cereals. Developments in Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants, 1, 125.
[207] Williams, R. (1948) The Effects of Phosphorus Supply on the Rates of Intake of Phosphorus and Nitrogen and upon Certain Aspects of Phosphorus Metabolism in Gramineous Plants. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 1, 333-361.
[208] Pramanick, B., Brahmachari, K. and Ghosh, A. (2013) Effect of Seaweed Saps on Growth and Yield Improvement of Green Gram. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8, 1180-1186.
[209] Andrew, C. and Robins, M. (1969) The Effect of Phosphorus on the Growth and Chemical Composition of Some Tropical Pasture Legumes. I. Growth and Critical Percentages of Phosphorus. Crop and Pasture Science, 20, 665-674.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AR9690665
[210] Singleton, P. and Tavares, J. (1986) Inoculation Response of Legumes in Relation to the Number and Effectiveness of Indigenous Rhizobium Populations. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 51, 1013-1018.
[211] Wani, S., Rupela, O. and Lee, K. (1995) Sustainable Agriculture in the Semi-Arid Tropics through Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Grain Legumes. In: Ladha, J.K. and Peoples, M.B., Eds., Management of Biological Nitrogen Fixation for the Development of More Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems, Springer, Dordrecht, 29-49.
[212] Turuko, M. and Mohammed, A. (2014) Effect of Different Phosphorus Fertilizer Rates on Growth, Dry Matter Yield and Yield Components of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). World Journal of Agricultural Research, 2, 88-92.
http://dx.doi.org/10.12691/wjar-2-3-1
[213] Borges, R. and Mallarino, A.P. (2000) Grain Yield, Early Growth and Nutrient Uptake of No-Till Soybean as Affected by Phosphorus and Potassium Placement. Agronomy Journal, 92, 380-388.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj2000.922380x
[214] Dakora, F. and Keya, S. (1997) Contribution of Legume Nitrogen Fixation to Sustainable Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 29, 809-817.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(96)00225-8
[215] Palm, C.A., Gachengo, C.N., Delve, R.J., Cadisch, G. and Giller, K.E. (2001) Organic Inputs for Soil Fertility Management in Tropical Agroecosystems: Application of an Organic Resource Database. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 83, 27-42.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(00)00267-X
[216] Tsai, S.M., Da Silva, P.M., Cabezas, W.L. and Bonetti, R. (1993) Variability in Nitrogen Fixation of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Intercropped with Maize. Plant and Soil, 152, 93-101.
[217] Nandwa, S.M. and Bekunda, M. (1998) Research on Nutrient Flows and Balances in East and Southern Africa: State-of-the-Art. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 71, 5-18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(98)00128-5

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.