FNS> Vol.5 No.16, August 2014

Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract Ingestion on Plasma Total Cortisol Levels during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Normal Glucose Tolerant Individuals

DownloadDownload as PDF (Size:2625KB)  HTML    PP. 1561-1567  

ABSTRACT

Protracted periods of increased cortisol production, as may be seen in an acute illness, may lead to transient hyperglycemia. Increasing evidence suggests that cortisol may then mediate the development of insulin resistance and potentially lead to the development of overt diabetes. Evidence in animal studies also suggests that under conditions of stress Ginkgo biloba extract could reduce plasma cortisol production and so the primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract ingestion on plasma cortisol production during an acute period of glucose challenge. Healthy non-diabetic, glucose tolerant volunteers (n = 30, (10/20, M/F); age, 45.7 ± 9.9 years old) completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study when they ingested Ginkgo biloba extract (120 mg/day as a single dose) and placebo during each 3-month arm. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed at the end of each cycle and blood was collected and used to measure plasma glucose, insulin, c-peptide and cortisol. Fasting plasma cortisol was significantly lower after the Ginkgo biloba cycle than the placebo cycle (326 ± 149 vs. 268 ± 121 nmol/L, respectively; p = 019). The plasma cortisol area under the curve during the 2-hour test (AUC0-2) was also significantly lower after ingestion of the Ginkgo biloba cycle compared to the placebo (668 ± 265 vs. 530 ± 213 nmol/L/h, respectively; p < 0.001). It is concluded that the ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract has effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leading to reduced basal cortisol levels and reduced cortisol production in response to acute hyperglycemic challenge.

Cite this paper

Kudolo, G. (2014) Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract Ingestion on Plasma Total Cortisol Levels during an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Normal Glucose Tolerant Individuals. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 1561-1567. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.516169.

References

[1] Akerstedt, T. and Levi, L. (1978) Circadian Rhythms in the Secretion of Cortisol, Adrenaline and Noradrenaline. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 8, 57-58.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2362.1978.tb00811.x
[2] Hucklebridge, F.H., Clow, A., Abeyguneratne, T., Huezo-Diaz, P. and Evans, P. (1999) The Awakening Cortisol Response and Blood Glucose Levels. Life Sciences, 64, 931-937.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3205(99)00019-3
[3] Bhagwagar, Z., Hafizi, S. and Cowen, P.J. (2005) Increased Salivary Cortisol after Waking in Depression. Psychopharmacology, 182, 54-57.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-005-0062-z
[4] Stokes, P.E. (1995) The Potential Role of Excessive Cortisol Induced by HPA Hyperfunction in the Pathogenesis of Depression. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 5, 77-82.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0924-977X(95)00039-R.
[5] Reynolds, R.M., Javier, L., Strachan, W.W.J., Braun, A., Fowkes, F.G.R., Lee, A.J., Frier, B.M., Seckl, J.R., Walker, B.R. and Price, J.F. on behalf of the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study (ET2DS) Investigators (2010) Elevated Fasting Plasma Cortisol Is Associated with Ischemic Heart Disease and Its Risk Factors in People with Type 2 Diabetes: The Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 95, 1602-1608.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2009-2112
[6] Heraclides, A., Chandola, T., Witte, D.R. and Brunner, E.J. (2009) Psychosocial Stress at Work Doubles the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Women Evidence from the Whitehall II Study. Diabetes Care, 32, 2230-2205.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc09-0132
[7] Vermetten, E., Vythiliingan, M., Schmahl, C., Kloet, C., Southwick, S.M., Charney, D.S. and Bremner, J.D. (2006) Alterations in Stress Reactivity after Long-Term Treatment with Paroxetine in Women with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1071, 184-202.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1364.014
[8] Jimmink, A., Caminada, K., Hunfeld, N.G. and Touw, D.J. (2008) Clinical Toxicology of Citalopram after Acute Intoxication with Sole Drug or in Combination with Other Drugs: Overview of 26 Cases. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 30, 365-371.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0b013e3181379ef6
[9] Amitai, Y. and Frischer, H. (2006) Excess Fatality from Desipramine in Children and Adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 54-60.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000184931.26176.4a
[10] Itil, T. and Martoarano, D. (1995) Natural Substances in Psychiatry (Ginkgo biloba in Dementia). Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 31, 147-158.
[11] Kudolo, G.B. (2000) The Effect of 3-Month Ingestion of Ginkgo biloba Extract on Pancreatic β-Cell Function in Response to Glucose Loading in Healthy Volunteers. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 40, 647-654.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1552-4604.2000.tb05991.x
[12] Kudolo, G.B. (2001) The Effect of 3-Month Ingestion of Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb 761) on Pancreatic β-Cell Function in Response to Glucose Loading in Individuals with Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 41, 600-611.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00912700122010483
[13] Kudolo, G.B., Wang, W., Elrod, R., Barrientos, J., Haase, A. and Blodgett, J. (2006) Short-Term Ingestion of Ginkgo Biloba Extract (EGb 761) Does Not Alter Whole Body Insulin Resistance in the Non-Diabetic, Pre-Diabetic or Type 2 Diabetic Subjects—A Short Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study. Clinical Nutrition, 25, 123-134.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2005.10.001
[14] Amri, H., Drieu, K. and Papadopoulus, V. (1997) Ex Vivo Regulation of Adrenal Cortical Cell Steroid and Protein Synthesis, in Response to Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulation, by Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb761) and Isolated Ginkgolide B. Endocrinology, 138, 5415-5426.
[15] Walesiuk, A., Trofimiuuk, E. and Brasko, J.J. (2006) Ginkgo biloba Normalizes Stress- and Corticosterone-Induced Impairment of Recall in Rats. Pharmacological Research, 53, 123-128.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2005.09.007
[16] American Diabetes Association: Clinical Practice Recommendation (2005) Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 28, S4-S36.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.28.suppl_1.S4
[17] Dugan, K.M., Braithwaite, S.S. and Preiser, J.C. (2009) Stress Hyperglycemia. Lancet, 373, 1798-1807.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60553-5
[18] Rosmond, R. (2005) Role of Stress in the Pathogenesis of the Metabolic Syndrome. Psychoneuroen- docrinology, 30, 1-10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2004.05.007
[19] Kudolo, G.B., Dorsey, S. and Blodgett, J. (2003) Effect of the Ingestion of Ginkgo biloba Extract on Platelet Aggregation and Urinary Prostanoid Excretion in Healthy and Type 2 Diabetic Subjects. Thrombosis Research, 108, 151-160.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0049-3848(02)00394-8
[20] Kudolo, G.B., Wang, W., Barrientos, J., Elrod, R. and Blodgett, J. (2004) The Ingestion of Ginkgo biloba Extract Inhibits Arachidonic Acid-Mediated Platelet Aggregation and Thromboxane B2 Production in Healthy Subjects. Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, 4, 13-26.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/J157v04n04_02
[21] Kudolo, G.B., Wang, W., Dorsey, S. and Blodgett, J. (2003) Oral Ingestion of Ginkgo biloba Extract Reduces Thiobarbituric Acid Reacting (TBAR) Substances in Washed Platelets of Healthy Subjects. Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, 4, 1-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/J157v03n04_01
[22] Kudolo, G.B., Delaney, D. and Blodgett, J. (2005) Short-Term Oral Ingestion of Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb 761) Reduces Malondialdehyde Levels in Washed Platelets of Type 2 Diabetic Subjects. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 68, 29-38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2004.08.007
[23] Byung-Wan, L., Jun, H., Yim, H.J., Park, J.B., Woo, H.J. and Yoo, H.J. (2010) Dysfunctional Pancreatic β-Cells of Critical Stress Play a More Prominent Role in the Development of Stress Diabetes in Critically Burned Korean Subjects. Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental, 59, 1307-1315.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2009.11.022
[24] Kawabata, K., Kawai, Y. and Terao, J. (2010) Suppressive Effect of Quercetin on Acute Stress-Induced Hypothalamic- Pituitary-Axis Response in Wistar Rats. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 21, 374-380.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.01.008
[25] Bhutada, P., Mundhada, Y., Bansod, K., Ubgade, A., Quazi, M., Umathe, S. and Mundhada, M. (2010) Reversal by Quercetin of Corticotrophin Releasing Factor Induced Anxiety- and Depression-Like Effect in Mice. Progess in Neuro- Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 34, 955-960.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.04.025
[26] Adolfo, A.C. and Helmut, W. (2011) Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect of Opuntia streptacantha Lem. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 133, 940-943.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.022
[27] Kudolo, G.B. and Harper, M.J. (1989) Characterization of Platelet-Activating Factor Binding Sites on Uterine Membranes from Pregnant Rabbits. Biology of Reproduction, 41, 587-603.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod41.4.587
[28] Roberts, C., Troop, N., Connan, F., Treasure, J. and Campbell, I.C. (2007) The Effects of Stress on Body Weight: Biological and Psychological Predictors of Change in BMI. Obesity, 15, 3045-3055.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2007.363
[29] Wild, S., Roglic, G., Green, A., Sicree, R. and King, H. (2004) Global Prevalence of Diabetes: Estimates for the Year 2000 and Projections for 2030. Diabetes Care, 27, 1047-1053.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.27.5.1047
[30] Weigensberg, M.J., Toledo-Corral, C.M. and Goran, M.I. (2008) Association between the Metabolic Syndrome and Serum Cortisol in Overweight Latino Youth. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 93, 1372-1378.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2007-2309
[31] Song, Y.Q., Zhou, D.F. and Wang, X.D. (2008) Increased Serum Cortisol and Growth Hormone Levels in Earthquake Survivors with PTSD or Subclinical PTSD. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 33, 1155-1159.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.05.005

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.