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Concluding Step in Cell Restitution Cycle: ER Transport Vesicles with Sphingolipids in the Outer Leaflet of the Membrane Restore Lysosomes

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DOI: 10.4236/abc.2014.45036    1,619 Downloads   1,892 Views   Citations


Restitution of the cell organelles and the membrane implicates serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) in signal-specific and selective assembly of the transport vesicles. Here, we reveal that SPT, embedded in the outer leaflet (OL) of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is engaged in the synthesis of ER transport vesicles that recondition cell organelles, and the inner leaflet (IL) SPT in the restitution of the cell membrane. The OL SPT impacts assembly of sphingomyelinase (SMase)—susceptible ER vesicles but not the SMase-resistant and sphingolipid (SPhL) core—carrying vesicles that refurbish the cell membrane. The investigation of the SPT-initiated differences in the placement of SPhL in vesicular membranes by utilizing ER depleted of OL SPT, allows us to conclude that the restitution of endosomal and lysosomal membranes is achieved with the involvement of OL SPT, whereas the IL SPT is involved in formation of the lipid core for glycosphingolipids (GSL) and sphingomyelin (SM) of the apical and basolateral cell membrane. These findings along with our previously published report (Slomiany and Slomiany, Advances in Biological Chemistry, 2013, 3, 275-287), provide a clear distinction between the processes that renovate cell membrane and its organelles from that of the endocytotic cell debridement, and show that vesicles are navigated to the specific organelles and the cell membrane by the biomembrane constituents programmed in ER.

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Slomiany, A. and Slomiany, B. (2014) Concluding Step in Cell Restitution Cycle: ER Transport Vesicles with Sphingolipids in the Outer Leaflet of the Membrane Restore Lysosomes. Advances in Biological Chemistry, 4, 301-321. doi: 10.4236/abc.2014.45036.


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