Share This Article:

Seroprevalence of and Risk Factors for Cytomegalovirus among HIV-Infected Patients at University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:257KB) PP. 54-59
DOI: 10.4236/oji.2014.42008    2,815 Downloads   4,096 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Although the distribution of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has a wide regional variation, it is more common in Africa and Asia with high prevalence approaching 100% in some communities. CMV is a frequent opportunistic infection and major cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV patients with severe immunosuppression. It can be contracted from body fluid, including saliva, urine, blood, cervical secretions, and semen. CMV seropositivity is considered the best laboratory measure of past infection. We determined the prevalence of CMV and the risk factors associated with its acquisition in a population of HIV positive patients. Anti-CMV IgG seroprevalence was 100% among HIV infected subjects and 98.6% among controls. Having multiple sexual partners and traditional practices were identified as risk factors associated with risk of contracting CMV infection.

Cite this paper

Kida, I. , Denue, B. , Bakki, B. , Waru, B. , Talle, M. , Ummate, I. , Kwayabura, S. , Kuburi, I. and Yusuph, H. (2014) Seroprevalence of and Risk Factors for Cytomegalovirus among HIV-Infected Patients at University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Open Journal of Immunology, 4, 54-59. doi: 10.4236/oji.2014.42008.

References

[1] Ahmed, S.A., Al-Joudi, F.S., Wan Zaidah, A., et al. (2006) The Prevalence of Human Cytomegalovirus Seropositivity among Blood Donors at the Unit of Blood Transfusion Medicine, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 37, 294-296.
[2] Chandler, S.H., Holmes, K.K., Wentworth, B.B., et al. (1985) The Epidemiology of Cytomegaloviral Infection in Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 152, 597-605.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/152.3.597
[3] Anderson, C.H. and Michaels, R.H. (1972) Cytomegalovirus Infection: Detection by Direct Fluorescent-Antibody Technique. Lancet, 2, 308-309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(72)92910-8
[4] Armstrong, D., et al. (1985) Treatment of Infections in Patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Annals of Internal Medicine, 103, 738-743. http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-103-5-738
[5] Dietrich, D.T. and Rahmin, M. (1991) Cytomegalovirus Colitis in AIDS: Presentation in 44 Patients and a Review of the Literature. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 4, 525-529.
[6] Drew, W.L. (1989) Cytomegalovirus Infection in Patients with AIDS. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 158, 449-456.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/158.2.449
[7] Kreiss, J.K. and Castro, K.G. (1990) Special Consideration for Managing HIV Infection and AIDS in Patients from Developing Countries. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 162, 955-960.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/162.4.955
[8] Cannon, M.J., Schmid, D.S. and Hyde, T.B. (2010) Review of Cytomegalovirus Seroprevalence and Demographic Characteristics Associated with Infection. Reviews in Medical Virology, 20, 202-213.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.655
[9] Centers for Disease Control (1991) Review of Draft for Revision of HIV Infection Classification System and Expansion of AIDS Surveillance Case Definition. MMWR, 40, 787.
[10] Akinbami, A.A., Akanmu, A.S., Adeyemo, T.A., et al. (2009) Seroprevalence of CMV Antibodies among HIV Patients and Blood Donors at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital. South African Medical Journal, 99, 528-530.
[11] Ledru, E., Diagbouga, S., Ledru, S., et al. (1995) A study of Toxoplasma and Cytomegalovirus Serology in Tuberculosis and in HIV-Infected Patients in Burkina Faso. Acta Tropica, 59, 149-154.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-706X(95)00073-N
[12] Adjei, A.A., Armah, H.B., Gbagbo, F., et al. (2008) Seroprevalence of HHV-8, CMV, and EBV among the General Population in Ghana, West Africa. BMC Infectious Diseases, 8, 111-118.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-8-111
[13] Gargouri, J., Elleuch, H., Karray, H., Rekik, H. and Hammami, A. (2000) Prevalence of Anti-CMV Antibodies in Blood Donors in the Sfax Region (Value in Blood Transfusion). La Tunisie Médicale, 78, 512-517.
[14] Kothari, A., Ramachandran, V.G., Gupta, P., Singh, B. and Talwar, V. (2002) Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus among Voluntary BLOOD donors in Delhi, India. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 20, 348-351.
[15] Alao, O.O., Joseph, D.E., Mamman, A. and Banwat, E.B. (2008) The Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus Antibodies among Prospective Blood Donors in Jos. Nigerian Journal of Medicine, 17, 198-200.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njm.v17i2.37383
[16] Olaleye, O.D., Omilabu, S.A. and Baba, S.S. (1990) Cytomegalovirus Infection among Tuberculosis Patients in a Chest Hospital in Nigeria. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 13, 101-106.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0147-9571(90)90522-U
[17] Bowden, R.A., Sayers, M., Flournoy, N., et al. (1986) Cytomegalovirus Immune Globulin and Seronegative Blood Products to Prevent Primary Cytomegalovirus Infection after Marrow Transplantation. The New England Journal of Medicine, 314, 1006-1010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198604173141602
[18] Federal Ministry of Health, Nigeria (2005) National HIV/Syphillis Seroprevalence Sentinel Survey. Bosaca News, 1, 10-14.
[19] Dowd, J.B., Aiello, A.E. and Alley, D.E. (2009) Socioeconomic Disparities in the Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus Infection in the US Population: NHANES III. Epidemiology & Infection, 137, 58-65.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268808000551
[20] Kenneson, A. and Cannon, M.J. (2007) Review and Meta-Analysis of the Epidemiology of Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection. Reviews in Medical Virology, 17, 253-276.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.535
[21] Clarke, L.M., Duerr, A., Feldman, J., et al. (1996) Factors Associated with Cytomegalovirus Infection among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Seronegative and-Seropositive Women from an Urban Minority Community. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 173, 77-82.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/173.1.77
[22] Wester, C.W., Bussman, H., Moyo, S., et al. (2006) Serological Evidence of HIV-Associated Infections among HIV-1-infected Adults in Botswana. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 43, 1612-1615.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/508865
[23] de Ory Manchón, F., Sanz Moreno, J.C., Castaneda López, R., et al. (2001) Cytomegalovirus Seroepidemiology in the Community of Madrid. Revista Espanola de de Salud Pública, 75, 55-62.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1135-57272001000100007
[24] Williams, J.D., Fagbami, A.H. and Omilabu, S.A. (1989) Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Antibodies in Nigeria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine, 83, 260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0035-9203(89)90671-8
[25] Ghebrekidan, H., Rudén, U., Cox, S., Wahren, B. and Grandien, M. (1999) Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2, Cytomegalovirus, and Varicella-Zoster Virus Infections in Eritrea. Journal of Clinical Virology, 12, 53-64.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0928-0197(98)00064-6

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.