NS> Vol.6 No.10, June 2014
Downloads: 115     Views: 308

Population Biology of the Metazoan Parasites Infecting Fishes from Lakes Uba and Ruwe, Lower Rufiji Floodplain, Tanzania

DownloadDownload as PDF (Size:1018KB) Full-Text HTML PP. 700-708   DOI: 10.4236/ns.2014.610070

ABSTRACT

Out of the 48 fishes examined, 40 (83.3%) were infected by 759 parasites, which comprise of trematodes, monogeneans, crustaceans and acanthocephalans. Acanthocephalans and strigeid trematodes were the majority, 23 (47.9%) of all the parasites, while crustaceans, Ergasilus was the minority (20.8%). Fish with length size greater than 160 mm were infected (prevalence 100%). Strigeids showed the highest prevalence (83.3%) and mean intensity (24.7) in fish of total length 160 - 189 mm while those greater than 219 mm had the least prevalence (20%) and mean intensity (2). Acanthocephalan showed the highest prevalence (87.5%) and mean intensity (15.7) in fish of total length 190 - 219 mm and least prevalence (30.4%) and mean intensity (5.6) in those with 130 - 159 mm in total length. Generally male fish had higher prevalence (88.5%) and mean intensity (21.6) than female fish. However, statistically these were not significant (P > 0.05). A total of 9 parasite taxa were recovered; 5 from Oreochromis urolepis, 4 from Citharinus congicus, 2 from Clarias gariepinus and Synodontis maculipinna. Three groups of parasites were common in Oreochromis urolepis, these include Dactylogyrus, Acanthocephala, and strigid. Ergersilus lamelifer was common in Citharinus congicus and Clarias gariepinus. Nematodes, Procamalanus laevionchus and Oxyuridae were common in Synodontis maculipinna and Citharinus congicus respectively.


KEYWORDS


Cite this paper

Mwita, C. and Lamtane, H. (2014) Population Biology of the Metazoan Parasites Infecting Fishes from Lakes Uba and Ruwe, Lower Rufiji Floodplain, Tanzania. Natural Science, 6, 700-708. doi: 10.4236/ns.2014.610070.

References

[1] Barber, I., Hoare, D. and Krause, J. (2000) Effects of Parasites on Fish Behaviour: A Review and Evolutionary Perspective. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 10, 131-165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1016658224470
[2] Palm, H.W. (2011) Fish Parasites as Biological Indicators in a Changing World: Can We Monitor Environmental Impact and Climate Change? In: Mehlhorn, H., Ed., Progress in Parasitology, Parasitology Research Monographs, Springer Verlag, Chapter 12.
[3] Bush, A.O., Fernández, J.C., Esch, G.W. and Seed J.R. (2001) Parasitism: The Diversity and Ecology of Animal Parasites. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[4] Basson, L. and Van As, J.G. (1991) Trichodinids (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) from a Calanoid Copepod and Catfish from South Africa and Notes on Host Specificity. Systematic Parasitology, 18, 147-158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00017668
[5] Madanire-Moyo, G. and Barson, M. (2010) Diversity of Metazoan Parasites of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) as Indicators of Pollution in a Subtropical African River System. Journal of Helminthology, 84, 216-227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022149X09990563
[6] Nkwengulila, G. and Mwita, C. (2004) Spatial Distribution of Parasites along the Gut of the Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) (Clariidae) from the Mwanza Gulf, Lake Victoria. Tanzania Journal of Science, 30, 64-69.
[7] Moravec, F., Nasincova, V. and Scholz, T. (1991) Methods of Investigating Metazoan Parasites. Endoparasitic Helminthes. Manual for Training Course on Fish Parasites. Institute of Parasitology, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Ceske Budejovice, 22 p.
[8] Yamaguti, S. (1961) Systema Helminthum. Vol. III. The Nematodes of Vertebrates. Part I and II. Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York and London.
[9] Dawes, B. (1968) The Trematoda: With Special Reference to British and Other European Forms. Cambridge University Press, London, 644 p.
[10] Margolis, L., Esch, G.W., Holmes, J.C., Kuris, A.M. and Schad, G.A. (1982) The Use of Ecological Terms in Parasitology. Journal of Parasitology, 68, 131-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3281335
[11] Moran, J.D.W., Arthur, J.R. and Burt, M.D.B. (1996) Parasites of Sharp-Beaked Redfishes (Sebastes fasciatus and Sebastes mentella) Collected from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Canadian Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 53, 1821- 1826. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/f96-115
[12] Chávez, R.A., González, M.T., Oliva, M.E. and Valdivia, I.M. (2012) Endoparasite fauna of Five Gadiformes fish Species from the Coast of Chile: Host Ecology versus Phylogeny. Journal of Helminthology, 86, 10-15.
[13] Raugue, C.A., Viozzi, G.P. and Semenas, L.G. (2003) Component Population Study of Acanthocephalus tumescens (Acanthocephala) in Fishes from Lake Moreno, Argentina. Folia Parasitologica, 50, 72-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.14411/fp.2003.013
[14] Fryer, G. and Iles, T.D. (1972) The Cichlid Fishes of the Great Lakes of Africa. Their Biology and Evolution. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, 641 p.
[15] Khalil, L.F. (1969) Studies on the Helminth Parasites of Freshwater Fishes of the Sudan. Journal of Zoology London, 158, 143-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1969.tb02132.x
[16] Mwita, C. and Nkwengulila, G. (2004) Parasites of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) (Pisces: Clariidae) from the Mwanza Gulf, Lake Victoria. Tanzania Journal of Science, 30, 53-61.
[17] Oniye, S.J., Adebote, D.A. and Ayanda, O.I. (2004) Helminth Parasites of Clarias gariepinus (Teugels) in Zaria, Nigeria. Journal of Aquatic Sciences, 19, 71-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jas.v19i2.20027
[18] Whittington, I.D., Cribb, B.W., Hamwood, T.E. and Halliday, J.A. (2000) Host-Specificity of Monogenean (Platyhelminth) Parasites: A Role for Anterior Adhesive Areas? International Journal for Parasitology, 30, 305-320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7519(00)00006-0
[19] Khalil, L.F. and Thurston, J.P. (1973) Studies on the Helminth Parasites of Freshwater Fishes of Uganda Including the Descriptions of Two New Species of Digenians. Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaine, 87, 209-247.
[20] Bell, G. and Burt, A. (1991) The Comparative Biology of Parasite Species Diversity: Internal Helminths of Freshwater Fish. Journal of Animal Ecology, 60, 1047-1063. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/5430
[21] Bagge, A.M. and Valtonen, E.T. (1999) Development of Monogenean Communities on the Gills of Roach Fry (Rutilus rutilus). Parasitology, 118, 479-487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182099004011
[22] Dejen, E.D. (2003) Ecology and Potential for Fishery of the Small Barbs (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Ph.D. Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, 180 p.
[23] Bagge, A.M., Poulin, R. and Valtonen, E.T. (2004) Fish Population Size, and Not Density, as the Determining Factor of Parasite Infection: A Case Study. Parasitology, 128, 305-313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182003004566
[24] Lees, E. and Bass, L. (1960) Sex Hormone as a Possible Factor Influencing the Level of Parasitisation in Frog. Nature, 188, 1207-1208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/1881207a0
[25] Müller, G. (1995) Prevalence and Abundance of Two Trematode Parasites, Diplostomum phoxini and Macrolecithus papilliger in European Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus) in an Artificial Swiss Alpine Lake. Aquatic Sciences, 57, 119-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00877380
[26] Mwita, C.J. (2002) Diversity and Abundance of the Parasite Fauna of the Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) (Clariidae) from the Mwanza Gulf, Lake Victoria. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, 157 p.
[27] Gaten, E. (1987) Aggregation of the Eyefluke Diplostomum spathaceum (Digenea: Diplostomatidae) in the Lenses of Various Species of Fish. Journal of Fish Diseases, 10, 69-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.1987.tb00721.x
[28] Crowden, A.E. (1976) Diplostomum spathaceum in the Thames; Occurrence and Effects on Fish Behaviour. Parasitology, 73, vii.
[29] Barber, I. and Crompton, D.W.T. (1997) The Distribution of Diplostomum phoxini Metarcecariae (Trematoda) in the Brain of Minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus). Folia Parasitology, 44, 19-25.
[30] Vinobaba, P. (2007) Histopathological Changes Induced by Ergasilid Copepod Infections on the Gills of Food Fish from Batticaloa Lagoon, Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Journal of Aquatic Science, 12, 77-87.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.