AAD> Vol.3 No.2, June 2014

Lipolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation Is Associated with Alzheimer-Like Amyloidogenic Axonal Pathology and Dendritic Degeneration in Rats

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ABSTRACT

Chronic neuroinflammation is thought to play an etiological role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) which is characterized pathologically by amyloid and tau formation, as well as neuritic dystrophy and synaptic degeneration. The causal relationship between these pathological events is a topic of ongoing research and discussion. Recent data from transgenic AD models point to a tight spatio-temporal link between neuritic and amyloid pathology, with the obligatory enzyme for β-amyloid (Aβ) production, namely β-secretase-1 (BACE1), being overexpressed in axon terminals undergoing dystrophic change. However, the axonal pathology inherent with BACE1 elevation seen in transgenic AD mice may be secondary to increased soluble Aβ in these genetically modified animals. Further, it is unclear whether the inflammation seen in AD is the result of , or the cause of neuritic dystrophy. Here we explored the occurrence of AD-like axonal and dendritic pathology in adult rat brains affected by LPS-induced chronic neuroinflammation. Unilateral intracerebral LPS injection induced prominent inflammatory response in glial cells in the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampal formation. BACE1 protein levels were elevated in the ipsilateral hippocampal lysates in the LPS-treated animals relative to controls. BACE1 immunoreactive dystrophic axons appeared in the LPS-treated ipsilateral cortex and hippocampal formation, colocalizing with increased β-amyloid precursor protein and Aβ antibody (4G8) immunolabeling. Quantitative Golgi studies revealed reduction of dendritic branching points and spine density on cortical layer III and hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons in the LPS-treated ipsilateral cerebrum. These findings suggest that Alzheimer-like amyloidogenic axonal pathology and dendritic degeneration occur in wildtype mammalian brain in partnership with neuroinflammation following LPS injection.

Cite this paper

Deng, X. , Li, M. , Ai, W. , He, L. , Lu, D. , Patrylo, P. , Cai, H. , Luo, X. , Li, Z. and Yan, X. (2014) Lipolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation Is Associated with Alzheimer-Like Amyloidogenic Axonal Pathology and Dendritic Degeneration in Rats. Advances in Alzheimer's Disease, 3, 78-93. doi: 10.4236/aad.2014.32009.

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