Share This Article:

Impact of Moringa oleifera Cake Residue Application on Waste Water Treatment: A Case Study

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:338KB) PP. 677-687
DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.67065    3,675 Downloads   5,510 Views   Citations


Most of water treatments require higher expenditure. Chemical coagulant requires higher cost and has some drawback after treatment such as pH changes. Moringa oleifera cake residue (MOCR) is one of the alternatives to replace chemical coagulant. A jar test apparatus was used to monitor water treatment. Water quality of Gebeng River (GR) and waste water (WW) was examined before and after treatment. Different parameters using (MOCR) was investigated. Preliminary laboratory results showed the great potential of the (MOCR) to be used in water treatment. MOCR shows an excellent reduction in turbidity (97 % was removed). The bacteria were reduced from 1.7 × 105 to 8 × 103 CFU/ml. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was improved that elevated from 1.06 ± 0.04 to 5.09 ± 0.03 mg/L. However, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were increased from 520.5 ± 0.71 to 865.0 ± 2.12 mg/L and from 120.5 ± 2.12 to 270.5 ± 2.12 mg/L respectively. Nevertheless, there is no significant alteration of pH, conductivity, salinity and total dissolved solid (TDS) after treatment. The iron (Fe) was fully removed while copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) were successfully removed up to 98%. The reduction of lead (Pb) also achieved 82.17%. Also, (MOCR) can be stored for long time up to 6 months without affecting the biological properties of MO.

Cite this paper

Eman, N. , Tan, C. and Makky, E. (2014) Impact of Moringa oleifera Cake Residue Application on Waste Water Treatment: A Case Study. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 6, 677-687. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.67065.


[1] Ellis, T.G. (2004) Chemistry of Wastewater. Environment and Ecological Chemistry, 2.
[2] Arafat, M.G. and Mohamed, S.O. (2013) Preliminary Study on Efficacy of Leaves, Seeds and Bark Extracts of Moringa oleifera in Reducing Bacterial load in Water. International Journal of Advanced Research, 1, 124-130.
[3] Horne, J. (2013) Economic Approaches to Water Management in Australia. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 29, 526-543.
[4] Joshua, R. and Vasu, V. (2013) Characteristics of Stored Rain Water and Its Treatment Technology Using Moringa Seeds. International Journal of Life Science and Pharma Reviews, 2, 155-174.
[5] Johnstone, D.W.M. (2013) Regulation and Reality: Some Reflections on 50 Years of International Experience in Water and Wastewater. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 30, 345-354.
[6] Ghebremichel, K.A., Gunaratna, K.R., Henriksson, H., Brumer, H. and Dalhammar, G. (2005) A Simple Purification Activity Assay of the Coagulant Protein from Moringa oleifera Seed. Water Research, 39, 2338-2344.
[7] Gidde, M.R., Bhalerao, A.R. and Malusare, C.N. (2012) Comparative Study of Different Forms of Moringa oleifera Extracts for turbidity Removal. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, 2, 14-21.
[8] Egbuikwem, P.N. and Sangodoyin, A.Y. (2013) Coagulation Efficacy of Moringa oleifera Seed Extract Compared to Alum for Removal of Turbidity and E. coli in Three Different Water Sources. European International Journal of Science and Technology, 2, 13-20.
[9] Madrona, G.S., Branco, I.G., Seolin, V.J., Filho, B.A.A., Fagundes-Klen, M.R. and Bergamasco, R. (2012) Evaluation of Extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam Seed Obtained with NACl and Their Effects on Water Treatment. Acta Scientiarum. Technology, 34, 289-293.
[10] Bhuptawat, H., Folkard, G.K. and Chaudhari, S. (2007) Innovative Physico-Chemical Treatment of Wastewater Incorporating Moringa oleifera Seed Coagulant. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 142, 477-482.
[11] Lea, M. (2010) Bioremediation of Turbid Surface Water Using Seed Extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick) Tree. Current Protocols in Microbiology, 16, 1G.2.1-1G.2.14.
[12] Mustapha, H.B. (2013) A Review of the Applications of Moringa oleifera Seeds Extract in Water Treatment. Civil and Environmental Research, 3, 1-9.
[13] Onyuka, J.H.O., Kakai, R., Arama, P.F. and Ofulla, A.V.O. (2013) Comparison of Antimicrobial Activities of Brine Salting, Chlorinated Solution and Moringa oleifera Plant Extracts in Fish from Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya. African Journal of Food, Agricultural, Nutrition and Development, 13, 7772-7788.
[14] Arnoldsson, E., Bergman, M., Matsinhe, N. and Persson, M.K. (2008) Assessment of Drinking Water Treatment by Using Moringa oleifera Natural Coagulant. Vattern, 64, 137-150.
[15] Folkard, G., Sutherland, J. and Shaw, R. (1999) Water Clarification Using Moringa oleifera Seed Coagulant. Waterlines, 17, 15-17.
[16] Adelaja, O.A., Amoo, I.A. and Aderibigbe, A.D. (2011) Biosorption of Lead Ions from Aqueous Solution Using Moring oleifera Pods. Archives of Applied Science Research, 3, 50-60.
[17] Vikashni, N., Matakite, M., Kanayathu, K. and Subramanium, S. (2012) Water Purification Using Moringa oleifera and Other Locally Available Seeds in Fiji for Heavy Metal Removal. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 2, 125-129.
[18] Meneghel, A.P., Affonso Jr., C.G., Fernanda, R., Douglas, D.C., Lindino, C.A. and Strey, L. (2013) Biosorption of Cadmium from Water Using Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Seeds. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 224, 1383.
[19] Alo, M.N., Anyim, C. and Elom, M. (2012) Coagulation and Antimicrobial Activities of Moringa oleifera Seed Storage at 3°C Temperature in Turbid Water. Advance in Applied Science Research, 3, 887-894.
[20] Sajidu, S.M., Henry, E.M.T., Kwamdera, G. and Mataka, L. (2005) Removal of Lead, Iron and Cadmium Ions by Means of Polyelectrolytes of the Moringa oleifera Whole Seed Kernel. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 80.
[21] Ndibewu, P.P., Mnisi, R.L., Mokgalaka, S.N. and McCrindle, R.I. (2011) Heavy Metal Removal in Aqueous System Using Moringa oleifera: A Review. Journal of Material Science and Engineering, 6B, 843-853.
[22] Ali, E.N., Muyibi, S.A., Salleh, H.M., Md. Alam, Z. and Salleh, M.R.M. (2010) Production of Natural Coagulant from Moringa oleifera Seed for Application in Treatment of Low Turbidity Water. Journal of Water Resources and Protection, 2, 259-266.
[23] Garcia-Fayos, B., Arnal, J.M., Verdu, G. and Sauri, A. (2010) Study of Moringa oleifera oil Extraction and Its Influence in Primary Coagulant Activity for Drinking Water Treatment. International Conference on Food Innovation.
[24] Amagloh, F.K. and Benang, A. (2009) Effectiveness of Moringa oleifera Seed as Coagulant for Water Purification. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 4, 119-123.
[25] Forster, S. (2000) Efficient Wastewater Treatment: The Field for Analytical and Monitoring Equipment.
[26] Suhartini, S., Hidayat, N. and Rosaliana, E. (2013) Influence of Powdered Moringa oleifera Seeds and Natural Filter Media on the Characteristics of Tapioca Starch Wastewater. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 2, 1-11.
[27] Mangale S.M., Chonde S.G., Jadhav A.S. and Raut, P.D. (2012a) Study of Moringa oleifera (Drumstick) Seed as Natural Absorbent and Antimicrobial Agent for River Water Treatment. Journal of Natural Product Plant Resource, 2, 89-100.
[28] Folkard, G. and Sutherland, T. (2001) The Use of Moringa oleifera Seed as a Natural Coagulant for Water and Wastewater Treatment. Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester.
[29] Muyibi, S.A., Bitima, A.H.M., Mohammed, T.A. and Megat Hohari, M.M.N. (2004) Conventional Treatment of Surface Water Using Moringa oleifera Seeds Extract as a Primary Coagulant. IIUM Engineering Journal, 5, 25-35.
[30] Subramanium, S., Vikashni, N., Matakite, M. and Kanayathu, K. (2011) Moringa oleifera and Other Local Seeds in Water Purification in Developing Countries. Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment, 15, 135-138.
[31] WHO (2006) Guideline for Drinking Water Quality (Electronic Resources): Incorporating First Addendum. Vol. 1, 3rd Edition.
[32] Mangale, S.M., Chonde, S.G. and Raut, P.D. (2012b) Use of Moringa oleifera (Drumstick) Seed as Natural Absorbent and an Antimicrobial Agent for Ground Water Treatment. Research journal of Recent Sciences, 1, 31-40.
[33] Sanchez-Martin, J., Beltran-Heredia, J. and Peres, J.A. (2012) Improvement of the Flocculation Process in Water Treatment by Using Moringa oleifera Seeds Extract. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 29, 495-501.
[34] Ghebremichel, K.A. (2004) Moringa Seed and Pumice as Alternative Natural Materials for Drinking Water Treatment. TRITA-LWR PHD 1013.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.