Effect of Tropical Algae as Additives on Rumen in Vitro Gas Production and Fermentation Characteristics

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:622KB) PP. 34-43
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.412A2005    3,517 Downloads   5,485 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Algae have become an area of intensive research in many fields of study. Areas of application are becoming increasingly diverse with the advent of technologies particularly in the mass production of algae biomass. Algae contain complex bioactive compounds and these are gaining importance in emerging technologies with nutritional and environmental applications. In this study, a preliminary investigation evaluated 15 species of algae from the major categories of marine and fresh water algae for their potential as inclusions in ruminant diets for management of greenhouse gas emissions. It was hypothesized that algae would positively affect rumen fermentation and gas production while reducing methane production. The hypothesis was tested using an Ankom automated gas monitoring system and rumen fluid from Bos indicus steers fed tropical forage diets. The results were variable between algae species with some showing a significant reduction in total gas and methane production, with others increasing gas and fermentation. The red and brown algae stand out as having potential for greenhouse gas mitigation with the brown alga Cystoseira having the most prominent effect. The effects observed on fermentation may be manipulated through dosage management and beneficial effects could be potentially maximized by preparing combinations of algal supplements. It has been demonstrated in this study that algae have the potential to assist in rumen fermentation management for improved gas production, and greenhouse gas abatement.

Cite this paper

B. Dubois, N. Tomkins, R. D. Kinley, M. Bai, S. Seymour, N. A. Paul and R. Nys, "Effect of Tropical Algae as Additives on Rumen in Vitro Gas Production and Fermentation Characteristics," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 12B, 2013, pp. 34-43. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.412A2005.

References

[1] ABARE, “Australian Beef 06.1: Australian Beef Industry: Financial Performance for 2005-2006,” ABARE, Canberra, 2006.
[2] E. Charmley, M. L. Stephens and P. M. Kennedy, “Predicting Livestock Productivity and Methane Emissions in Northern Australia: Development of a Bio-Economic Modelling Approach,” Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Vol. 48, No. 1-2, 2008, pp. 109-113.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA07264
[3] M. T. Abberton, A. H. Marshall, M. W. Humphreys, J. H. Macduff, R. P. Collins and C. L. Marley, “Genetic Improvement of Forage Species to Reduce the Environmental Impact of Temperate Livestock Grazing Systems,” Advances in Agronomy, Vol. 98, 2008, pp. 311-355.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(08)00206-X
[4] N. W. Tomkins, S. M. Colegate and R. A. Hunter, “A Bromochloromethane Formulation Reduces Enteric Methanogenesis in Cattle Fed Grain-Based Diets,” Animal Production Science, Vol. 49, No. 12, 2009, pp. 1053-1058. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA08223
[5] Y. Kobayashi, “Abatement of Methane Production from Ruminants: Trends in the Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation,” Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2010, pp. 410-416.
[6] T. T. Tiemann, P. Avila, G. Ramírez, C. E. Lascano, M. Kreuzer and H. D. Hess, “In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Tanniniferous Tropical Plants: Plant-Specific Tannin Effects and Counteracting Efficiency of Peg,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 146, No. 3-4, 2008, pp. 222-241.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.12.009
[7] B. Pen, C. Sar, B. Mwenya, K. Kuwaki, R. Morikawa and J. Takahashi, “Effects of Yucca Schidigera and Quillaja Saponaria Extracts on in Vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Methane Emission,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 129, No. 3-4, 2006, pp. 175-186.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.01.002
[8] S. M. McGinn, K. A. Beauchemin, T. Coates and D. Colombatto, “Methane Emissions from Beef Cattle: Effects of Monensin, Sunflower Oil, Enzymes, Yeast, and Fumaric Acid,” Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 82, No. 11, 2004, pp. 3346-3356.
[9] D. Macheboeuf, D. P. Morgavi, Y. Papon, J. L. Mousset and M. Arturo-Schaan, “Dose-Response Effects of Essential Oils on in Vitro Fermentation Activity of the Rumen Microbial Population,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 145, No. 1-4, 2008, pp. 335-350.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.05.044
[10] D. N. Kamra, N. Agarwal and L. C. Chaudhary, “Inhibition of Ruminal Methanogenesis by Tropical Plants Containing Secondary Compounds,” International Congress Series, Vol. 1293, 2006, pp. 156-163.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ics.2006.02.002
[11] N. Paul and C. K. Tseng, “Seaweed,” In: J. S. Lucas and P. C. Southgate, Eds., Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants, 2nd Edition, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, 2012, pp. 268-284.
[12] J. W. Blunt, B. R. Copp, M. H. Munro, P. T. Northcote and M. R. Prinsep, “Marine Natural Products,” Natural Product Reports, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2011, pp. 196-268.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c005001f
[13] J. W. Blunt, B. R. Copp, R. A. Keyzers, M. H. Munro and M. R. Prinsep, “Marine Natural Products,” Natural Product Reports, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2013, pp. 237-323.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2np20112g
[14] M. Plaza, A. Cifuentes and E. Ibanez, “In the Search of New Functional Food Ingredients from Algae,” Trends in Food Science & Technology, Vol. 19, No. 1, 2008, pp. 31-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2007.07.012
[15] Y. Wang, Z. Xu, S. J. Bach and T. A. McAllister, “Effects of Phlorotannins from Ascophyllum Nodosum (Brown Seaweed) on in Vitro Ruminal Digestion of Mixed Forage or Barley Grain,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 145, No. 1, 2008, pp. 375-395.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.03.013
[16] A. N. Pell and P. Schofield, “Computerized Monitoring of Gas Production to Measure Forage Digestion in Vitro,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol. 76, No. 4, 1993, pp. 1063-1073.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77435-4
[17] J. W. Cone, A. H. van Gelder, G. J. W. Visscher and L. Oudshoorn, “Influence of Rumen Fluid and Substrate Concentration on Fermentation Kinetics Measured with a Fully Automated Time Related Gas Production Apparatus,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 61, No. 1-4, 1996, pp. 113-128.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(96)00950-9
[18] R. M. Mauricio, F. L. Mould, M. S. Dhanoa, E. Owen, K. S. Channa and M. K. Theodorou, “A Semi-Automated in Vitro Gas Production Technique for Ruminant Feedstuff Evaluation,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 79, No. 4, 1999, pp. 321-330.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(99)00033-4
[19] W. F. Pellikaan, W. H. Hendriks, G. Uwimana, L. J. G. M. Bongers, P. M. Becker and J. W. Cone, “A Novel Method to Determine Simultaneously Methane Production During in Vitro Gas Production Using Fully Automated Equipment,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 168, No. 3-4, 2011, pp. 196-205.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.04.096
[20] NHMRC, “Australian Code of Practice for the Care and Use of Animals for Scientific Purposes, 7th Ed.,” NHRMC, Canberra, 2004.
[21] G. Getachew, P. H. Robinson, E. J. DePeters and S. J. Taylor, “Relationships between Chemical Composition, Dry Matter Degradation and in Vitro Gas Production of Several Ruminant Feeds,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 111, No. 1, 2004, pp. 57-71.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(03)00217-7
[22] I. C. S. Bueno, S. L. S. Cabral, S. P. Gobbo, H. Louvandini, D. Vitti and A. L. Abdalla, “Influence of Inoculum Source in a Gas Production Method,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 123, Part 1, 2005, pp. 95-105.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.05.003
[23] A. T. Adesogan, N. K. Krueger and S. C. Kim, “A Novel, Wireless, Automated System for Measuring Fermentation Gas Production Kinetics of Feeds and Its Application to Feed Characterization,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 123, Part 1, 2005, pp. 211-223.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2005.04.058
[24] R. J. Lawton, L. Mata, R. de Nys and N. A. Paul, “Algal Bioremediation of Waste Waters from Land-Based Aquaculture Using Ulva: Selecting Target Species and Strains,” Plos One, Vol. 8, No. 10, 2013, pp. e77344.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077344
[25] R. J. Lawton, R. de Nys and N. A. Paul, “Selecting Reliable and Robust Freshwater Macroalgae for Biomass Applications,” Plos One, Vol. 8, No. 5, 2013, pp. e64168.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064168
[26] G. Marten and R. Barnes, “Prediction of Energy Digestibility of Forages with in Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Fungal Enzyme Systems,” IDRC, Ottawa, 1980.
[27] VSN International, “Genstat Release 12.2 Statistical Software,” VSN International Ltd., Hemel Hempstead, 2006.
[28] J. E. Bidlack and D. R. Buxton, “Content and Deposition Rates of Cellulose, Hemicellulose, and Lignin during Regrowth of Forage Grasses and Legumes,” Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Vol. 72, No. 3, 1992, pp. 809-818.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/cjps92-097
[29] A. Lavrencic, B. Stefanon and P. Susmel, “An Evaluation of the Gompertz Model in Degradability Studies of Forage Chemical Components,” Animal Science, Vol. 64, 1997, pp. 423-431.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1357729800016027
[30] R. R. Noguera, E. O. Saliba and R. M. Maurico, “Comparacion De Modelos Matematicos Para Estimar Los Parametros De Degradacion Obtenidos a Traves De La Tecnica De Produccion De Gas,” Revista Colombiana Ciencias Pecuarias, Vol. 20, 2004, pp. 141-148.
[31] J. M. W. Beuvink, S. F. Spoelstra and R. J. Hogendorp, “An Automated-Method for Measuring Time-Course of Gas-Production of Feedstuffs Incubated with Buffered Rumen Fluid,” Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 40, No. 4, 1992, pp. 401-407.
[32] M. H. Zwietering, I. Jongenburger, F. M. Rombouts and K. Vantriet, “Modeling of the Bacterial-Growth Curve,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 56, No. 6, 1990, pp. 1875-1881.
[33] SAS Institute Inc, “Sas/Stat? 9.3 User’s Guide,” SAS Institute Inc., Cary, 2011.
[34] S. L. Holdt and S. Kraan, “Bioactive Compounds in Seaweed: Functional Food Applications and Legislation,” Journal of Applied Phycology, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2011, pp. 543-597. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10811-010-9632-5
[35] D. F. A. Costa, P. I. Isherwood, S. R. McLennan, D. P. Poppi and S. P. Quigley, “Chemical Composition and in Vitro Degradability of Various Algae Species and Protein Supplements Commonly Fed to Ruminants,” Animal Production in Australia, Vol. 28, 2010, p. 61.
[36] S. J. Bach, Y. Wang and T. A. McAllister, “Effect of Feeding Sun-Dried Seaweed (Ascophyllum Nodosum) on Fecal Shedding of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 by Feedlot Cattle and on Growth Performance of Lambs,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 142, No. 1-2, 2008, pp. 17-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.05.033
[37] K. E. Saker, J. H. Fike, H. Veit and D. L. Ward, “Brown Seaweed-(Tasco) Treated Conserved Forage Enhances Antioxidant Status and Immune Function in Heat-Stressed Wether Lambs,” Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (Berlin), Vol. 88, No. 3-4, 2004, pp. 122-30.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2003.00468.x
[38] V. G. Allen, K. R. Pond, K. E. Saker, J. P. Fontenot, C. P. Bagley, R. L. Ivy and D. B. Wester, “Tasco-Forage: III. Influence of a Seaweed Extract on Performance, Monocyte Immune Cell Response, and Carcass Characteristics in Feedlot-Finished Steers,” Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 79, No. 4, 2001, pp. 1032-1040.
[39] N. A. Paul, R. de Nys and P. D. Steinberg, “Chemical Defence against Bacteria in the Red Alga Asparagopsis Armata: Linking Structure with Function,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 306, 2006, pp. 87-101.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps306087
[40] S. Gupta and N. Abu-Ghannam, “Bioactive Potential and Possible Health Effects of Edible Brown Seaweeds,” Trends in Food Science & Technology, Vol. 22, No. 6, 2011, pp. 315-326.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2011.03.011
[41] B. R. Min, T. N. Barry, G. T. Attwood and W. C. McNabb, “The Effect of Condensed Tannins on the Nutrition and Health of Ruminants Fed Fresh Temperate Forages: A Review,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 106, No. 1-4, 2003, pp. 3-19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(03)00041-5
[42] J. W. Cone and A. H. van Gelder, “Influence of Protein Fermentation on Gas Production Profiles,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 76, No. 3-4, 1999, pp. 251-264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(98)00222-3
[43] V. Amico, “Marine Brown Algae of Family Cystoseiraceae: Chemistry and Chemotaxonomy,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 39, No. 6, 1995, pp. 1257-1279.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(95)00199-H
[44] V. J. Paul and W. Fenical, “Chemical Defense in Tropical Green-Algae, Order Caulerpales,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 34, No. 1-2, 1986, pp. 157-169.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/meps034157

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.