Reducing Carbon Emissions through Improved Forest Management in Cambodia

Download Download as PDF (Size:1317KB)  HTML    PP. 55-67  
DOI: 10.4236/lce.2013.44A006    2,582 Downloads   5,352 Views   Citations


Carbon emissions from selectively logged forests in the tropics are strongly affected by logging practices. Although tropical forests are mainly managed under the concession system, only a handful of studies were done to assess the impact of logging practices on emission reductions and future timber supply. In this report, carbon stocks, timber supply, and carbon emission reductions under conventional logging (CVL), reduced-impact logging (RIL), and RIL with special silvicultural treatments (RIL+) were assessed in 3.4 million ha of concession forests for a 55-year project time span. Carbon emissions under a 25-year CVL practiced in Cambodia were estimated at 12.4 TgCO2 year-1 for 55 years. We then tested four cutting cycles of selective logging and our results suggest that a 45-year selective cutting cycle was appropriate for managing concession forests in Cambodia in terms of maintaining commercial timber supply and reducing carbon emissions. By considering RIL or RIL+ as a new logging practice for improving forest management in the tropics, carbon credits from selective logging in Cambodia were estimated at 6.2 - 7.9 TgCO2 or about $31.0 - 39.5 million annually if carbon is priced at $5. It is concluded that RIL or RIL+ should be adopted for “sustainable management of forests” element of the REDD+ scheme.

Cite this paper

N. Sasaki, I. Abe, V. Khun, S. Chan, H. Ninomiya and K. Chheng, "Reducing Carbon Emissions through Improved Forest Management in Cambodia," Low Carbon Economy, Vol. 4 No. 4A, 2013, pp. 55-67. doi: 10.4236/lce.2013.44A006.


[1] P. Friedlingstein, R. A. Houghton, G. Marland, J. Hackler, T. A. Boden, T. J. Conway, J. G. Canadell, M. R. Raupach, P. Ciais and C. Le Quéré, “Update on CO2 Emissions,” Nature Geoscience, Vol. 3, No. 12, 2010, pp. 811-812.
[2] Y. Pan, R. A. Birdsey, J. Fang, R. Houghton, P. E. Kauppi, W. A. Kurz, O. L. Phillips, A. Shvidenko, S. L. Lewis, J. G. Canadell, P. Ciais, R. B. Jackson, S. Pacala, A. D. McGuire, S. Piao, A. Rautiainen, S. Sitch and D. Hayes, “A Large and Persistent Carbon Sink in the World’s Forests,” Science, Vol. 333, No. 6045, 2011, pp. 988-993.
[3] G. Kindermann, M. Obersteiner, B. Sohngen, J. Sathaye, K. Andrasko, E. Rametsteiner, B. Schlamadinger, S. Wunder and R. Beach, “Global Cost Estimates of Reducing Carbon Emissions through Avoided Deforestation,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 105, No. 30, 2008, pp. 10302-10307. 0710616105
[4] N. Sasaki and A. Yoshimoto, “Benefits of Tropical Forest Management under the New Climate Change Agreement—A Case Study in Cambodia,” Environmental Science & Policy, Vol. 13, No. 5, 2010, pp. 384-392.
[5] F. Toni, “Decentralization and REDD+ in Brazil,” Forests, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2011, pp. 66-85.
[6] N. Sasaki, K. Chheng and S. Ty, “Managing Production Forests for Timber Production and Carbon Emission Reductions under the REDD+ Scheme,” Environmental Science & Policy, Vol. 23, 2012, pp. 35-44.
[7] F. E. Putz, P. A. Zuidema, M. A. Pinard, R. G. A. Boot, J. A. Sayer, D. Sheil, P. Sist and J. K. Vanclay, “Improved Tropical Forest Management for Carbon Retention,” PLOS Biology, Vol. 6, No. 7, 2008, Article ID: e166.
[8] G. P. Asner, E. N. Broadbent, P. J. Oliveira, M. Keller, D. E. Knapp and J. N. Silva, “Condition and Fate of Logged Forests in the Brazilian Amazon,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 103, No. 34, 2006, pp. 12947-12950. pnas.0604093103
[9] D. W. Pearce, E. F. Putz and J. K. Vanclay, “Sustainable Forestry in the Tropics: Panacea or Folly?” Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 172 No. 2-3, 2003, pp. 229-247. S0378-1127(01)00798-8
[10] N. Sasaki and F. E. Putz, “Critical Need for New Definitions of Forest and Forest Degradation in Global Climate Change Agreements,” Conservation Letters, Vol. 2, No. 5, 2009, pp. 226-232.
[11] S. D. Miller, M. L. Goulden, L. R. Hutyra, M. Keller, S. R. Saleska, S. C. Wofsy, A. M. Figueira, H. R. Da Rocha and P. B. De Camargo, “Reduced Impact Logging Minimally Alters Tropical Rainforest Carbon and Energy Exchange,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 108, No. 48, 2011, pp. 19431-19435.
[12] N. Kim Phat, W. Knorr and S. Kim, “Appropriate Measures for Conservation of Terrestrial Carbon Stocks— Analysis of Trends of Forest Management in Southeast Asia,” Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 191, No. 1-3, 2004, pp. 283-299.
[13] N. Sasaki, “Carbon Emissions Due to Land-Use Change and Logging in Cambodia—A Modeling Approach,” Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 11, No. 6, 2006, pp. 397-403. 10.1007/s10310-006-0228-5
[14] P. Sist, D. Sheil, K. Kartawinata and H. Priyadi, “Reduced-Impact Logging in Indonesian Borneo: Some Results Confirming the Need for New Silvicultural Prescriptions,” Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 179, No. 1-3, 2003, pp. 415-427. 00533-9
[15] S. Ty, N. Sasaki, A. H. Ahmad and A. Z. Zainal, “REDD Development in Cambodia—Potential Carbon Emission Reductions in a REDD Project,” FORMATH, Vol. 10, 2011, pp. 1-23.
[16] FAO, “Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010,” FAO Forestry Paper, Vol. 163, FAO, Rome, 2010.
[17] FA (Forestry Administration), “Forest Cover Statistics in Cambodia 2002-2010,” FA, Phnom Penh, 2011.
[18] N. Sasaki, G. P. Asner, W. Knorr, P. B. Durst, H. Priyadi and F. E. Putz, “Approaches to Classifying and Restoring Degraded Tropical Forests for the Anticipated REDD+ Climate Change Mitigation Mechanism,” iForest—Biogeosciences and Forestry, Vol. 4, 2011, pp. 1-6.
[19] T. P. Holmes, G. M. Blate, J. C. Zweede, R. Pereira, P. Barreto, F. Boltz and R. Bauch, “Financial and Ecological Indicators of Reduced Impact Logging Performance in the Eastern Amazon,” Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 163, No. 1-3, 2002, pp. 93-110.
[20] M. Pe?a-Claros, T. S. Fredericksen, A. Alarcón, G. M. Blate, U. Choque, C. Lea?o, J. C. Licona, B. Mostacedo, W. Pariona, Z. Villegas and F. E. Putz, “Beyond Reduced-Impact Logging: Silvicultural Treatments to Increase Growth Rates of Tropical Trees,” Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 256, No. 7, 2008, pp. 1458-1467.
[21] Z. Villegas, M. Pena-Claros, B. Mostacedo, A. Alarcón, J. C. Licona, C. Leano, W. Pariona and U. Choque, “Silvicultural Treatments Enhance Growth Rates of Future Crop Trees in a Tropical Dry Forest,” Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 258, No. 6, 2009, pp. 971-977.
[22] S. Brown, “Estimating Biomass and Biomass Change of Tropical Forest: A primer. FAO Forestry Paper 134,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Cambridge, Rome, 1997.
[23] N. Kim Phat, S. Ouk, Y. Uozumi and T. Ueki, “Stand dynamics of Dipterocarp trees in Cambodia’s Evergreen Forest and Management Implications—A Case Study in Sandan District, Kampong Thom,” Journal of Forest Planning, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2000, pp. 13-23.
[24] MAFF, “Sub-Decree No. 050 on Tree Species Classification and Diameter Limit for Harvesting,” MAFF, Phnom Penh (in Khmer), 1986.
[25] DAI (Development Alternatives, Inc.), “Findings and Recommendations of the Log Monitoring and Logging Control Project,” Reported Submitted to the Royal Government of Cambodia, Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 1998.
[26] WRI (World Resource Institute), “World Resources 2002-2004: Decisions for the Earth: Balance, Voice, and Power,” World Resources Institute, Washington DC, 2003.
[27] C. Nellemann, L. Miles, B. P. Kaltenborn, M. Viture and H. Ahlenius, “The Last Stand of the Orangutan—State of Emergency: Illegal Logging, Fire and Palm Oil in Indonesia’s National Parks,” United Nations Environment Program and United Nations Economic, Social and Cultural Office, Arendal, 2007.
[28] C. P. Hansen and T. Treue, “Assessing Illegal Logging in Ghana,” International Forestry Review, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2008, pp. 573-590.
[29] S. Lawson and L. Macfaul, “Illegal Logging and Related Trade Indicators of the Global Response,” Chatham House, London, 2010.
[30] N. Kim Phat, S. Kim, S. Ouk, Y. Uozumi and T. Ueki, “Management of Mixed Forest in Cambodia—A Case Study in Sandan District, Kampong Thom,” Bulletin of Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Vol. 38, No. 1-2, 2002, pp. 45-54.
[31] N. Kim Phat, S. Ouk, Y. Uozumi, T. Ueki and S. Kim, “Management of Mixed Deciduous Forest in Central Cambodia—A Case Study in Sandan District,” Bulletin of Shinshu University Forest Research, Vol. 2, No. 38, 2002, pp. 290-309.
[32] D. Kao and S. Iida, “Structural Characteristics of Logged Evergreen Forests in Preah Vihear, Cambodia, 3 Years after logging,” Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 225, No. 1-3, 2006, pp. 62-73.
[33] K. Chheng, N. Sasaki and N. Mizoue, “Impacts of Reduced Impact Logging on Stand Structures in Mixed Forests in Three Northeastern Provinces in Cambodia,” 2nd International Conference on FORCOM Follow-Up and New Challenge for Coming Generations, Mie, 25-30 September 2011, 23 p.
[34] N. Top, N. Mizoue and S. Kai, “Estimating Forest Biomass Increment Based on Permanent Sample Plots in Relation to Woodfuel Consumption: A Case Study in Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia,” Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2004, pp. 117-123.
[35] S. L. Lewis, G. Lopez-Gonzalez, B. Sonke, K. Affum-Baffoe, T. R. Baker, L. O. Ojo, et al., “Increasing Carbon Storage in intact African Tropical Forests,” Nature, Vol. 457, No. 7232, 2009, pp. 1003-1006.
[36] O. L. Phillips, Y. Malhi, N. Higuchi, W. F. Laurance, P. V. Nunez, R. M. Vasquez, S. G. Laurance, L. V. Ferreira, M. Stern, S. Brown and J. Grace, “Changes in the Carbon Balance of Tropical Forests: Evidence from Long-Term Plots,” Science, Vol. 282, No. 5388, 1998, pp. 439-442.
[37] World Bank, United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and FAO, “Cambodian Forest Policy Assessment,” World Bank, Phnom Penh, 1996.
[38] Center for Forestry Planning and Statistics and Ministry of Forestry, “Indonesia Forestry Outlook,” Asia-Pacific forestry sector study II, Working Paper No. APFSOS II/WP/2009/13, FAO, Bangkok, 2009.
[39] H. Priyadi, P. Gunarso, P. Sist and H. Dwiprabowo, “Reduced-Impact Logging (RIL) Research and Development in Malinau Research Forest, East Kalimantan: A Challenge of RIL Adoption,” Paper presented in the Regional Workshop, RIL Implementation in Indonesia with Reference to Asia-Pacific Region: Review and Experiences, Bogor, 15-16 February 2006, 18 p.
[40] S. Kim, N. Kim Phat, M. Koike and H. Hayashi, “Estimating Actual and Potential Government Revenues from timber Harvesting in Cambodia,” Forest Policy and Economics, Vol. 8, No. 6, 2006, pp. 625-635.
[41] FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), “Financial and Economic Assessment of Timber Harvesting Operations in Sarawak, Malaysia,” Forest Harvesting Case-Studies 17, FAO, Rome, 2001.
[42] P. Sist and A. Saridan, “Description of the Primary Lowland Forest of Berau,” In: J. G. Bertault and K. Kadir, Eds., Silvicultural Research in a Lowland Mixed Dipterocarp Forest of East Kalimantan: The Contribution of STREK Project, CIRADFORDA-P.T. INHUTANII, Indonesia, 1998, pp. 51-94.
[43] B. C. Murray, B. A. Mccarl and H. C. Lee, “Estimating Leakage from Forest Carbon Sequestration Programs,” Working Paper, 2-6 May 2002, RTI International, 2002, pp. 1-22.
[44] D. C. Nepstad, A. Veri′Ssimo, A. Alencar, C. Nobre, E. Lima, P. Lefebvre, P. Schlesinger, C. Potter, P. Moutinho, E. Mendoza, M. Cochrane and V. Brooks, “Large-scale Impoverishment of Amazon Forests by Logging and Fire,” Nature, Vol. 398, No. 6727, 1999, pp. 505-508. 1038/19066
[45] P. G. Asner, K. T. Rudel, T. M. Aide, R. Defries and R. Emerson, “A Contemporary Assessment of Change in Humid Tropical Forests,” Conservation Biology, Vol. 23, No, 6, 2009, pp. 1386-1395.
[46] G. P. Asner, G. V. N. Powell, J. Mascaro, D. E. Knapp, J. K. Clark, J. Jacobson, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, A. Balaji, G. Paez-Acosta, E. Victoria, L. Secada, M. Valqui and R. F. Hughes, “High-Resolution Carbon Stocks and Emissions in the Amazon,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 107, No. 38, 2010, pp. 16738-16742. 1004875107
[47] A. Casson and K. Obidzinski, “From New Order to Regional Autonomy: Shifting Dynamics of ‘illegal’ Logging in Kalimantan, Indonesia,” World Development, Vol. 30, No. 12, 2002, pp. 2133-2151.
[48] M. Peters-Stanley and D. Yin, “Maneuvering the Mosaic State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets 2013,” A Report by Forest Trends’ Ecosystem Marketplace & Bloomberg New Energy Finance, Washington, D.C., 2013, pp. 126.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.