Iatrogenic opioid dependence is endemic and legal: Genetic addiction risk score (GARS) with electrotherapy a paradigm shift in pain treatment programs

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DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.511A1004    2,758 Downloads   4,196 Views  


Center for Psychiatric Medicine, North Andover, USA.
Centre for Genomics and Applied Gene Technology, Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Nonakuri, Purba Medinipur, India.
Department of Addiction Research & Therapy, Malibu Beach Recovery Center, Malibu Beach, USA.
Department of Executive Health, Path Research Foundation NY, New York, USA.
Department of Exercise Science, Quincy College, Quincy, USA.
Department of Holistic Medicine and Pain Track, National Institute for Holistic Addiction Studies, North Miami Beach, USA.
Department of Management Science and Statistics, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, USA.
Department of Molecular Nutrition, Impact Genomics, Inc., Austin, USA Igene LLC, Austin, USA.
Department of Psychiatry, Anatomy & Neurobiology, Boston VA and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, USA.
Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine & McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA Department of Executive Health, Path Research Foundation NY, New York, USA.
Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine & McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA; Electronic Waveform Lab, Department of Pain Research, Huntington Beach, USA Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA Department of Molecular Nutrition, Impact Genomics, Inc., Austin, USA Department of Executive Health, Path Research Foundation NY, New York, USA Department of Holistic Medicine and Pain Track, National Institute for Holistic Addiction Studies, North Miami Beach, USA Dominion Diagnostics LLC, North Kingstown, USA Department of Psychiatry, Human Integrated Services Unit of Vermont Center for Clinical & Translational Science, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, USA Department of Addiction Research & Therapy, Malibu Beach Recovery Center, Malibu Beach, USA Centre for Genomics and Applied Gene Technology, Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Nonakuri, Purba Medinipur, India G.
Department of Psychiatry, Human Integrated Services Unit of Vermont Center for Clinical & Translational Science, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, USA.
Department of Surgery, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, USA.
Dominion Diagnostics LLC, North Kingstown, USA.
Electronic Waveform Lab, Department of Pain Research, Huntington Beach, USA Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
Electronic Waveform Lab, Department of Pain Research, Huntington Beach, USA Nautilus Inc., Vancouver, USA.


The mounting endemic of prescription iatrogenic opioid dependence in pain patients provoked this treatise about an alternative method that can be used to treat pain, improve function and reduce the risk of opioid dependence. It is well known that as well as the side effects reported for chronic opioid therapy, genetically predisposed individuals are at risk for opioid dependence. We propose the use of the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS) assessment to identify patients early in treatment who should avoid narcotic pain medications. Primarily, this review will be an exploration of the mechanisms of action of an electrotherapeutic alternative to narcotic treatment that can be used to augment tissue healing and reduce the pain associated with human injuries and neuropathies. This particular electrotherapeutic device was developed at the Electronic Waveform Laboratory in Huntington Beach, California and is called the H-Wave? device. The primary effect of the H-Wave?device is stimulation (HWDS) of small diameter fibers of “red-slow-twitch” skeletal muscle. Mechanisms of action of HWDS have been investigated in both animal and human studies. They include edema reduction, induction of nitric oxide dependent augmented microcirculation and angiogenesis, small muscle contraction that eliminates transcapillary fluid shifts, reducing the painful effects of tetanizing fatigue and gradual loading of healing injured muscle tissue that helps repair and remodeling. A recent metaanalysis found a moderate-to-strong-positive effect of the HWDS in providing pain relief, reducing the requirement for pain medication, with the most robust effect being increased functionality. We are proposing that GARS can be used to identify those at risk of developing opioid dependence and that the need for opioid analgesia can be reduced by use of this electro therapeutic alternative to opioid analgesia in the treatment of pain and injuries.

Cite this paper

Blum, K. , Han, D. , Oscar-Berman, M. , Reinl, G. , DiNubile, N. , Madigan, M. , Bajaj, A. , Downs, B. , Giordano, J. , Westcott, W. , Smith, L. , Braverman, E. , Dushaj, K. , Hauser, M. , Simpatico, T. , McLaughlin, T. , Borsten, J. and Barh, D. (2013) Iatrogenic opioid dependence is endemic and legal: Genetic addiction risk score (GARS) with electrotherapy a paradigm shift in pain treatment programs. Health, 5, 16-34. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.511A1004.


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