Share This Article:

Determinants of infant mortality in rural India: A three-level model

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:140KB) PP. 1742-1749
DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.511235    3,790 Downloads   5,404 Views   Citations


Taking into account the hierarchical structure of the data, through two-level analysis on infant mortality available under second round of National family Health Survey, the same group of authors recently reported determinants of infant mortality while examining possible changes in results under traditional regression analysis that ignores hierarchical structure of data. They reported that the community (e.g., state) level characteristics still have a major role regarding infant mortality in India. For better epidemiological understanding, the present study is to assess determinants of infant mortality in rural India, where three level considerations were possible. The results indicate that even after consideration of these covariates, variation in infant mortality remains significant not only between States but also between Districts. Further, as an additional observation, the probability of infant mortality is still high in rural areas of districts having health facility beyond three kilometers than their counterparts.

Cite this paper

Dwivedi, S. , Begum, S. , Dwivedi, A. and Pandey, A. (2013) Determinants of infant mortality in rural India: A three-level model. Health, 5, 1742-1749. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.511235.


[1] Dwivedi, S.N., Begum, S., Dwivedi, A.K. and Pandey, A. (2012) Community effects on public health in India: A hierarchical model. Health, 4, 526-536.
[2] Mosley, W.H. (1984) Child survival: Research and policy. Population and Development Review, 10, 3-23.
[3] Nath Dilip, C., Kenneth, C.L. and Talukdar, P.K. (1994) Most recent birth interval in a traditional society: A life table and hazards regression analysis. Canadian Studies in Population, 21, 149-164.
[4] Bryk, A.S. and Raudenbush, S.W. (1992) Hierarchical linear models (applications and data analysis methods). Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.
[5] Goldstein, H. and Healy, M.J.R. (1995) The graphical presentation of a collection of means. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, 158, 175-177.
[6] Kalbfleisch, J.D. and Prentice, R.L. (1980) The statistical analysis of failure time data. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
[7] Cox, D.R. (1972) Regression models and life tables (with discussion). Journal of Royal Statistical Society, B34, 187-220.
[8] Menken, J., Trussel, J., Stempel, D. and Bahakol, O. (1981) Proportional hazard life table models: An illustrative analysis of socio-economic influences on marriage dissolution in the United States. Demography, 18, 181-200.
[9] Retherford, R.D. and Minja, K.C. (1993) Statistical models for casual analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
[10] Trussell, J. and Charles, H. (1983) A hazards model analysis of the covariates of infant and child mortality in Sri Lanka. Demography, 20, 1-24.
[11] Namboodiri, N.K. and Suchindran, C.M. (1987) Life table techniques and their applications. Academic Press, Orlando.
[12] Kleinbaum, D.G. (1996) Survival analysis. Statistics in health sciences. Springer-Verlag, New York.
[13] Nath, D.C., Land, K.C. and Singh, K.K. (1994) Birth spacing, breastfeeding, and early child mortality in a traditional Indian society: A hazard model analysis. Social Biology, 41, 168-180.
[14] Hobcraft, J.J., McDonald, W. and Rustien, S. (1983) Childspacing effects on infant and early child mortality. Population Index, 49, 585-618.
[15] Maine, D. and McNamara, R. (1985) Birth spacing and child survival. Center for Population and Family Health, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Columbia University, New York.
[16] Khorshed, A.B.M., Alam, M. and James, F.P. (1990) A multivariate analysis of social and economic determinants of neonatal and infant mortality in four rural thanas of Bangladesh. Demography India, 19, 167-182.
[17] Swenson, I.E., Nguyen, M.T., Pham, B.S., Vu, Q.N. and Vu, D.M. (1993) Factors influencing infant mortality in Vietnam. Journal of Biosocial Science, 25, 285-302.
[18] Bloland, P., Slutsker, L., Steketee, R.W., Wirima, J.J., Heymann, D.L. and Breman, J.G. (1996) Rates and risk factors for mortality during the first two years of life in rural Malawi. American Journal of Tropical Medicine Hygen, 55, 82-86.
[19] Koeing, M.A., Phillips, J.A., Campbell, O. and D’Souza, D. (1990) Birth intervals and childhood mortality in rural Bangladesh. Demography, 27, 251-265.
[20] Miller, J.E., Trussell, J., Anne, R.P. and Barbara, V. (1992) Birth spacing and child mortality in Bangladesh and the Philippines. Demography, 29, 305-316.
[21] Mturi, A.J. and Curtis, S.L. (1995) The determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania. Health Policy Plan, 10, 384-394.
[22] Manda, S.O. (1999) Birth intervals, breastfeeding and determinants of childhood mortality in Malawi. Social Science Medicine, 48, 301-312.
[23] Chaudhary, S.B., Ibrahim, K.R. and Md. A.M. (2000) Impact of some biosocial variables on infant and child mortality. Demography India, 29, 211-221.
[24] Pandey, A., Minja, K.C., Norman, Y.L., Damodar, S. and Jagdish, C. (1998) Infant and child mortality in India. National Family Health Survey Subject Reports No. 11, IIPS, Bombay and East West Centre Program on Population, Honolulu, Hawaii.
[25] Arnold, F., Minja, K.C. and Roy, T.K. (1998) Son preference, the family-building process and child mortality in Inida. Population Studies, 52, 301-315.
[26] Dwivedi, S.N. and Sundaram, K.R. (2000) Epidemiological models and related simulation results for understanding of contraceptive adoption in India. International Journal of Epidemiology, 29, 300-307.
[27] Steele, F., Diamond, I. and Wang. D.L. (1996) The determinants of contraceptive use in China: A multilevel multinomial discrete hazards modelling approach. Demography, 33, 12-24.
[28] NFHS-2 (2000) National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2), 1998-99, Final Report. International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.