Share This Article:

Ameliorative Effects of Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil on Fertility in Male Rats Exposed to Manganese

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:423KB) PP. 85-91
DOI: 10.4236/asm.2013.34013    3,667 Downloads   7,659 Views   Citations


Introduction: Several substances were likely to cause the decline in male fertility which could go up to the complete sterility. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Syzygium aromaticum essential oil on fertility in male rats exposed to manganese. Materials and Methods: Twenty four male rats, 6 months old, were divided into 2 groups; 12 rats in one group received, by oral route, a water containing manganese chloride tetrahydrate (MnCl4H2O) is at the dose of 4.79 mg·ml-1 for 12 weeks. The group of control male rats received a distilled water in the same conditions. After a period of experimentation, each group was divided into two subgroups of 6 rats which received daily, by intraperitoneal way, a 0.1 mg/kg body weight, of Syzygium aromaticum essential oil. Results: After a chronic exposure, microscopic examination of the testes showed degeneration of the seminiferous tubules and the gremlin cell. Seminal parameters indicated a decrease in the sperm levels (21.3 × 106 cells/ml) and a rise of morphological abnormalities (66.1%). However, intraperitoneal administration of essential oil extracted from the flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum, during 3 weeks, to the rats previously intoxicated with Mn, showed a significant rising of sperm concentration (61.2 × 106 cells/ml) and a reduction of morphological abnormalities (10.8%). These changes were associated with a significant regeneration of seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells. Conclusion: This study revealed an ameliorative effect of essential oil Syzygium aromaticum in testicular tissue and the sperm quality.

Cite this paper

F. Boudou, A. Berroukche, M. Bendahmane-Salmi, B. Kandouci, D. Edinne Houari adli and N. Tou, "Ameliorative Effects of Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil on Fertility in Male Rats Exposed to Manganese," Advances in Sexual Medicine, Vol. 3 No. 4, 2013, pp. 85-91. doi: 10.4236/asm.2013.34013.


[1] Li, et al., “Effects of Manganese on Routine Semen Quality Parameters,” BMC Public Health, Vol. 12, 2012, p. 919.
[2] S. I. Kim, Y. S. Jang, S. H. Han, M. J. Choi, E. H. Go, Y.-P. Cheon, J. S. Lee and S.-H. Lee, “Effect of Manganese Exposure on the Reproductive Organs in Immature Female Rats,” Development and Reproduction, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2012, pp. 295-300.
[3] T. E. Gunter, C. E. Gavin, M. Aschner and K. K. Gunter, “Speciation of Manganese in Cells and Mitochondria: A Search for the Proximal Cause of Manganese Neurotoxicity,” Neurotoxicology, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2006, pp. 765-776.
[4] C. L. Keen, S. Zidenberg-Cherr and B. Lonnerdal, “Nutritional and Toxicological Aspects of Manganese Intake: An Overview,” In: W. Mertz, C. O. Aternathy and S. S. Olin, Eds., Risk Assessment of Essential Elements, International Life Sciences Institute, Washington DC, 1994, pp. 221-235.
[5] A. Elbetieha, H. Bataineh, H. Darmani and M. H. Al-Hamood, “Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Manganese Chloride on Fertility of Male and Female Mice,” Toxicology Letters, Vol. 119, No. 3, 2001, pp. 193-201.
[6] B. Michalke, S. Halbach and V. Nischwitz, “Speciation and Toxicological Relevance of Manganese in Humans,” Journal of Environmental Monitoring, Vol. 9, No. 7, 2007, pp. 650-656.
[7] J. W. Laskey, J. F. Rehnberg and J. F. Hein, “Effects of Chronic Manganese Exposure on Selected Reproductive Parameters,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1982, pp. 677-687.
[8] A. M. Emara, S. H. el-Ghawabi, O. I. Madkour and G. H. el-Samra, “Chronic Manganese Poisoning in the Dry Battery Industry,” British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1971, pp. 78-82.
[9] N. H. Hjollund, J. P. Bonde, T. K. Jensen, E. Ernst, T. B. Henriksen, H. A. Kolstad, A. Giwercman, N. E. Skakkebaek and J. Olsen, “Semen Quality and Sex Hormones with Reference to Metal Welding,” Reproductive Toxicology, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1998, pp. 91-95.
[10] M. Pine, B. Lee, R. Dearth, J. K. Hiney and W. L. Dees, “Manganese Acts Centrally to Stimulate Luteinizing Hormone Secretion: A Potential Influence on Female Pubertal Development,” Toxicological Sciences, Vol. 85, No. 2, 2005, pp. 880-885.
[11] P. B. Telefo, P. F. Moundipa and F. M. Tchouanguep, “Oestrogenicity and Effect on Hepatic Metabolism of the Aqueous Extract of the Leaf Mixture of Aloe buettneri, Dicliptera verticillata, Hibiscus macranthus and Justicia insularis,” Fitoterapia, Vol. 73, No. 6, 2002, pp. 472-478.
[12] M. Ganguly, M. Borthakur, N. Devi and R. Mahanta, “Antifertility Activity of the Methanolic Leaf Extract of Cissampelos pareira in Female Albino Mice,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 111, No. 3, 2007, pp. 688-691.
[13] W. Cherdshewasart, Y. Kitsamai and S. Malaivijitnond, “Evaluation of the Estrogenic Activity of the Wild Pueraria mirifica by Vaginal Cornification Assay,” Journal of Reproduction and Development, Vol. 53, No. 2, 2007, pp. 385-393.
[14] M. Domaracky, P. Rehak, S. Juhas and J. Koppel, “Effects of Selected Plant Essential Oils on the Growth and Development of Mouse Preimplantation Embryos in Vivo,” Physiological Research, Vol. 56, No. 1, 2007, pp. 97-104.
[15] A. Gurib-Fakim, “Medicinal Plants: Traditions of Yesterday and Drugs of Tomorrow,” Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2006, pp. 1-93.
[16] K. Chaieb, H. Hajlaoui, T. Zmantar, A. B. Kahla-Nakbi, M. Rouabhia, K. Mahdouani and A. Bakhrouf, “The Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Clove Essential Oil, Eugenia caryophyllata (Syzigium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae): A Short Review,” Phytotherapy Research, Vol. 21, No. 6, 2007, pp. 501-506.
[17] S. Banerjee, C. K. Panda and S. Das, “Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L), a Potential Chemopreventive Agent for Lung Cancer,” Carcinogenesis, Vol. 27, No. 8, 2006, pp. 1645-1654.
[18] Tajuddin, S. Ahmad, A. Latif and I. A. Qasmi, “Aphrodisiac Activity of 50% Ethanolic Extract of Myristica fragrans Houtt (nutmeg) and Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (Clove) in Male Mice: A Comperative Study,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 6.
[19] S. Halder, A. K. Mehta, R. Kar, M. Mustafa, P. K. Mediratta and K. K. Sharma “Clove Oil Reverses Learning and Memory Deficits in Scopolamine-Treated Mice,” Planta Medica, Vol. 77, No. 8, 2011, pp. 830-834.
[20] R. M. Molina, S. Phattanarudee, J. Kim, K. Thompson, M. Wessling-Resnick, T. J. Maher and J. D. Brain, “Ingestion of Mn and Pb by Rats during and after Pregnancy Alters Iron Metabolism and Behavior in Offspring,” NeuroToxicology, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2011, pp. 413-422.
[21] O. Shinshi, “Lack of Spermatotoxic Effects of Methyl and Ethyl Esters of p-Hydroxybenzoic Acid in Rats,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 42, No. 11, 2004, pp. 1854-1859.
[22] I. M. Al-Ani, I. N. Al-Khfaji, M. B. Fakhrildin, H. H. Mangalo and S. R. Al-Obaidi, “The Effect of Lead Exposure of Mice during Pregnancy on the Morphology of Epididymal and Testicular Spermatozoa of Their Off-spring,” The International Medical Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2009.
[23] M. S. Celik, K. G. Veysi, Akpolat, M. Z. Akdag, M. Naziroglu, R. Gul-Guven, M. Y. Celik and S. Erdogan, “Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Field Induces Manganese Accumulation in Brain, Kidney and Liver of Rats,” Toxicology and Industrial Health, 2013.
[24] A. J. Ajibade, P. B. Fakunle, O. O. Fatoba and O. T. Olayemi, “Some Effects of Manganese Dichloride Administration on the Body Weight, Purkinje Cell Population, Brain, and Cerebellar Weights of Adult Wistar Rats,” Journal of Neuroscience and Behavioral Health, Vol. 3, No. 7, 2011, pp. 87-90.
[25] A. Elbetieha, H. Bataineh, H. Darmani and M. H. Al-Hamood. “Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Manganese Chloride on Fertility of Male and Female Mice,” Toxicology Letters, Vol. 119, No. 3, 2001, pp. 193-201.
[26] D. J. Sánchez, J. L. Domingo, J. M. Llobet and C. L. Keen, “Maternal and Developmental Toxicity of Manganese in the Mouse,” Toxicology Letters, Vol. 69, No. 1, 1993, pp. 45-52.
[27] S. J. Barber, H. M. Parker and C. D. McDaniel, “Broiler Breeder Semen Quality as Affected by Trace Minerals in Vitro,” Poultry Science, Vol. 84, No. 1, 2005, pp. 100-105.
[28] T. P. Ponnapakkam, G. H. Sam and M. B. Iszard, “Histopathological Changes in the Testis of the Sprague Dawley Rat Following Orally Administered Manganese,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, Vol. 71, No. 6, 2003, pp. 1151-1157.
[29] K. Jana, S. Jana and P. K. Samanta, “Effects of Chronic Exposure to Sodium Arsenite on Hypothalamic Pituitary-Testicular Activities in Adult Rats: Possible Anestrogenic Mode of Action,” Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, Vol. 4, 2006, p. 9.
[30] J. Cheng, J. L. Fu and Z. C. Zhou, “The Inhibitory Effects of Manganese on Steroidogenesis in Rat Primary Leydig Cells by Disrupting Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory (StAR) pr Tein Expression,” Toxicology, Vol. 187, No. 2-3, 2003, pp. 139-148.
[31] A. Judtentiene and D. Mockute, “Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Artemisia absinthium L. (Wormwood) Growing Wild in Vilnius,” CHEMIJA, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2004, pp. 64-68.
[32] R. K. Mishra and S. K. Singh, “Safety Assessment of Syzygium aromaticum ?ower Bud (Clove) Extract with Respect to Testicular Function in Mice,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 46, No. 10, 2008, pp. 3333-3338.
[33] Shodehinde1 and G. Oboh, “Antioxidant Properties of Aqueous Extracts of Unripe Musa paradisiaca on Sodium Nitroprusside Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Pancreas in Vitro Sidiqat Adamson,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Vol. 3, No. 6, 2013, pp. 449-457.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.