Share This Article:

Prospects for Minimizing the Potential Environmental Impacts of the Hydro-Agricultural Dam of M’Bahiakro (Côte d’Ivoire)

Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:356KB) PP. 847-853
DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.59085    2,903 Downloads   4,776 Views   Citations


This study aims at characterizing the physical environment and suggesting solutions for a better management of the hydro-agricultural dam of M’Bahiakro which is being constructed over the N’Zi River and is the first inflatable dam in Cote d’Ivoire. In this survey, data related to hydrology, characteristics of the dam and the irrigated rice production area were obtained with the Water Resources Agency and the National Office of Rice Development of Cote d’Ivoire. Physicochemical parameters of the N’Zi River were collected seasonally at three monitoring stations. Results showed that the N’Zi River is characterized by a high water level period from April to November and a low water level period from November to April. The gap between the low flows and the high flows is important (about 206 m3/s on average). The annual average flow is 40 m3/s with a standard deviation of 32.52 m3/s and a variation coefficient of 0.88. The SAR average value (1.63) and the average conductivity (78.44 μS/cm) showed that waters of the N’Zi River are of high quality to be used for irrigation. Suspended sediment concentrations do not present significant difference along the river. But the seasonal variations are important; they are higher during the rainy seasons (45.8 mg/L on average) than in the dry seasons (17.7 mg/L on average). The annual solid flux of the N’Zi River is 41897 tons, i.e. 15810 m3 of sediments. The annual sediment flux is important and can lead to high depositions in the line-shaped reservoir of the dam and that calls for attention to control the silting up of the reservoir. Great efforts concerning interdisciplinary approaches, as well as extensive and intensive field work are needed in order to better manage the hydro-agricultural dam of M’Bahiakro.

Cite this paper

L. Kouassi, I. Kouamé, S. Konan, B. Dibi, S. Moussa, D. Koné and D. Gnakri, "Prospects for Minimizing the Potential Environmental Impacts of the Hydro-Agricultural Dam of M’Bahiakro (Côte d’Ivoire)," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 5 No. 9, 2013, pp. 847-853. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.59085.


[1] ONDR-MINAGRI, “Stratégie de Développement Durable de la Riziculture en Cote d’Ivoire,” Ministère de l’Agriculture, 2010, 10 p.
[2] M. Yutaka, H. Haruhiko and H. Nobumasa, “On-Farm Irrigation Development and Management in Lower Myanmar: Factors for Sustainable Rice Production and Collective Action,” Paddy Water Environ, Vol. 11, No. 1-4, 2012, pp. 455-462. doi:10.1007/s10333-012-0336-0
[3] L. Qicai, “Influence of Dams on River Ecosystem and Its Countermeasures,” Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2011, pp. 60-66. doi:10.4236/jwarp.2011.31007
[4] B. Denes and A. R. Bruce, “Environmental Impact of Flooding in the Main (Smallwood) Reservoir of the Churchill Falls Power Plant, Labrador, Canada. III. Environmental Impact Zones and Direct and Indirect Changes,” Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2011, pp. 160-165. doi:10.4236/jwarp.2011.33020
[5] A. Takashi and Md H. Rashid, “The Impacts of Sediment Released from Dams on Downstream Sediment Bar Vegetation,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 430-431, 2012, pp. 25-38. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.01.040
[6] S. Zhandong, H. Qun, O. Christian, H. Thomas and M. Ulf, “Impacts and Implications of Major Changes Caused by the Three Gorges Dam in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, China,” Water Resour Manage, Vol. 26, No. 12, 2012, pp. 3367-3378. doi:10.1007/s11269-012-0076-3
[7] D. E. Jonathan and H. L. Winsor, “Constructed Ponds and Small Stream Habitats: Hypothesized Interactions and Methods to Minimize Impacts,” Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 5, No. 7, 2013, pp. 723-731. doi:10.4236/jwarp.2013.57073
[8] B. T. A. Goula, I. Savané, B. Konan, V. Fadika and G. B. Kouadio, “Impact de la Variabilité Climatique sur les Ressources Hydriques des Bassins de N’zo et N’zi en Cote d’Ivoire (Afrique Tropicale Humide),” VertigO, Vol. l7, No. 1, 2006, 12 p.
[9] JICA (International Japanese Cooperation Agency), “Plan Directeur de Gestion des Ressources en eau en Cote d’Ivoire: Rapport Final, Rapport Principal. Agence Japonaise de Coopération Internationale,” Cabinet du Premier Ministre, République de Cote d’Ivoire, 2001, pp. 5-11.
[10] C. K. Chang, A. G. Aminuddin, A. Rozi and A. Z. Nor, “Sediment Transport Modeling for Kulim River, a Case Study,” Journal of Hydro-Environment Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2008, pp. 47-59. doi:10.1016/j.jher.2008.04.002
[11] K. L. Kouassi, D. L. Goné, N. H. Mélèdje, A. V. I. Wognin and K. Aka, “Hydrologie et Evolution Spatio-Temporelle des Charges Solides en Suspension Dans le lac du Barrage Hydroélectrique de Taabo (Cote d’Ivoire),” European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 18, No. 3, 2007, pp. 463-476.
[12] J.-C. Winterwerp and W. G. M. Van Kesteren, “Introduction to the Physics of Cohesive Sediment in the Marine Environment,” Developments in Sedimentology, Vol. 56, 2004, 466 p.
[13] M. Cobaner, B. Unal and O. Kisi, “Suspended Sediment Concentration Estimation by an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy and Neural Network Approaches Using Hydro-Meteorological Data,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 367, No. 1-2, 2009, pp. 52-61. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.12.024
[14] S.-H. M. Hsu, “Lessons Learn from a Water-Shortage Disaster in North Taiwan Due to a Typhoon Event on Reservoir Operation,” 3rd WFEO-JFES-JSCE Joint International Symposium on Disaster Risk Management Proceedings, 2009, pp. 37-40.
[15] AFNOR, “Qualité de l’Eau: Environnement, Association Francaise de Normalisation,” 1st Edition, AFNOR, Paris, 1994, 861 p.
[16] S. A. Young, N. Futoshi and M. Shigeru, “Hydrology, Suspended Sediment Dynamics and Nutrient Loading in Lake Takkobu, a Degrading Lake Ecosystem in Kushiro Mire, Northern Japan,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 145, 2007, pp. 267-281.
[17] T. Y. Brendan and N. M. Gasparini, “Hydrologic Controls on Wash Load Sediment Concentrations within a Low-Ordered, Ephemeral Watershed,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 410, No. 7, 2011, pp. 3-83.
[18] US Salinity Laboratory, “Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkali Soils,” USDA Agriculture Handbook 60, US Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1954, pp. 10-50.
[19] E. Said, “Mapping of Groundwater Quality in the Turonian Aquifer of Oum Er-Rabia Basin, Morocco: A Case Study,” Environmental Geology, Vol. 50, No. 6, 2006, pp. 919-929. doi:10.1007/s00254-006-0263-8
[20] T. A. Goula Bi, K. I. Kouame, L. Coulibaly, T. Gnagne, I. Savané and P. D. Djoman, “Caractérisation des Effluents de Boues Actives d’Une Usine Agroalimentaire en vue de son Utilisation Comme eau d’Arrosage de Pelouses en Zone Tropicale Humide,” Revue des Sciences de l’Eau, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2006, pp. 299-307. doi:10.7202/016504ar
[21] X. Kaiqin, C. Zhongyuan, Z. Yiwen, W. Zhanghua, Z. Jiqun, H. Seiji, M. Shogo and W. Masataka, “Simulated Sediment Flux during 1998 Big-Flood of the Yangtze (Changjiang) River, China,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 313, No. 3-4, 2005, pp. 221-233. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.03.006
[22] R. Giménez, J. Casalí, I. Grande, J. Díeza, M.A. Campo, J. álvarez-Mozosa and M. Goni, “Factors Controlling Sediment Export in a Small Agricultural Watershed in Navarre (Spain),” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 110, 2012, pp. 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2012.03.007
[23] E. R. Kremenetskaya, D. V. Lomova, D. I. Sokolov and K. K. Edel’shtein, “Sedimentation of Suspension in the Mozhaisk Reservoir,” Water Resource, Vol. 38, No. 4, 2011, pp. 522-529. doi:10.1134/S0097807811020072
[24] J.-C. Winterwerp, “On the Floculation and Settling Velocity of Estuarine Mud,” Continental Shelf Research, Vol. 22, No. 9, 2001, pp. 1339-1360. doi:10.1016/S0278-4343(02)00010-9
[25] D. L. Higgitt and X. X. Lu, “Sediment delivery to the three gorges: 1. Catchment controls,” Geomorphology, Vol. 41, No. 2-3, 2001, pp. 143-156. doi:10.1016/S0169-555X(01)00112-X
[26] P. Négrel, S. Roy, E. Petelet-Giraud, R. Millot and A. Brenot, “Long-Term Fluxes of Dissolved and Suspended Matter in the Ebro River Basin (Spain),” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 342, No. 3-4, 2007, pp. 249-260. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.05.013
[27] T. Lulseged, A. Assefa, A. Ermias, W. Kifle and P. L. G. Vlek, “Estimating Sediment Yield Risk of Reservoirs in Northern Ethiopia Using Expert Knowledge and Semi-Quantitative Approaches,” Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2011, pp. 293-305.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.