Health> Vol.5 No.8, August 2013
Views: 442    Downloads: 441

A retrospective cohort analysis of the relationship between thyroid hormone level and herpes simplex virus-1 activation

DownloadDownload as PDF (Size:116KB) Full-Text HTML PP. 1201-1205   DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58162

ABSTRACT

A number of physiological factors have been suggested to participate in the Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1) reactivation. Of particular interest is the effect of hormonal aberration on gene expression and activation. Thyroid hormone (TH) was shown to play a role in HSV-1 gene expression and replication in cell culture and animal models. We hypothesize that TH participates in the control of HSV latency and reactivation in humans by regulating viral gene expression and replication. Prior to implementing a full-scale population-based inquiry into this hypothesis, a pilot study using a pharmacy claims data base and a case-controlled, retrospective cohort preliminary investigation was conducted to develop further the hypothetical link between TH and HSV-1 reactivation. Using prescriptions for treating thyroid disorders and HSV-1 infections as proxies for biologic functions, we queried a prescription data base to construct two patient cohorts: Cohort 1 was comprised of patients receiving prescription drugs for thyroid disorders over a three-month period, and Cohort 2 was composed of patients not receiving thyroid medications during this period. HSV-1 medications were recorded for each cohort and the difference in the frequency of HSV-1 prescription drug utilization was examined for statistical significance. Using a 2 × 2 contingency table, a chi-square of 10.12 was calculated that was significant at p = 0.0015, confirming that a significant difference was found in HSV-1 utilization between these two cohorts, suggesting that patients who receive thyroid drugs have a greater chance of receiving antiviral drugs for HSV-1 infection/reactivation. Since this pilot study has inherent limitations in the data set, this finding is descriptive, not explanatory, and further research involving more detailed patient records in a larger patient population will be implemented to explore the relationship more robustly.

KEYWORDS


Cite this paper

Victor Hsia, S. , Parmar, J. , Freeman, R. and Balish, M. (2013) A retrospective cohort analysis of the relationship between thyroid hormone level and herpes simplex virus-1 activation. Health, 5, 1201-1205. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.58162.

References

[1] Lazar, M.A. (1993) Thyroid hormone receptors: Multiple forms, multiple possibilities. Endocrine Reviews, 14, 184-193.
[2] Hsia, S.C. and Shi, Y.B. (2002) Chromatin disruption and histone acetylation in regulation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat by thyroid hormone receptor. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 22, 4043-4052. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.12.4043-4052.2002
[3] Hsia, S.C., Bedadala, G.R. and Balish, M.D. (2011) Effects of thyroid hormone on HSV-1 gene regulation: Implications in the control of viral latency and reactivation. Cell Bioscience, 1, 24. doi:10.1186/2045-3701-1-24
[4] Bedadala, G.R., Pinnoji, R.C., Palem, J.R. and Hsia, S.C. (2010) Thyroid hormone controls the gene expression of HSV-1 LAT and ICP0 in neuronal cells. Cell Research, 20, 587-598. doi:10.1038/cr.2010.50
[5] Hsia, S.C., Pinnoji, R.C., Bedadala, G.R., Hill, J.M. and Palem, J.R. (2010) Regulation of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene expression by thyroid hormone receptor in cultured neuronal cells. Journal of NeuroVirology, 16, 13-24. doi:10.3109/13550280903552412
[6] Taylor, T.J., Brockman, M.A., McNamee, E.E. and Knipe, D.M. (2002) Herpes simplex virus. Front Bioscience, 7, d752-764. doi:10.2741/taylor
[7] Xu, F., Sternberg, M.R., Kottiri, B.J., McQuillan, G.M., Lee, F.K., Nahmias, A.J., Berman, S.M. and Markowitz, L.E. (2006) Trends in herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 seroprevalence in the United States. JAMA, 296, 964-973. doi:10.1001/jama.296.8.964
[8] Hill, J.M., Wen, R. and Halford, W.P. (1998) Pathogenesis and molecular biology of HSV latency and ocular reactivation in the rabbit. Methods in Molecular Medicine, 10, 291-315.
[9] Martinez, P.A., Diaz, R., Gonzalez, D., Oropesa, L., Gonzalez, R., Perez, L., Viera, J. and Kouri, V. (2007) The effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on outcome of central nervous system herpesviruses infection in Cuban human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. Journal of NeuroVirology, 13, 446-451. doi:10.1080/13550280701510088
[10] Shah, A., Farooq, A.V., Tiwari, V., Kim, M.J. and Shukla, D. (2010) HSV-1 infection of human corneal epithelial cells: Receptor-mediated entry and trends of re-infection. Molecular Vision, 16, 2476-2486.
[11] Jonsson, M.K. and Wahren, B. (2004) Sexually transmitted herpes simplex viruses. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 36, 93-101. doi:10.1080/00365540310018905
[12] Goel, N., Mao, H., Rong, Q., Docherty, J.J., Zimmerman, D. and Rosenthal, K.S. (2002) The ability of an HSV strain to initiate zosteriform spread correlates with its neuroinvasive disease potential. Archives of Virology, 147, 763-773. doi:10.1007/s007050200024
[13] Walter, I.B. and Droz, B. (1995) Nuclear and cytoplasmic triiodothyronine-binding sites in primary sensory neurons and Schwann cells: Radioautographic study during development. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 7, 127-136. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2826.1995.tb00675.x
[14] Glauser, L. and Barakat Walter, I. (1997) Differential distribution of thyroid hormone receptor isoform in rat dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerve in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 9, 217-227. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2826.1997.d01-1088.x
[15] Walter, I.B. (1996) Triiodothyronine exerts a trophic action on rat sensory neuron survival and neurite outgrowth through different pathways. European Journal of Neuroscience, 8, 455-466. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.1996.tb01229.x
[16] Barakat-Walter, I. and Riederer, B.M. (1996) Triiodothyronine and nerve growth factor are required to induce cytoplasmic dynein expression in rat dorsal root ganglion cultures. Developmental Brain Research, 96, 109-119.
[17] De Vito, P., Balducci, V., Leone, S., Percario, Z., Mangino, G., Davis, P.J., Davis, F.B., Affabris, E., Luly, P., Pedersen, J.Z. and Incerpi, S. (2012) Nongenomic effects of thyroid hormones on the immune system cells: New targets, old players. Steroids, 77, 988-995. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.02.018
[18] De Vito, P., Incerpi, S., Pedersen, J.Z., Luly, P., Davis, F.B. and Davis, P.J. (2011) Thyroid hormones as modulators of immune activities at the cellular level. Thyroid, 21, 879-890. doi:10.1089/thy.2010.0429
[19] Paavonen, T. (1982) Enhancement of human B lymphocyte differentiation in vitro by thyroid hormone. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, 15, 211-215. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3083.1982.tb00640.x
[20] Provinciali, M., Muzzioli, M., Di Stefano, G. and Fabris, N. (1991) Recovery of spleen cell natural killer activity by thyroid hormone treatment in old mice. Natural Immunity and Cell Growth Regulation, 10, 226-236.
[21] Provinciali, M., Muzzioli, M. and Fabris, N. (1987) Thyroxine-dependent modulation of natural killer activity. Journal of Experimental Pathology, 3, 617-622.
[22] Provinciali, M. and Fabris, N. (1990) Modulation of lymphoid cell sensitivity to interferon by thyroid hormones. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 13, 187-191.
[23] Lin, H.Y., Yen, P.M., Davis, F.B. and Davis, P.J. (1997) Protein synthesis-dependent potentiation by thyroxine of antiviral activity of interferon-gamma. American Journal of Physiology, 273, C1225-1232.
[24] Lin, H.Y., Thacore, H.R., Davis, P.J. and Davis, F.B. (1994) Thyroid hormone potentiates the antiviral action of interferon-gamma in cultured human cells. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 79, 62-65. doi:10.1210/jc.79.1.62
[25] Marquart, M., Bhattacharjee, P., Zheng, X., Kaufman, H., Thompson, H., Varnell, E. and Hill, J. (2003) Ocular reactivation phenotype of HSV-1 strain F(MP)E, a corticosteroid-sensitive strain. Current Eye Research, 26, 205-209. doi:10.1076/ceyr.26.3.205.14890
[26] Higaki, S., Gebhardt, B.M., Lukiw, W.J., Thompson, H.W. and Hill, J.M. (2002) Effect of immunosuppression on gene expression in the HSV-1 latently infected mouse trigeminal ganglion. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 43, 1862-1869.
[27] Doherty, M.J., Baxter, A.B. and Longstreth Jr., W.T. (2001) Herpes simplex virus encephalitis complicating myxedema coma treated with corticosteroids. Neurology, 56, 1114-1115. doi:10.1212/WNL.56.8.1114

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.