Share This Article:

An Insight of Ecosystem Capitals and Services of the Kaghan Valley: The Himalayan Region of Pakistan

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:173KB) PP. 163-169
DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.42021    4,100 Downloads   6,436 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The Kaghan Valley is in the territorial jurisdiction of Mansehera District, named after a tiny village Kaghan, at the end of the valley. The valley culminates in the tree-clad high mountains and glaciers in the North-East with varying altitudes from 1 to 5 thousand meters above sea level. The region is relatively active geophysically, hydrologically and biologically diverse by virtue of the altitude and aspect-driven variability in energy and moisture. In such region a better understanding of changes in land resources, production of agronomic and horticultural crops, use of timber and non-timber products, and livestock structure/composition have important implications and understanding these changes along with the indigenous knowledge of mountain people which, is key to sustainable development of the Himalayan region. Our results showed that the main causes of lowest agriculture production in the area are poor crop management in context of the mountains, drought spells, low soil fertility, land fragmentation and tenancy status of the agricultural land. Off season vegetables cultivation on the sloppy land leads to sever soil erosion and soil land degradation of this mountain ecosystem. Overgrazing during the summer season is another problem as the pastures are visited both by the Afghan and local nomads without relating with carrying capacity of the alpine meadows. The overgrazed soil is usually subject to rainfalls and severe soil erosion. Any use of resources of such fragile rare high mountain ecosystem requires a great sense of responsibility but in this case the forest resources are being plundered and are used roughly. We recommend adequate use of agricultural inputs, specific crop management practices for mountain agriculture. Local social welfare organizations should work to create awareness about the sustainable use of natural resources. The government should resolve the ownership problem of land as common property keeping in mind the customary laws of the region to make sure the involvement of all stakeholders.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

M. Qasim, M. Khan, A. Naz and S. Khalid, "An Insight of Ecosystem Capitals and Services of the Kaghan Valley: The Himalayan Region of Pakistan," Natural Resources, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2013, pp. 163-169. doi: 10.4236/nr.2013.42021.

References

[1] D. Denniston, “High Priorities: Conserving Mountain Ecosystem and Cultures,” Reference: Worldwatch Paper 123, Worldwatch Institute, Washington DC, 1995.
[2] P. H. Gleick, “Water and Conflict,” International Security, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1993, pp. 79-112. doi:10.2307/2539033
[3] A. Wakeel, K. S. Rao, R. K. Maikhuri and K. G. Saxena “Forest Management and land Use/Cover Changes in a Typical Micro Watershed in the Mid Elevation Zone of Central Himalaya, India,” Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 213, No. 1-3, 2005, pp. 229-242. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2005.03.061
[4] T. Ali, B. Shabaz and A. Suleri, “Analysis of Myths and Realities of Deforestation in Northerwest Pakistan: Implications for Forestry Extension,” International Journal of Agriculture & Bilology, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2006, pp. 107-110.
[5] ICIMOD, “Poverty and Social Exclusion in the South Asian Highlands State of the Social Sector and Opportunities for Poverty Reduction and Social Inclusion,” Issues in Mountain Development No. 1. (International Centre for Integrated Mountains Development, Kathmandu, 2000.
[6] J. Khan, “Constraints and Opportunities for Sustainable Livelihoods and Forest Management in the Mountains of the North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan,” Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Reading, Reading, 2004.
[7] R. S. Khan, M. Yusuf and I. U. Haq, “Assessing the PovertyEnvironment Nexus: Evidence from Swat,” Poverty Reduction Environmental Management Programme (PREM), Amsterdam, 2006.
[8] N. S. Jodha, “Natural Resource Management and Poverty Alleviation in Mountain Areas: Approaches and Efforts,” Conference Paper Series No. 11, International Conference on Natural Assets, Tagaytay City, 8-11 January 2003, pp. 89-104.
[9] Z. Ali, A. M. Haqqanni and M. Ahmad, “Thal and Technologies for Fodder Production,” Science, Technology and Development, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2005, pp. 87-95.
[10] A. M. Haqqanni, Z. Ali, S. Shafique, S. Zahid and A. Bakhsh, “Oats: A Fodder of Winter Lean Period,” AgriDigest Journal of Zari Taraqiati Bank Limited, 2003, pp. 15-23.
[11] P. M. Tulakchan, “Mountain Agriculture in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya,” Mountain Research and Development, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2001, pp. 260-267. doi:10.1659/0276-4741(2001)021[0260:MAITHK]2.0.CO;2
[12] B. Shabaz and T. Ali, “Participatory Forest Management: Analysis of Forest Use Patterns, Livelihood Strategies and Extent of Participation of Forest Users in Mansehra and Swat districts of Pakistan,” In: Shabaz et al., Eds., Troubled Times: Sustainable Development and Governance in the Age of Extremes, Sustainable Development Policy Institute, City Press, Islamabad, 2006, pp. 148-158.
[13] N. S. Jodha, “Poverty and Environmental Resource Degradation: An Alternative Explanation and Possible Solutions,” In: N. S. Jodha, Ed., Life on the Edge: Managing Agriculture and Community Resources in Fragile Environments, Oxford University Press, Delhi, 2001, pp. 113130.
[14] FAO, “Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005,” Progress towards Sustainable Forest Management, 2005, p. 320.
[15] K. S. Bawa, G. Joseph and S. Setty, “Poverty, Biodiversity and Institutions in Forest-Agriculture Ecotones in the Western Ghats and Eastern Himalaya Ranges of India,” Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Vol. 121, No. 3, 2007, pp. 287-295. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2006.12.023
[16] P. Tiwari, “Land Use Changes in Himalaya and Their Impacts on Environment, Society and Economy: A Study of the Lake Region in Kumaon Himalaya, India,” Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 25, No. 6, 2008, pp. 1029-1042. doi:10.1007/s00376-008-1029-x
[17] S. J. Pei, “Indigenous Knowledge of the Mountain People and Conservation of Biodiversity in the Mountain Ecosystems,” ICIMOD, Nepal, 1994.
[18] J. Y. Lin, “Education and Innovation Adoption in Agriculture: Evidence from Hybrid Rice in China,” American Journal of Agriculture Economics, Vol. 73, No. 3, 1991, pp. 713-723. doi:10.2307/1242823
[19] AP Gautam, EL Webb, GP Shivakoti and MA Zoebisch, “Land Use Dynamics and Landscape Change Pattern in a Mountain Watershed in Nepal,” Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Vol. 99, No. 1-3, 2003, pp. 83-96. doi:10.1016/S0167-8809(03)00148-8
[20] M. Qasim, K. Hubacek, M. Termansen and A. Khan, “Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Land Use Pattern in District Swat, Hindu Kush Himalayan Region of Pakistan,” Applied Geography, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2011, pp. 820-828. doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2010.08.008
[21] PCRWR, “Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources, Regional Office, Bahawalpur,” Information Booklet, 1999.
[22] M. Iqbal, U. Farooq, A. Bashir, N. A. Khan and S. Z. Malik, “A Baseline Survey for the Development of Livestock Sector in Cholistan,” Joint Publication of AERU, AARI, Faisalabad, SSI, NARC, Islamabad and GTZ, Lahore, 2000.
[23] A. Mian, and M. Y. J. Mirza, “Pakistan’s Soil Resources,” Pakistan’s National Conservation Strategy Paper No. 4, Jointly Published by IUCN Pakistan and Environment & Urban Affairs Division, Government of Pakistan, 1993.
[24] R. A. Posner, “Economic Analysis of Law,” Little Brown, Boston, 1972.
[25] A. Randall, “Resource Economics,” John Wiley and Son, New York, 1987.
[26] T. H. Tietenberg, “Environmental and Natural Resource Economics,” Harper Collins Publishers Inc., New York, 1992.
[27] PILDAT (Pakistan Institute of Legislative Development and Transparency), “Issues of Water Resources in Pakistan,” PILDAT Brief Paper No. 7, Pakistan Institute of Legislative Development and Transparency, 2003. www.pildat.org
[28] World Bank, “World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development,” World Bank, Washington DC, 2007.
[29] G. M. Hocking, “Pakistan Medicinal Plants I,” In: Qualitas Plantarum et. Material Vegetabiles, Vol. 5, 1958, pp. 145-153.
[30] M. K. Kaul, V. Singh, P. K. Sharma and A. K. Bhatia, “Ethnobotanic Studies in Northwest and Trans-Himalaya, II. Approaches to the Study of Ethnobotany towards the Human Welfare in Remote Northwest and Trans-Himalayas,” Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1990, pp. 271-286.
[31] A. A. Khan, “Propagation and Regeneration Technology of Pharmacopoeial Medicinal Plants of Temperate Regions of Pakistan,” Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, 1989.
[32] M. Boissière, D. Sheil, I. Basuki, M. Wan and H. Le, “Can Engaging Local People’s Interests Reduce Forest Degradation in Central Vietnam?” Biodiversity and Conservation, Vol. 18, No. 10, 2009, pp. 2743-2757. doi:10.1007/s10531-009-9627-1
[33] P. L. Sankhayan, N. Gurung, B. K. Sitaula and O. Hofstad, “Bio-Economic Modeling of Land Use and Forest Degradation at Watershed Level in Nepal,” Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, Vol. 94, No. 1, 2003, pp. 105-116. doi:10.1016/S0167-8809(02)00009-9
[34] S. Wunder, “Poverty Alleviation and Tropical Forests— What Scope for Synergies?” World Development, Vol. 29, No. 11, 2001, pp. 1817-1833. doi:10.1016/S0305-750X(01)00070-5
[35] R. K. Maikhuri, S. Nautiyal, K. S. Rao, K. Chandrasekhar, R. Gavali and K. G. Saxena, “Analysis and Resolution of Protected Areas—People Conflicts in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India,” Environmental Conservation, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2000, pp. 43-53. doi:10.1017/S0376892900000060
[36] G. Krishan, S. Kushwaha and A. Velmurugan, “Land Degradation Mapping in the Upper Catchment of River Tons,” Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 119-128. doi:10.1007/s12524-009-0003-0
[37] J. S. Perkins and D. S. G. Thomas, “Spreading Deserts or Spatially Confined Environmental Impacts? Land Degradation and Cattle Ranching in the Kalahari Desert of Botswana,” Land Degradation & Development, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1993, pp. 179-194. doi:10.1002/ldr.3400040307
[38] L. Krader, “The Ecology of Nomadic Pastoralism,” International Social Science Journal, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1959, pp. 499-500
[39] L. E. Sweet, “Camel Pastoralism in North Arabia and the Minimal Camping Unit,” In: A Leeds and A. P. Vayda, Eds., Man, Culture and Animals: The Role of Animals in Human Ecological Adjustments, American Association for the Advancements of Science, Washington DC, 1965, pp. 121-129.
[40] W. W. Swidler, “Adaptive Processes Regulating NomadSedentary Interaction in,” University of California Press, 1973.
[41] D. W. Brombley, “Making the Common Work: Theory, Practice and Policy,” Institute for Contemporary Studies, San Francisco, 1992.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.