Health> Vol.5 No.5, May 2013

The acceleration of aging and Alzheimer’s disease through the biological mechanisms behind obesity and type II diabetes

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ABSTRACT

The incidence of diabetes is predicted to increase to 21% by 2050. Currently, one third of US adults are obese and over 11% of these individuals have diabetes. Due to the growing need for therapeutic intervention to control and/or stabilize this increase in the incidence of diabetes in Western communities, gaining a comprehensive understanding of the association between obesity and Type 2 diabetes has become increasingly important to diabetes research. The increased cell senescence associated with diabetes has been associated with the limited ability of cells to divide, with indication of telomere shortening and genomic instability of the cells. Obese individuals have shorter telomeres suggesting an inverse relationship between adiposity and telomere length. The implication that Type 2 diabetes has on biological aging is of particular interest since telomere shortening in obesity and diabetes has been associated with an early risk for dementia and even progression to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Lifestyle, nutrition and longevity are closely related and cellular senescence has been associated with telomere shortening and connected to longevity. Diet, cholesterol lowering drugs and exercise that control food intake and glucose tolerance in aging and diabetic individuals, via connections between liver circadian clocks and the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain, also have been shown to alter telomere lengths. Lifestyle interventions, such as diets low in fat and exercise, target the rise in obesity and associated telomere shortening by delaying or preventing the onset of Type 2 diabetes. The implementation of these anti-aging therapies early in life may prevent calorie overload and activation of calorie sensitive genes such as Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1). This may maintain telomere length and the control of obesity, which is linked to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and accelerates aging and AD.

Cite this paper

Martins, I. , Lim, W. , Wilson, A. , Laws, S. and Martins, R. (2013) The acceleration of aging and Alzheimer’s disease through the biological mechanisms behind obesity and type II diabetes. Health, 5, 913-920. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.55121.

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