Microalbuminuria in pediatric patients with hypertension

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Microalbuminuria in adults has been found to be an early indicator of both renal and systemic vascular disease, as well as significant cardiovascular risk predictor and therapeutic marker. Its role in essential hypertension in adults has also been well established. As diseases like hypertension and obesity have their roots in childhood and are already present in children, influencing the morbidity in adulthood, the role of microalbuminuria has been extensively investigated in children as well. Most investigations have been performed in diabetic children, confirming its clinical significance. There is also enough evidence to suggest that microalbuminuria in obese children should be taken as seriously as in children with diabetes. In children with hypertension rare studies also indicate that its presence identifies hypertensive children with higher risk, although the exact role has to be confirmed in prospective and larger studies. The mechanisms of microalbuminuria onset could be the result of renal damage secondary to hypertension or underlying renal and systemic endothelial dysfunction. Evidence from small intervention studies in children with microalbuminuria also suggests that early intervention with antihypertensive drugs is likely to be beneficial, pointing out the role of microalbuminuria as a therapeutic marker in children too. In addition, we have to stress the importance of follow-up of children with microalbuminuria, confirmation of its persistence and identification of progression. However, longitudinal prospective studies in children, investigating its future cardiovascular risk, are still lacking.

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Varda, N. (2013) Microalbuminuria in pediatric patients with hypertension. Health, 5, 40-46. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.54A006.


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