Share This Article:

Development and Characterization of Wheat Germplasm with Combined Resistance to Russian Wheat Aphid and Stem Rust (Race “Ug99”) in Kenya

Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:981KB) PP. 767-773
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.44095    3,853 Downloads   7,011 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Wheat is the second most important cereal in Kenya. However, production is severely constrained by both abiotic and biotic stresses. Of the biotic stresses a devastating pest (Russian wheat aphid (RWA)) and a serious disease (stem rust race TTKS (“Ug99”)) are currently the biggest problem for wheat producers in Kenya. Severe infestations by RWA may result in yield losses of up to 90% while “Ug99” infected fields may suffer 100% crop loss. The two pests combined are seriously affecting wheat farmers’ incomes because of the heavy reliance on pesticides that increase the cost of production. This study attempted to develop and characterize wheat lines that are resistant to both RWA and “Ug99” by pyramiding two major resistance genes. Three wheat varieties: Kwale, a Kenyan high yielding variety but susceptible to both RWA and “Ug99”; Cook, an Australian variety carrying stem rust resistance gene Sr36 conferring immunity to “Ug99”; and KRWA9, a Kenyan line with resistance to RWA but of poor agronomic attributes were used. A double cross F1 (DC F1) was obtained by crossing the F1 of Kwale × Cook and the F1 of Kwale × KRWA9. The DC F1 population was subjected to sequential screening for both RWA and “Ug99” resistance. Surviving DC F1 progenies were left to self pollinate to obtain the F2 of the double cross (DC F2). The DC F2 progenies were sequentially screened against RWA and “Ug99” to yield a population that was resistant to both RWA and “Ug99”. Genotyping of the DC F2:3 families were conducted to select homozygous resistant plants. Data indicated that the RWA and “Ug99” resistance genes were successfully pyramided. Though races with virulence for Sr36 have been reported, the gene provides immunity to race “Ug99” and can still be effectively used as a component for “Ug99” resistance breeding together with other Sr genes.

Cite this paper

F. Amulaka, J. Maling’a, M. Cakir and R. Mulwa, "Development and Characterization of Wheat Germplasm with Combined Resistance to Russian Wheat Aphid and Stem Rust (Race “Ug99”) in Kenya," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 4, 2013, pp. 767-773. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.44095.

References

[1] O. V. Kovalev, T. J. Poprawski, A. V. Stekolshchikov, A. B. Vereshchagina and S. A. Gandrabur, “Diuraphis Aizenberg (Hom. Aphididae): Key Apterous Viviparous Females, and Review of Russian Literature on the Natural History of Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov, 1913),” Journal of Applied Entomology, Vol. 112, No. 1-5, 1991, pp. 425436. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0418.1991.tb01076.x
[2] M. Macharia, P. M. Muthangya and J. K. Wanjama, “Response to Seed-Dressing Aphicides in Commercial Varieties Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis noxia) Damage in Kenya,” Proceedings of the 10th Regional Wheat Workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, Pretoria University, Pretoria, 14-18 September 1999, pp. 418-421.
[3] M. Kinyua, J. Maling’a, L. Karanja and J. Wanjama, “Application of Biotechnology in Development of Bread Wheat Varieties Resistant/Tolerant to Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis noxia),” In: Mukisira, et al., Proceedings of the 7th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference, Collaborative and Participatory Research for Sustainable Improved Livelihoods, 13-17 November 2000.
[4] J. Berner, “Biochemistry of Russian Wheat Aphid Resistance in Wheat: Involvement of Lipid like Products,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, 2006.
[5] V. L. Tolmay, “Genetic Variability for Russian Wheat Aphid, Diuraphis noxia Resistance in South African Wheat Genotypes,” Ph.D. thesis, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa. 2006.
[6] J. N. Maling’a, M. G. Kinyua, A. W. Kamau, J. K. Wanjama, J. O. Awalla and R. S. Pathak, “Biotypic and Genetic Variation within Tropical Populations of Russian Wheat Aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Kenya,” Journal of Entomology, Vol. 4, No. 5, 2007, pp. 350-360. doi:10.3923/je.2007.350.361
[7] J. N. Maling’a, “Studies on Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov) with Special Emphasis to Biotypes and Host Plant Resistance in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Kenya,” Ph.D. Thesis, Egerton University, Njoro, 2007.
[8] J. L. Kurt, “Black Stem Rust Biology and Threat to Wheat Growers,” Presentation to the Central Plant Board Meeting, US Department of Agriculture, 5-8 February 2001.
[9] CIMMYT, “Sounding the Alarm on Global Stem Rust. An Assessment of Ug99 in Kenya and Ethiopia and Potential for Impact in neighboring Regions and beyond,” CIMMYT Circular, 29 May 2007.
[10] R. Wanyera, M. G. Kinyua, Y. Jin and R. P. Singh, “The Spread of Stem Rust Caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, with Virulence on Sr31 in Wheat in Eastern Africa,” Plant Diseases, Vol. 90, No. 1, 2006, p. 113. doi:10.1094/PD-90-0113A
[11] D. Hildebrant, “Future World Wheat Crops Threatened by Ug99 Stem Rust,” Farm and Ranch Guide, 2008.
[12] K. G. Macharia, “Inheritance of Resistance Genes Sr26, Sr36 and Effectiveness of Other Major and Slow Rusiting Genes against Race ‘pgt. Ug99’ of Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Bread Wheat,” MSc. Thesis, Egerton University, Njoro, 2009.
[13] R. S. Pathak, J. N. Malinga, M. G. Kinyua, J. K. Wanjama and A. W. Kamau, “Genes for Resistance to Russian Wheat Aphid to Two New Wheat Lines,” Published in 4th International Crop Science Congress, 2004.
[14] K. Kenduiwa, “Genetics of Resistance to Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis noxia Mordvilko) in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),” M.Sc. Thesis, Egerton University, Njoro, 2009.
[15] Y. Jin, L. J. Szabo, Z. A. Pretorius, R. P. Singh, R. Ward and T. Fetch Jr., “Detection of Virulence to Resistance Gene Sr24 within Race TTKS of Puccinia graminis f. sp. Tritici,” Plant Diseases, Vol. 92, No. 6, 2008, pp. 923926. doi:10.1094/PDIS-92-6-0923
[16] E. C. Stakman, D. M. Stewart and W. Q. Loegering, “Identification of Physiological Races of Puccinia graminis var. tritici,” United States Department of Agriculture, ARS E617, 1962, 53 p.
[17] D. L. Hartl and A. G. Clark, “Principles of Population Genetics,” 4th Edition, Macmillan, New York, 2007.
[18] R. P. Singh, D. P. Hodson, Y. Jin, J. Huerta-Espin, M. G. Kinyua, R. Wanyera, P. Njau and R. W. Ward, “Current Status, Likely Migration and Strategies to Mitigate the Threat to Wheat,” 2006.
[19] A. P. Roelfs, “Genetic Control of Phenotypes in Wheat Stem Rust,” Annual Review of Phytopathology, Vol. 26, 1988, pp. 351-367. doi:10.1146/annurev.py.26.090188.002031

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.