Health> Vol.5 No.3, March 2013

Eating habits and lifestyle in a group Turkish primary education children

DownloadDownload as PDF (Size:170KB) Full-Text HTML PP. 486-495   DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.53067

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence of child obesity is increasing rapidly worldwide as well as Turkey due to skipped main meals and increased snacking. The objectives were to study the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in a group of Turkish children, and to analyze the relationship between eating habits and lifestyle and obesity. Methods: The study was carried out in 6 schools in urban regions in the city of Eskisehir, Western Turkey between February and May2008. Atotal of 1421 students aged 7 - 14 years (708 boys and 713 girls) were examined. Eating habits and life-style were obtained by evaluation of a standard set of 15 questions prepared using the literature. Results: Most obese students reported having a snack in the afternoon, not spending at least five hours of leisure time per week in physical activities, being high income level, that their mother’ education level was university, eating less fruits, eating less vegetables, having more dessert after any meal, eating more potato chips, watching television more, living a physically active life less, less breast feeding, that their father consumed alcohol, that their father was overweight/ obese, their mother wase overweight/obese (statistically important relationships for each one). Conclusions: A small portion of 7 - 14-year-old Turkish children are at increased health risk owing to overweight and obesity in an urban po- pulation in a developing country.

KEYWORDS


Cite this paper

Erenoglu, N. , Ayranci, U. and Son, O. (2013) Eating habits and lifestyle in a group Turkish primary education children. Health, 5, 486-495. doi: 10.4236/health.2013.53067.

References

[1] Swinburn, B. and Egger, G. (2010) Preventive strategies against weight gain and obesity. Obesity Reviews, 3, 289301. doi:10.1046/j.1467-789X.2002.00082.x
[2] World Health Organization (1998) Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation, Geneva, 3-5 Jun 1997. Geneva.
[3] Bartkiw, T.P. (1993) Children’s eating habits: A question of balance. World Health Forum, 14, 404-406.
[4] French, S.A., Story, M. and Jeffery, R.W. (2001) Environmental influences on eating and physical activity. Annual Review of Public Health, 22, 309-335. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.22.1.309
[5] Shields, M. (2008) Tremblay MS: Sedentary behaviour and obesity. Health Reports, 19, 19-30.
[6] Roberts, S.B., Savage, J., Coward, W.A., Chew, B. and Lucas, A. (1998) Energy expenditure and intake in infants born to lean and overweight mothers. The New England Journal of Medicine, 318, 461-466.
[7] Kourlaba, G., Panagiotakos, D.B., Mihas, K., Alevizos, A., Marayiannis, K., Mariolis, A. and Tountas, Y. (2008) Dietary patterns in relation to socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics among Greek adolescents: A multivariate analysis. Public Health Nutrition, 9, 1-7.
[8] Al Sabbah, H., Vereecken, C., Kolsteren, P., Abdeen, Z. and Maes, L. (2007) Food habits and physical activity patterns among Palestinian adolescents: Findings from the national study of Palestinian schoolchildren (HBSCWBG2004). Public Health Nutrition, 10, 739-746. doi:10.1017/S1368980007665501
[9] Dean, K. (1989) Self-care components of lifestyles: The importance of gender, attitudes and the social situation. Social Science & Medicine, 29, 137-152. doi:10.1016/0277-9536(89)90162-7
[10] Moussa, M.A., Shaltout, A.A., Nkansa-Dwamena, D., Mourad, M., Alsheikh, N., Agha, N. and Galal, D.O. (1999) Factors associated with obesity in Kuwaiti children. European Journal of Epidemiology, 15, 41-49. doi:10.1023/A:1007556608104
[11] Kromeyer-Hauschild, K., Zellner, K., Jaeger, U. and Hoyer, H. (1999) Prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children in Jena (Germany). International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 23, 1143-1150. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801044
[12] Chinn, S. and Rona, R.J. (2001) Prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity in three cross sectional studies of British children, 1974-1994. British Medical Journal, 322, 24-26. doi:10.1136/bmj.322.7277.24
[13] Dietz, W.H. and Robinson, T.N. (1998) Use of the body mass index (BMI) as a measure of overweight in children and adolescents. Journal of Pediatrics, 132, 191-193. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(98)70426-3
[14] Daniels, S.R., Khoury, P.R. and Morrison, J.A. (1997) The utility of body mass index as a measure of body fatness in children and adolescents: Differences by race and gender. Pediatrics, 99, 804-807. doi:10.1542/peds.99.6.804
[15] Puder, J.J. and Kriemler, S. (2008) Can we stop the epidemic of childhood obesity? Praxis, 97, 17-23.
[16] Cali, A.M. and Caprio, S. (2008) Obesity in children and adolescents. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 93, 31-36. doi:10.1210/jc.2008-1363
[17] Cole, T.J., Flegal, K.M., Nicholls, D. and Jackson, A.A. (2007) Body mass index cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents: international survey. British Medical Journal, 335, 194.
[18] Cole, T.J., Bellizzi, M.C, Flegal, K.M. and Dietz, W.H. (2000) Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. British Medical Journal, 320, 1240-1243. doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7244.1240
[19] Koziel, S., Kolodziej, H. and Ulijaszek, S.J. (2000) Parental education, body mass index and prevalence of obesity among 14-year-old boys between 1987 and 1997 in Wroclaw, Poland. European Journal of Epidemiology, 16, 1163-1167. doi:10.1023/A:1010924511774
[20] Vignerová, J., Bláha, P., Osancová, K. and Roth, Z. (2004) Social inequality and obesity in Czech school children. Economics & Human Biology, 2, 107-118. doi:10.1016/j.ehb.2003.12.004
[21] Kobzová, J., Vignerová, J., Bláha, P., Krejcovsky, L. and Riedlová, J. (2004) The 6th nationwide anthropological survey of children and adolescents in the Czech Republic in 2001. Cent Central European Journal of Public Health, 12, 126-130.
[22] Janssen, I., Katzmarzyk, P.T., Boyce, W.F., King, M.A. and Pickett, W. (2004) Overweight and obesity in Canadian adolescents and their associations with dietary habits and physical activity patterns. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35, 360-367.
[23] Robinson, T.N. (1999) Reducing children’s television viewing to prevent obesity: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 15611567. doi:10.1001/jama.282.16.1561
[24] Robinson, T.N. (2001) Television viewing and childhood obesity. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 48, 10171025. doi:10.1016/S0031-3955(05)70354-0
[25] Lahti-Koski, M., Pietinen, P., Heliövaara, M. and Vartiainen, E. (2002) Associations of body mass index and obesity with physical activity, food choices, alcohol intake, and smoking in the 1982-1997 FINRISK studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 75, 809-817.
[26] Franzini, L., Elliott, M.N., Cuccaro, P., Schuster, M., Gilliland, M.J., Grunbaum, J.A., Franklin, F. and Tortolero, S.R. (2009) Influences of physical and social neighborhood environments on children’s physical activity and obesity. American Journal of Public Health, 99, 271-278. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.128702
[27] Wang, Z., Patterson, C.M. and Hills, A.P. (2002) Association between overweight or obesity and household income and parental body mass index in Australian youth: Analysis of the Australian National Nutrition Survey, 1995. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 11, 200205. doi:10.1046/j.1440-6047.2002.00291.x
[28] Flodmark, C.E. (2005) Management of the obese child using psychological-based treatments. Acta Paediatrica, 94, 14-22. doi:10.1080/08035320510035591
[29] Lovejoy, J.C., Sainsbury, A. and the Stock Conference 2008 Working Group (2009) Sex differences in obesity and the regulation of energy homeostasis. Obesity Reviews, 10, 154-167. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00529.x
[30] Bundak, R., Furman, A., Gunoz, H., Darendeliler, F., Bas, F. and Neyzi, O. (2006) Body mass index references for Turkish children. Acta Paediatrica, 95, 194-198. doi:10.1080/08035250500334738
[31] Oner, N., Vatansever, U., Sari, A., Ekuklu, E., Güzel, A., Karasalihoglu, S. and Boris, N.W. (2004) Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in Turkish adolescents. Swiss Medical Weekly, 134, 529-533.
[32] Coskun, Y. and Bayraktaroglu, Z. (1997) Coronary risk factors in Turkish school children—Report of a pilot study. Acta Paediatrica, 86, 187-191. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.1997.tb08866.x
[33] Turkkahraman, D., Bircan, I., Tosun, O. and Saka, O. (2006) Prevalence and risk factors of obesity in school children in Antalya, Turkey. Saudi Medical Journal, 27, 1028-1033.
[34] Kelishadi, R., Ardalan, G., Gheiratmand, R., Majdzadeh, R., Hosseini, M., Gouya, M.M., Razaghi, E.M., Delavari, A., Motaghian, M., Barekati, H., Mahmoud-Arabi, M.S., Lock, K. and Caspian Study Group (2008) Thinness, overweight and obesity in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents: CASPIAN study. Child: Care, Health and Development, 34, 44-54.
[35] Jebb, S.A. and Lambert, J. (2000) Overweight and obesity in European children and adolescents. European Journal of Pediatrics, 159, 2-4. doi:10.1007/PL00014362
[36] WHO World Health Organization (1995) Physical status: The use and interpretion of anthropometry. WHO, Geneva.
[37] Prentice, A.M. and Jebb, S.A. (1995) Obesity in Britain: Gluttony or sloth? British Medical Journal, 311, 437-439. doi:10.1136/bmj.311.7002.437
[38] CDC (2005) 5 A day works! US Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/nutrition/health_professionals/programs/5aday_works.pdf
[39] van Sluijs, E.M., Skidmore, P.M., Mwanza, K., Jones, A.P., Callaghan, A.M., Ekelund, U., Harrison, F., Harvey, I., Panter, J., Wareham, N.J., Cassidy, A. and Griffin, S.J. (2008) Physical activity and dietary behaviour in a population-based sample of British 10-year old children: The SPEEDY study (Sport, physical activity and eating behaviour: Environmental determinants in young people). BMC Public Health, 8, 388.
[40] Lemon, S.C., Zapka, J., Li, W., Estabrook, B., Magner, R. and Rosal, M.C. (2009) Perceptions of worksite support and employee obesity, activity, and diet. American Journal of Health Behavior, 33, 299-308. doi:10.5993/AJHB.33.3.8
[41] Birch, L.L., McPhee, L., Steinberg, L. and Sullivan, S. (1990) Conditioned flavor preferences in young children. Physiology & Behavior, 47, 501-505. doi:10.1016/0031-9384(90)90116-L
[42] Rolls, B.J. (1995) Carbohydrates, fats, and satiety. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61, 960-967.
[43] Komlos, J., Smith, P.K. and Bogin, B. (2004) Obesity and the rate of time preference: Is there a connection? Journal of Biosocial Science, 36, 209-219. doi:10.1017/S0021932003006205
[44] Mazur, A., Klimek, K., Telega, G., Hejda, G., Wdowiak, L. and Malecka-Tendera, E. (2008) Risk factors for obesity development in school children from south-eastern Poland. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 15, 281-285.
[45] Maffeis, C. (2000) Aetiology of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. European Journal of Pediatrics, 159, 35-44. doi:10.1007/PL00014361
[46] WHO (2000) Technical Report Series, Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. World Health Organization, Geneva.
[47] Toschke, A.M., Vignerova, J., Lhotska, L., Osancova, K., Koletzko, B. and Von Kries R. (2002) Overweight and obesity in 6to 14-year-old Czech children in 1991: Protective effect of breast-feeding. Journal of Pediatrics, 141, 764-769. doi:10.1067/mpd.2002.128890
[48] Binns, C., Lee, M.K. and Oddy, W. (2003) Breastfeeding and the prevention of obesity. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, 15, 22-26.
[49] Kreichauf, S., Pflüger, M., Hummel, S. and Ziegler, A.G. (2008) Effect of breastfeeding on the risk of becoming overweight in offspring of mothers with type 1 diabetes. Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 133, 1173-1177. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1077234
[50] Vignerová, P., Bláha, P. and Lhotská, L. (1998) Physical growth of Czech children and some socio-economic factors. Journal of Human Ecology, 9, 227-231.
[51] Maddah, M. (2009) Risk factors for overweight in urban and rural school girls in Iran: Skipping breakfast and early menarche. International Journal of Cardiology, 136, 235-238. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2008.04.046
[52] Garaulet, M., Martinez, A., Victoria, F., Perez-Llamas, F., Ortega, R.M. and Zamora, S. (2000) Differences in dietary intake and activity level between normal-weight and overweight or obese adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 30, 53-258.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.